The ischial tuberosity known informally as the sit bones, or as a pair the sitting bones is a large swelling posteriorly on the superior ramus of the ischium. It marks the lateral boundary of the pelvic outlet; when sitting, the weight is placed upon the ischial tuberosity. The gluteus maximus provides cover in the upright posture, but leaves it free in the seated position; the distance between a cyclist's ischial tuberosities is one of the factors in the choice of a bicycle saddle. The tuberosity is divided into two portions: a lower, somewhat triangular part, an upper, quadrilateral portion; the lower portion is subdivided by a prominent longitudinal ridge, passing from base to apex, into two parts: The outer gives attachment to the adductor magnus The inner to the sacrotuberous ligament The upper portion is subdivided into two areas by an oblique ridge, which runs downward and outward: From the upper and outer area the semimembranosus arises From the lower and inner, the long head of the biceps femoris and the semitendinosus Ischial bursitis Sitting disability This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 235 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Goossens R, Teeuw R, Snijders C.
"Sensitivity for pressure difference on the ischial tuberosity". Ergonomics. 48: 895–902. Doi:10.1080/00140130500123647. PMID 16076744. Platzer, Werner. Color Atlas of Human Anatomy, Vol. 1: Locomotor System. Thieme. ISBN 3-13-533305-1. Anatomy photo:41:st-0204 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center - "The Female Perineum: Bones" Anatomy photo:17:os-0114 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center - "Major Joints of the Lower Extremity: Hip bone" pelvis at The Anatomy Lesson by Wesley Norman
Oblique popliteal ligament
The oblique popliteal ligament is a broad, fibrous band, formed of fasciculi separated from one another by apertures for the passage of vessels and nerves. It is attached above to the upper margin of the intercondyloid fossa and posterior surface of the femur close to the articular margins of the condyles, below to the posterior margin of the head of the tibia. Superficial to the main part of the ligament is a strong fasciculus, derived from the tendon of the semimembranosus and passing from the back part of the medial condyle of the tibia obliquely upward and laterally to the back part of the lateral condyle of the femur; the oblique popliteal ligament forms part of the floor of the popliteal fossa, the popliteal artery rests upon it. It is pierced by posterior division of the obturator nerve as well as the middle genicular nerve and vessels; this article incorporates text in the public domain from page 340 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Oblique_popliteal_ligament at the Duke University Health System's Orthopedics program lljoints at The Anatomy Lesson by Wesley Norman Anatomy photo:17:02-0400 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center - "Major Joints of the Lower Extremity: Knee Joint"
In human anatomy, the sacral plexus is a nerve plexus which provides motor and sensory nerves for the posterior thigh, most of the lower leg and foot, part of the pelvis. It emerges from the lumbar vertebrae and sacral vertebrae. A sacral plexopathy is a disorder affecting the nerves of the sacral plexus caused by trauma, nerve compression, vascular disease, or infection. Symptoms may include pain, loss of motor control, sensory deficits; the sacral plexus is formed by: the lumbosacral trunk the anterior division of the first sacral nerve portions of the anterior divisions of the second and third sacral nervesThe nerves forming the sacral plexus converge toward the lower part of the greater sciatic foramen, unite to form a flattened band, from the anterior and posterior surfaces of which several branches arise. The band itself is continued as the sciatic nerve, which splits on the back of the thigh into the tibial nerve and common fibular nerve; the sacral plexus and the lumbar plexus are considered to be one large nerve plexus, the lumbosacral plexus.
The lumbosacral trunk connects the two plexuses. The sacral plexus lies on the back of the pelvis in front of the piriformis muscle and the pelvic fascia. In front of it are the internal iliac artery, internal iliac vein, the ureter, the sigmoid colon; the superior gluteal artery and vein run between the lumbosacral trunk and the first sacral nerve, the inferior gluteal artery and vein between the second and third sacral nerves. All the nerves entering the plexus, with the exception of the third sacral, split into ventral and dorsal divisions, the nerves arising from these are as follows of the table below: Cervical plexus Brachial plexus Lumbar plexus This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 957 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Thieme Atlas of Anatomy: General Anatomy and Musculoskeletal System. Thieme. 2006. ISBN 1-58890-419-9. Lumbosacral+Plexus at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings Cross section image: pembody/body15a—Plastination Laboratory at the Medical University of Vienna MedicalMnemonics.com: 3544 2382 Illustration at backpain-guide.com
A nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of nerve fibres called axons, in the peripheral nervous system. A nerve provides a common pathway for the electrochemical nerve impulses called action potentials that are transmitted along each of the axons to peripheral organs or, in the case of sensory nerves, from the periphery back to the central nervous system; each axon within the nerve is an extension of an individual neuron, along with other supportive cells such as Schwann cells that coat the axons in myelin. Within a nerve, each axon is surrounded by a layer of connective tissue called the endoneurium; the axons are bundled together into groups called fascicles, each fascicle is wrapped in a layer of connective tissue called the perineurium. The entire nerve is wrapped in a layer of connective tissue called the epineurium. In the central nervous system, the analogous structures are known as tracts; each nerve is covered on the outside by a dense sheath of the epineurium. Beneath this is a layer of flat cells, the perineurium, which forms a complete sleeve around a bundle of axons.
Perineurial septae subdivide it into several bundles of fibres. Surrounding each such fibre is the endoneurium; this forms an unbroken tube from the surface of the spinal cord to the level where the axon synapses with its muscle fibres, or ends in sensory receptors. The endoneurium consists of an inner sleeve of material called the glycocalyx and an outer, meshwork of collagen fibres. Nerves are bundled and travel along with blood vessels, since the neurons of a nerve have high energy requirements. Within the endoneurium, the individual nerve fibres are surrounded by a low-protein liquid called endoneurial fluid; this acts in a similar way to the cerebrospinal fluid in the central nervous system and constitutes a blood-nerve barrier similar to the blood-brain barrier. Molecules are thereby prevented from crossing the blood into the endoneurial fluid. During the development of nerve edema from nerve irritation, the amount of endoneurial fluid may increase at the site of irritation; this increase in fluid can be visualized using magnetic resonance neurography, thus MR neurography can identify nerve irritation and/or injury.
Nerves are categorized into three groups based on the direction that signals are conducted: Afferent nerves conduct signals from sensory neurons to the central nervous system, for example from the mechanoreceptors in skin. Efferent nerves conduct signals from the central nervous system along motor neurons to their target muscles and glands. Mixed nerves contain both afferent and efferent axons, thus conduct both incoming sensory information and outgoing muscle commands in the same bundle. Nerves can be categorized into two groups based on where they connect to the central nervous system: Spinal nerves innervate much of the body, connect through the vertebral column to the spinal cord and thus to the central nervous system, they are given letter-number designations according to the vertebra through which they connect to the spinal column. Cranial nerves innervate parts of the head, connect directly to the brain, they are assigned Roman numerals from 1 to 12, although cranial nerve zero is sometimes included.
In addition, cranial nerves have descriptive names. Specific terms are used to describe their actions. A nerve that supplies information to the brain from an area of the body, or controls an action of the body is said to "innervate" that section of the body or organ. Other terms relate to whether the nerve affects the same side or opposite side of the body, to the part of the brain that supplies it. Nerve growth ends in adolescence, but can be re-stimulated with a molecular mechanism known as "Notch signaling". If the axons of a neuron are damaged, as long as the cell body of the neuron is not damaged, the axons would regenerate and remake the synaptic connections with neurons with the help of guidepost cells; this is referred to as neuroregeneration. The nerve begins the process by destroying the nerve distal to the site of injury allowing Schwann cells, basal lamina, the neurilemma near the injury to begin producing a regeneration tube. Nerve growth factors are produced causing many nerve sprouts to bud.
When one of the growth processes finds the regeneration tube, it begins to grow towards its original destination guided the entire time by the regeneration tube. Nerve regeneration is slow and can take up to several months to complete. While this process does repair some nerves, there will still be some functional deficit as the repairs are not perfect. A nerve conveys information in the form of electrochemical impulses carried by the individual neurons that make up the nerve; these impulses are fast, with some myelinated neurons conducting at speeds up to 120 m/s. The impulses travel from one neuron to another by crossing a synapse, the message is converted from electrical to chemical and back to electrical. Nerves can be categorized into two groups based on function: An afferent nerve fiber conducts sensory information from a sensory neuron to the central nervous system, where the information is processed. Bundles of fibres or axons, in the peripheral nervous system are called nerves, bundles of afferent fibers are known as sensory nerves.
An efferent nerve fiber conducts signals from a motor neuron in the central nervous system to muscles. Bundles of these fibres are known as efferent nerves; the nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body. In vertebrates it consists of two main par
In vertebrate anatomy, hip refers to either an anatomical region or a joint. The hip region is located lateral and anterior to the gluteal region, inferior to the iliac crest, overlying the greater trochanter of the femur, or "thigh bone". In adults, three of the bones of the pelvis have fused into the hip bone or acetabulum which forms part of the hip region; the hip joint, scientifically referred to as the acetabulofemoral joint, is the joint between the femur and acetabulum of the pelvis and its primary function is to support the weight of the body in both static and dynamic postures. The hip joints have important roles in retaining balance, for maintaining the pelvic inclination angle. Pain of the hip may be the result of numerous causes, including nervous, infectious, trauma-related, genetic; the proximal femur is covered by muscles and, as a consequence, the greater trochanter is the only palpable bony structure in the hip region. The hip joint is a synovial joint formed by the articulation of the rounded head of the femur and the cup-like acetabulum of the pelvis.
It forms the primary connection between the bones of the lower limb and the axial skeleton of the trunk and pelvis. Both joint surfaces are covered with a strong but lubricated layer called articular hyaline cartilage; the cuplike acetabulum forms at the union of three pelvic bones — the ilium and ischium. The Y-shaped growth plate that separates them, the triradiate cartilage, is fused definitively at ages 14–16, it is a special type of spheroidal or ball and socket joint where the spherical femoral head is contained within the acetabulum and has an average radius of curvature of 2.5 cm. The acetabulum grasps half the femoral ball, a grip augmented by a ring-shaped fibrocartilaginous lip, the acetabular labrum, which extends the joint beyond the equator; the joint space between the femoral head and the superior acetabulum is between 2 and 7 mm. The head of the femur is attached to the shaft by a thin neck region, prone to fracture in the elderly, due to the degenerative effects of osteoporosis.
The acetabulum is oriented inferiorly and anteriorly, while the femoral neck is directed superiorly and anteriorly. The transverse angle of the acetabular inlet can be determined by measuring the angle between a line passing from the superior to the inferior acetabular rim and the horizontal plane; the sagittal angle of the acetabular inlet is an angle between a line passing from the anterior to the posterior acetabular rim and the sagittal plane. It measures 7° at birth and increases to 17° in adults. Wiberg's centre-edge angle is an angle between a vertical line and a line from the centre of the femoral head to the most lateral part of the acetabulum, as seen on an anteroposterior radiograph; the vertical-centre-anterior margin angle is an angle formed from a vertical line and a line from the centre of the femoral head and the anterior edge of the dense shadow of the subchondral bone posterior to the anterior edge of the acetabulum, with the radiograph being taken from the false angle, that is, a lateral view rotated 25 degrees towards becoming frontal.
The articular cartilage angle is an angle formed parallel to the weight bearing dome, that is, the acetabular sourcil or "roof", the horizontal plane, or a line connecting the corner of the triangular cartilage and the lateral acetabular rim. In normal hips in children aged between 11 and 24 months, it has been estimated to be on average 20°, ranging between 18° to 25°, it becomes progressively lower with age. Suggested cutoff values to classify the angle as abnormally increased include:30° up to 4 months of age. 25° up to 2 years of age. The angle between the longitudinal axes of the femoral neck and shaft, called the caput-collum-diaphyseal angle or CCD angle measures 150° in newborn and 126° in adults. An abnormally small angle is known as an abnormally large angle as coxa valga; because changes in shape of the femur affects the knee, coxa valga is combined with genu varum, while coxa vara leads to genu valgum. Changes in CCD angle is the result of changes in the stress patterns applied to the hip joint.
Such changes, caused for example by a dislocation, changes the trabecular patterns inside the bones. Two continuous trabecular systems emerging on auricular surface of the sacroiliac joint meander and criss-cross each other down through the hip bone, the femoral head and shaft. In the hip bone, one system arises on the upper part of auricular surface to converge onto the posterior surface of the greater sciatic notch, from where its trabeculae are reflected to the inferior part of the acetabulum; the other system emerges on the lower part of the auricular surface, converges at the level of the superior gluteal line, is reflected laterally onto the upper part of the acetabulum. In the femur, the first system lines up with a system arising from the lateral part of the femoral shaft to stretch to the inferior portion of the femoral neck and head; the other system lines up with a system in the femur stretching from the medial part of the femoral shaft to the superior part of the femoral head. On the lateral side of the hip joint the fascia lata is strengthened to
Deep artery of the thigh
The deep artery of the thigh, is a branch of the femoral artery that, as its name suggests, travels more than the rest of the femoral artery. The deep artery of the thigh branches off the femoral artery soon after its origin, it travels down the thigh closer to the femur than the femoral artery, running between the pectineus and the adductor longus, running on the posterior side of adductor longus. The deep femoral artery does not leave the thigh; the deep artery of the thigh gives off the following branches: Lateral circumflex femoral artery Medial circumflex femoral artery 3 Perforating arteries - perforate the adductor magnus muscle to the posterior and medial compartments of the thigh to connect with the branches of the popliteal artery behind the knee. Femoral artery Obturator artery This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 629 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Profunda_femoris_deep_femoral_artery at the Duke University Health System's Orthopedics program Anatomy figure: 12:04-03 at Human Anatomy Online, SUNY Downstate Medical Center - "Arteries of the lower extremity shown in association with major landmarks."
Cross section image: pelvis/pelvis-e12-15—Plastination Laboratory at the Medical University of Vienna MedEd at Loyola grossanatomy/dissector/labs/le/ant_th_leg/main.html antthigh at The Anatomy Lesson by Wesley Norman
Anatomical terms of muscle
Muscles are described using unique anatomical terminology according to their actions and structure. There are three types of muscle tissue in the human body: skeletal and cardiac. Skeletal striated muscle, or "voluntary muscle" joins to bone with tendons. Skeletal muscle maintains posture. Smooth muscle tissue is found in parts of the body; the majority of this type of muscle tissue is found in the digestive and urinary systems where it acts by propelling forward food and feces in the former and urine in the latter. Other places smooth muscle can be found are within the uterus, where it helps facilitate birth, the eye, where the pupillary sphincter controls pupil size. Cardiac muscle is specific to the heart, it is involuntary in its movement, is additionally self-excitatory, contracting without outside stimuli. As well as anatomical terms of motion, which describe the motion made by a muscle, unique terminology is used to describe the action of a set of muscles. Agonist muscles and antagonist muscles refer to muscles that inhibit a movement.
Agonist muscles cause a movement to occur through their own activation. For example, the triceps brachii contracts, producing a shortening contraction, during the up phase of a push-up. During the down phase of a push-up, the same triceps brachii controls elbow flexion while producing a lengthening contraction, it is still the agonist, because while resisting gravity during relaxing, the triceps brachii continues to be the prime mover, or controller, of the joint action. Agonists are interchangeably referred to as "prime movers," since they are the muscles considered responsible for generating or controlling a specific movement. Another example is the dumbbell curl at the elbow; the "elbow flexor" group is the agonist. During the lowering phase the "elbow flexor" muscles lengthen, remaining the agonists because they are controlling the load and the movement. For both the lifting and lowering phase, the "elbow extensor" muscles are the antagonists, they shorten during the dumbbell lowering phase.
Here it is important to understand that it is common practice to give a name to a muscle group based on the joint action they produce during a shortening contraction. However, this naming convention does not mean; this term describes the function of skeletal muscles. Antagonist muscles are the muscles that produce an opposing joint torque to the agonist muscles; this torque can aid in controlling a motion. The opposing torque can slow movement down - in the case of a ballistic movement. For example, during a rapid discrete movement of the elbow, such as throwing a dart, the triceps muscles will be activated briefly and to accelerate the extension movement at the elbow, followed immediately by a "burst" of activation to the elbow flexor muscles that decelerates the elbow movement to arrive at a quick stop. To use an automotive analogy, this would be similar to pressing your gas pedal and immediately pressing the brake. Antagonism is not an intrinsic property of a particular muscle group. During slower joint actions that involve gravity, just as with the agonist muscle, the antagonist muscle can shorten and lengthen.
Using the example above of the triceps brachii during a push-up, the elbow flexor muscles are the antagonists at the elbow during both the up phase and down phase of the movement. During the dumbbell curl, the elbow extensors are the antagonists for both the lifting and lowering phases. Antagonist and agonist muscles occur in pairs, called antagonistic pairs; as one muscle contracts, the other relaxes. An example of an antagonistic pair is the triceps. "Reverse motions" need antagonistic pairs located in opposite sides of a joint or bone, including abductor-adductor pairs and flexor-extensor pairs. These consist of an extensor muscle, which "opens" the joint and a flexor muscle, which does the opposite by decreasing the angle between two bones. However, muscles don't always work this way. Sometimes during a joint action controlled by an agonist muscle, the antagonist will be activated, naturally; this occurs and is not considered to be a problem unless it is excessive or uncontrolled and disturbs the control of the joint action.
This serves to mechanically stiffen the joint. Not all muscles are paired in this way. An example of an exception is the deltoid. Synergist muscles help perform, the same set of joint motion as the agonists. Synergists muscles act on movable joints. Synergists are sometimes referred to as "neutralizers" because they help cancel out, or neutralize, extra motion from the agonists to make sure that the force generated works within the desired plane of motion. Muscle fibers can only contract up to 40% of their stretched length, thus the short fibers of pennate muscles are more suitable where power rather than range of contraction is required. This limitation in the range of contraction affects all muscles, those that act over several joints may be unable to shorten sufficiently to produce