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Seminole

The Seminole are a Native American people from Florida. Today, they principally live in Oklahoma with a minority in Florida, comprise three federally recognized tribes: the Seminole Tribe of Oklahoma, the Seminole Tribe of Florida, Miccosukee Tribe of Indians of Florida, as well as independent groups; the Seminole nation emerged in a process of ethnogenesis from various Native American groups who settled in Florida in the 18th century, most northern Muscogee from what is now Georgia and Alabama. The word "Seminole" is derived from the Muscogee word simanó-li, which may itself be derived from the Spanish word cimarrón, meaning "runaway" or "wild one". Seminole culture is derived from that of the Creek; as the Seminole adapted to Florida environs, they developed local traditions, such as the construction of open-air, thatched-roof houses known as chickees. The Seminole spoke Mikasuki and Creek, both Muskogean languages; the Seminole became independent of other Creek groups and established their own identity.

They developed a thriving trade network during the second Spanish periods. The tribe expanded during this time, was further supplemented from the late 18th century by free blacks and escaped slaves who settled near and paid tribute to Seminole towns; the latter became known as Black Seminoles. After the United States achieved independence, its settlers increased pressure on Seminole lands, leading to the Seminole Wars; the Seminole were first confined to a large inland reservation by the Treaty of Moultrie Creek and forcibly evicted from Florida by the Treaty of Payne's Landing. By 1842, most Seminoles and Black Seminoles had been removed to Indian Territory west of the Mississippi River. During the American Civil War, most Oklahoma Seminole allied with the Confederacy, after which they had to sign a new treaty with the U. S. including freedom and tribal membership for the Black Seminole. Today residents of the reservation are enrolled in the federally recognized Seminole Nation of Oklahoma, while others belong to unorganized groups.

Fewer than 200 Seminoles remained in Florida after the Third Seminole War, but they fostered a resurgence in traditional customs and a culture of staunch independence. In the late 19th century, the Florida Seminole re-established limited relations with the U. S. government and in 1930 received 5,000 acres of reservation lands. Few Seminole moved to reservations until the 1940s; the more traditional people near the Tamiami Trail received federal recognition as the Miccosukee Tribe in 1962. Seminole groups in Oklahoma and Florida had little contact with each other until well into the 20th century, but each developed along similar lines as the groups strived to maintain their culture while they struggled economically. Old crafts and traditions were revived in the mid-20th century as Seminoles began seeking tourism dollars when Americans began to travel more on the country's growing highway system. In the 1970s, Seminole tribes began to run small bingo games on their reservations to raise revenue, winning court challenges to initiate Indian gaming, which many U.

S. tribes have adopted to generate revenues for welfare and development. The Seminole Tribe of Florida has been successful with gambling establishments, in 2007, it purchased the Hard Rock Café and has rebranded or opened several large gaming resorts under that name; the word "Seminole" is certainly derived from the Creek word simanó-li, variously translated as "frontiersman", "outcast", "runaway", "separatist", similar words. More speculatively, the Creek word itself, may be derived from the Spanish word cimarrón, meaning "runaway" or "wild one" used for certain Native American groups in Florida; the people who constituted the nucleus of this Florida group either chose to leave their tribe or were banished. At one time, the terms "renegade" and "outcast" were used to describe this status, but the terms have fallen into disuse because of a negative connotation, they identify as yat'siminoli or "free people" because for centuries their ancestors had resisted Spanish efforts to conquer and convert them, as well as English efforts to take their lands and use them in their wars.

They signed several treaties with the United States including the Treaty of Moultrie Creek and the Treaty of Paynes Landing. Native American refugees from northern wars, such as the Yuchi and Yamasee after the Yamasee War in South Carolina, migrated into Spanish Florida in the early 18th century. More arrived in the second half of the 18th century, as the Lower Creeks, part of the Muscogee people, began to migrate from several of their towns into Florida to evade the dominance of the Upper Creeks and pressure of English colonists moving into their lands, they spoke Hitchiti, of which Mikasuki is a dialect, the primary traditional language spoken today by Miccosukee in Florida. Joining them were several bands of Choctaw, many of whom were native to western Florida. Chickasaw cultures had left Georgia due to conflicts with colonists and their Native American allies. Fleeing to Florida were African-Americans who had escaped from slavery in the English colonies; the new arrivals moved into uninhabited lands that had once been peopled by several cultures indigenous to Florida, such as the Apalachee, Timucua and others.

The native population had been devastated by infe

Regulatory compliance

In general, compliance means conforming to a rule, such as a specification, standard or law. Regulatory compliance describes the goal that organizations aspire to achieve in their efforts to ensure that they are aware of and take steps to comply with relevant laws and regulations. Due to the increasing number of regulations and need for operational transparency, organizations are adopting the use of consolidated and harmonized sets of compliance controls; this approach is used to ensure that all necessary governance requirements can be met without the unnecessary duplication of effort and activity from resources. Regulations and accrediting organizations vary among fields, with examples such as PCI-DSS and GLBA in the financial industry, FISMA for U. S. federal agencies, HACCP for the food and beverage industry, the Joint Commission and HIPAA in healthcare. In some cases other compliance frameworks or standards inform on how to comply with regulations; some organizations keep compliance data—all data belonging or pertaining to the enterprise or included in the law, which can be used for the purpose of implementing or validating compliance—in a separate store for meeting reporting requirements.

Compliance software is being implemented to help companies manage their compliance data more efficiently. This store may include calculations, data transfers, audit trails. Regulatory compliance varies not only by industry but by location; the financial and pharmaceutical regulatory structures in one country, for example, may be similar but with different nuances in another country. These similarities and differences are a product "of reactions to the changing objectives and requirements in different countries and policy contexts." Australia's major financial services regulators of deposits and superannuation include the Reserve Bank of Australia, the Australian Prudential Regulation Authority, the Australian Securities and Investments Commission, the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission. These regulators help to ensure financial institutes meet their promises, that transactional information is well documented, that competition is fair while protecting consumers; the APRA in particular deals with superannuation and its regulation, including new regulations requiring trustees of superannuation funds to demonstrate to APRA that they have adequate resources, risk management systems, appropriate skills and expertise to manage the superannuation fund, with individuals running them being "fit and proper."Other key regulators in Australia include the Australian Communications and Media Authority for broadcasting, the internet, communications.

This standard helps organisations with compliance management, placing "emphasis on the organisational elements that are required to support compliance" while recognizing the need for continual improvement. In Canada, federal regulation of deposits and superannuation is governed by two independent bodies: the OSFI through the Bank Act, FINTRAC, mandated by the Proceeds of Crime and Terrorist Financing Act, 2001; these groups protect consumers, regulate how risk is controlled and managed, investigate illegal action such as money laundering and terrorist financing. On a provincial level, each province maintain agencies. Unlike any other major federation, Canada does not have a securities regulatory authority at the federal government level; the provincial and territorial regulators work together to coordinate and harmonize regulation of the Canadian capital markets through the Canadian Securities Administrators. Other key regulators in Canada include the Canadian Food Inspection Agency for food safety, animal health, plant health.

Australian organizations seeking to remain compliant with various regulations may turn to ISO 19600:2014, an international compliance standard that "provides guidance for establishing, implementing, evaluating and improving an effective and responsive compliance management system within an organization." For more industry specific guidance, e.g. financial institutions, Canada's E-13 Regulatory Compliance Management provides specific compliance risk management tactics. In India, compliance regulation takes place across three strata: Central and Local regulation. India veers towards central regulation of financial organizations and foreign funds. Compliance regulations vary based on the industry segment in addition to the geographical mix. Most regulation comes in the following broad categories: economic regulation, regulation in the public interest, environmental regulation. India has been characterized by poor compliance - reports suggest that only around 65% of companies are compliant to norms.

The Monetary Authority of Singapore is financial regulatory authority. It administers the various statutes pertaining to money, insurance and the financial sector in general, as well as currency issuance. There is considerable regulation in the United Kingdom, some of, from European Union legislation. Various areas are policed by different bodies, such as the Financ

Candies Creek Ridge

Candies Creek Ridge known as Clingan Ridge, is a geographic feature ridge located in Bradley County, Tennessee. The ridge, one of a series of paralleling ridges that are a continuation of the Ridge-and-Valley Appalachians, is one of the tallest, averaging 997 feet of elevation; the highest point, in Cleveland, Tennessee, is 1,014 feet. It is known as Lebanon Ridge south of Cleveland; the ridge stretches from Tunnel Hill, Georgia to the Hiwassee River at the Bradley/McMinn County line in Tennessee. Several highways cross the formation including GA SR 2, TN SR 317, APD-40, US 11/US 64, SR 312, Interstate 75 and SR 60, Paul Huff Parkway, SR 308. To the west is a ridge referred to in Tennessee as Mount Zion Ridge, in the valley between the ridges in Tennessee is Candies Creek. To the east is a ridge referred to in northern Bradley County as Mouse Creek Ridge, in the valley between is South Mouse Creek; this ridge is called Lead Mine Ridge in Georgia. In Cleveland, the ridge has become a popular site for businesses and land development.

Candies Creek Candy's Creek, in the valley west of the ridge in Bradley County, was named for Henry Candy, who located along the creek after the Cherokee Treaty of 1817. Prior to that it was called Little Kiuka Creek by the Cherokees; the Candy's Creek Cherokee Indian Mission Station, organized in 1824 by Samuel Worcester and five others, stood along the creek a short distance north of the present day location of the intersection of SR 60 and Paul Huff Parkway. The station, which closed in 1838 after the Cherokee Removal, has the distinction of being the first organized church and post office in Bradley County, contained a school. A historical marker, commemorating the mission station was installed along SR 60 in 1959 near the present-day intersection of Paul Huff Parkway, unknowingly disappeared around the time Paul Huff Parkway was constructed. A nearby elementary school, opened in August 2019, was named for the mission station. In Bradley County, the ridge is named for the Clingan family, who lived on it in what is now northern Cleveland.

A. A. Clingan, one of the family members, was Bradley County's first elected sheriff, serving from 1837 to 1838 and 1840 to 1846; the family of his wife, Martha Blythe, founded Blythe Ferry on the south side of the Tennessee River in Meigs County, Tennessee 1809. The Clingan family cemetery, located on the western foot of the ridge off of SR 60, was rediscovered in 2014 and restored in 2016. GACatoosa County Whitfield CountyTNBradley County Hamilton County Cleveland, Tennessee McDonald, Tennessee Tunnel Hill, Georgia