Seminary, school of theology, theological seminary, divinity school are educational institutions for educating students in scripture, theology to prepare them for ordination to serve as clergy, in academics, or in Christian ministry. The English word is taken from the Latin seminarium, translated as seed-bed, an image taken from the Council of Trent document Cum adolescentium aetas which called for the first modern seminaries. In the West, the term now refers to Catholic educational institutes and has widened to include other Christian denominations and American Jewish institutions. In the US, the term is used for graduate-level institutions, but it was used for high schools; the establishment of modern seminaries resulted from Roman Catholic reforms of the Counter-Reformation after the Council of Trent. The Tridentine seminaries placed great emphasis on personal discipline as well as the teaching of philosophy as a preparation for theology. Seminaries in the Catholic Church are divided into minor seminaries for teenagers and major seminaries for young adults, including both college seminaries for undergraduate students and post-graduate seminaries for those who have a bachelor's degree.
There are seminaries for older adults who are well out of school, such as the Pope St. John XXIII National Seminary in Massachusetts, for other more specialized purposes. All seminaries are run either by dioceses or other similar structures. A seminary will train both that particular order's or diocese's priests and the priests of other orders or dioceses that select that particular seminary for its priests. For instance, Saint John's Seminary in Boston, Massachusetts trains priests for many of the other dioceses in New England which are suffragan dioceses of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Boston. Either way, a man who seeks to enter a seminary to become a priest must be sponsored by either a diocese or by a religious order. A diocese might be attached to or affiliated with a larger Catholic college or university so that the larger college and its faculty provides more general education in history or theology while the seminary focuses on topics specific to the needs of future priests, such as training in canon law, the sacraments, preaching, or specific to the particular order or diocese.
For instance the Theological College in Washington, D. C. is part of The Catholic University of America. Further, in Rome there are several seminaries which educate seminarians or ordained priests and bishops and which are maintained by orders or dioceses from outside of Italy. For instance, the Pontifical North American College, which trains priests from the United States and elsewhere, is supported by the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops. In North America, four entities that accredit religious schools in particular are recognized by the United States Department of Education and the Council for Higher Education Accreditation: Association of Advanced Rabbinical and Talmudic Schools, Association for Biblical Higher Education, Association of Theological Schools in the United States and Canada, Transnational Association of Christian Colleges and Schools. In general use, a seminary can be a secular institution, or part of an institution, designated for specialized training, e.g. a graduate course.
It has been used for military academies, though this use is not well attested after the nineteenth century. In some countries, the term seminary is used for secular schools of higher education that train teachers; the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints hosts seminary classes for high school students ages 14 to 18, as part of the Church Educational System. Unlike use in other religious contexts, the word "seminary", in an LDS Church context, does not refer to a higher education program designed to train students that they may obtain a church-based career. LDS seminary students do not get high school credit for their seminary studies. Consecrated life Bible college List of Eastern Catholic seminaries List of evangelical seminaries and theological colleges List of Roman Catholic seminaries Minor seminary Yeshiva The dictionary definition of seminary at Wiktionary Graves, Charles. "Education, Theological". Encyclopedia Americana
The metropolitan area is the 178th-largest United States metropolitan area and covers all of Webb county, with a population of 250,304. It is a part of the Laredo-Nuevo Laredo Metropolitan Area with an estimate population of 636,516. El Cenizo Laredo Rio Bravo Source: Webb County Planning and Physical Development Department According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 3,376 square miles, of which 3,361 square miles is land and 14 square miles is water. Interstate 35 Interstate 69W U. S. Highway 59 U. S. Highway 83 State Highway 44 State Highway 255 State Highway 359 As of the census of 2000, there were 193,117 people, 50,740 households, 43,433 families residing in the county; the county gained 57,000 additional residents between 2000 and 2010. The population density was 58 people per square mile. There were 55,206 housing units at an average density of 16 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 82.16% White, 0.37% Black or African American, 0.47% Native American, 0.43% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 14.00% from other races, 2.54% from two or more races.
94.28% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 50,740 households out of which 53.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.60% were married couples living together, 18.30% had a female householder with no husband present, 14.40% were non-families. 12.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.75 and the average family size was 4.10. In the county, the age distribution of the population shows 36.20% under the age of 18, 11.40% from 18 to 24, 29.30% from 25 to 44, 15.60% from 45 to 64, 7.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 26 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.90 males. The median income for a household in the county was $28,100, the median income for a family was $29,394. Males had a median income of $23,618 versus $19,018 for females; the per capita income for the county was $10,759.
About 26.70% of families and 31.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 39.40% of those under age 18 and 26.90% of those age 65 or over. Laredo is home to Texas A&M International University; the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio has a campus in Laredo. The Laredo Community College is a two-campus institution; the main campus is located at the western end of downtown Laredo near the Rio Grande, on the site of the former Fort McIntosh. This fort played a major role in the development of Laredo, as it served to protect the community from Indian raids in its early history. Several of the old buildings at the fort were converted into classrooms, but after renovation programs nearly all of the campus structures are now modern; the smaller, newer second campus, Laredo Community College South Campus, is located in south Laredo along U. S. Route 83; the Texas A&M International University is a 4/6-year university that offers bachelor's and master's degrees. On April 22, 2004, the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board in Austin, Texas provided its approval for Texas A&M International University to grant its first PhD in International Business Administration.
TAMIU's College of Business Administration has been named an outstanding business school in The Princeton Review's "Best 282 Business Schools", 2007 Edition, ranked third in the nation for the category: "Greatest Opportunity for Minority Students." The university's campus is located in Northeast Laredo along Loop 20. The university was once an extension of Texas A&I-Kingsville and the former Laredo State University. Prior to its current location along Bob Bullock Loop 20, the university was housed with the Laredo Community College downtown campus; the University of Texas Health Science Center campus is located in East Laredo near U. S. Highway 59 and the Laredo Medical Center; the campus is an extension university from UTHSC in Texas. The university offers doctoral degrees in the dental fields. According to Nielsen Media Research, the Laredo region is ranked 185th market by population size in the United States; the first station to broadcast in Laredo was KGNS in 1956, followed by KVTV in 1973 KJTB in 1985.
Notably television networks missing from Laredo's airwaves are PBS and The CW. Laredo once had a full-power local The CW affiliate, KGNS-DT2, but on July 3, 2014 the affiliation switched to ABC. Prior to that KJTB channel 27, from January 1985 to October 1988 was Laredo's ABC affiliate. KJTB was bought by Entravision and affiliated the station to Telemundo and changed its callsign to KLDO. Today KLDO is affiliated to Univision. Before KJTB, KGNS, an NBC affiliate had a secondary affiliation to ABC from its founding in 1956 through KJTB's founding in 1985. On November 6, 2013, KGNS reached an agreement to add the ABC affiliation; the ABC affiliate was to have been launched in February 2014 on KGNS's subchannel 8.2. But it was not until July 2014 when KGNS added ABC programming. In December 2014, all Nuevo Laredo stations must turn off analog television broadcasting and broadcast only digitally. CP: Construction permit According to Arbitron, the Laredo region is ranked 191st market by population size.
The following clear channel AM stations can be heard in Laredo: PR:Suspected pirate radio stations since they are not licensed with Federal Communications Commission in the United States or COFETEL in Mexi
Brina Cattell Kessel was an American ornithologist. Brina Kessel was born November 20, 1925, in Ithaca, New York, to Quinta Cattell and Marcel Hartwig Kessel, one of five children. Both of her parents encouraged her interest in natural history at an early age, she counted among her grandparents an influential psychologist and academic. She was raised in Storrs and attended elementary and high school there. Kessel was graduated from Cornell University in 1947 with a Bachelor of Science degree, she went to the University of Wisconsin to study with Aldo Leopold. Leopold died fighting a fire on his property in 1948, she learned that the university did not accept women into its doctoral program in wildlife management. She received a master's degree from Wisconsin in 1949 and returned to Cornell to resume her studies with Arthur Augustus Allen. Kessel collected some of the first recordings of bird vocalization at Cornell. With her dissertation on the European starling, she received her PhD in 1951. Brina Kessel married Raymond Roof.
Roof was on the faculty of the University of Alaska. At the time of his death, May 9, 1968, he was a design engineer at the University's Geophysical Institute. Brina Kessel joined the faculty of the University of Alaska Fairbanks as an instructor in zoology in the summer of 1951, she advanced to professorship. She served as head of the Department of Biological Sciences from 1957 through 1966 and as dean of the College of Biological Sciences and Renewable Resources from 1961 to 1972. For the University of Alaska Museum, she was curator of terrestrial vertebrates from 1972 to 1990 and curator of ornithology from 1990 until her retirement in 1997. Brina Kessel conducted research on many aspects of Alaska's bird life over a span of more than 55 years. A particular interest was birds of the tundra, her early research in the 1950s explored the lands of Naval Petroleum Reserve Number 4 on Alaska's North Slope. Thus, Tom Cade and George Schaller worked in the field, while Kessel wrote up results as principal investigator.
A few years Kessel worked in the Brooks Range with Margaret Murie and her husband Olaus Murie. Kessel worked in the field for many years studying the avifauna of the Seward Peninsula. Kessel's research culminated in publications that include Birds of the Seward Peninsula and Habitat Characteristics of Some Passerine Birds in Western North American Taiga. Kessel brought her scientific expertise to several projects in the realm of Alaskan economic development. In the early 1980s, she performed fieldwork in the upper valley of the Susitna River in anticipation of a hydroelectric dam project. From 1959 to 1963, she was the project director for ecological investigations for Project Chariot, a proposal by the Atomic Energy Commission to create an artificial harbor by detonating a suite of nuclear devices, the proposal subsequently abandoned. UAF researchers working on the project, among them Leslie Viereck and William O. Pruitt, objected to the way that the university's client, the AEC, had characterized findings in their progress reports.
However, when Viereck and others presented a "minority report" critical of Project Chariot in an issue of the News Bulletin of the Alaska Conservation Society in March 1961, Kessel considered their report biased and ethically flawed. Pruitt's research contribution to the overall project report, on the ecology of certain terrestrial mammals in the study area, was submitted to Kessel in December 1961. Kessel's edits of Pruitt's draft became a point of contention, the final report appeared in April 1962 under William Pruitt's name, "as modified by" Brina Kessel. Two months before the final report, Kessel received correspondence from John N. Wolfe of the AEC; the degree to which Wolfe had an influence on the final report is not certain. Brina Kessel was awarded emeritus status at UAF as dean and curator of ornithology in 1999, she died on March 2016 in Fairbanks. Brina Kessel, through her estate, made a large gift to the University of Alaska to fund the Birds of Alaska project and to establish the Kessel Ornithology Endowment Fund.
Brina Kessel was named a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1960. In 1973, she became one of the first women to be named a fellow of the American Ornithologists' Union; the AOU, now the American Ornithological Society, established the Brina C. Kessel Award to recognize an outstanding recent article published in The Auk: Ornithological Advances. Kessel was elected to fellowship in the Arctic Institute of North America in 1978. From the University of Alaska, she received its President's Distinguished Service Award in 1981; the Brina Kessel Medal for Excellence in Science is granted annually to an undergraduate student at UAF. Kessel Pond at Creamer's Field Migratory Waterfowl Refuge in Fairbanks was named in her honor. Kessel, Brina. "A Study of the Breeding Biology of the European Starling in North America". The American Midland Naturalist. 58: 257–331. Doi:10.2307/2422615. Kessel, Brina. Birds of the Colville River, Northern Alaska. Biological Papers of the Univer