Canton of Solothurn
The canton of Solothurn canton of Soleure is a canton of Switzerland. It is located in the northwest of Switzerland; the capital is Solothurn. Foundation of the village of Salodurum in the time of the Roman emperor Tiberius; the territory of the canton comprises land acquired by the former town in the Middle Ages. For that reason the shape of the canton is irregular and includes two exclaves along the French border, separated from the rest of the canton by Basel-Land, which form separate districts of the canton. In 1481, the canton became a member of the military alliance of the former Swiss confederation. At the end of the Reformation, Solothurn maintained its Catholic religion. Between 1798 and 1803 the canton was part of the Helvetic Republic. In 1803 Solothurn was one of the 19 Swiss cantons. In 1830, the population rebelled against the aristocratic regime and the canton became liberal-democratic. Though the population was Roman Catholic, Solothurn did not join the Catholic separatist movement in 1845-7.
The federal constitutions of 1848 and 1874 were approved. The current constitution of the canton dates from 1987; the canton is located in the north-west of Switzerland. To the west and south lie the cantons of Jura and Bern, to the east is Aargau. To the north the canton is bounded by the canton of Basel-Landschaft. Parts of two of the districts are located along the border of France; the lands are drained by its tributaries. The landscape is flat, but it includes the foothills of the Jura massif. Part of this, the massif of the Weissenstein, overlooks Solothurn and the Mitteland from the north and has views of the Bernese Alps; the flat lands are a plain created by the Aare river. The total area of the canton is 791 km². From 2005, Solothurn's ten districts are merged pairwise into five electoral districts, termed Amtei. From 2005, the districts have only a statistical significance. Bucheggberg, Amtei Wasseramt-Bucheggberg Dorneck, Amtei Dorneck-Thierstein Gäu, Amtei Thal-Gäu Gösgen, Amtei Olten-Gösgen Lebern, Amtei Solothurn-Lebern Olten, Amtei Olten-Gösgen Solothurn, Amtei Solothurn-Lebern Thal, Amtei Thal-Gäu Thierstein, Amtei Dorneck-Thierstein Wasseramt, Amtei Wasseramt-Bucheggberg There are 125 municipalities in the canton.
The population is German-speaking. About 44% of the population are Roman Catholic, with most of the remainder being Protestants; the population of the canton is 271,432. As of 2007, the population included 46,898 foreigners, or about 18.7% of the total population. Up to the 19th century agriculture was the main economic activity in the canton. Agriculture is still of importance, but manufacturing and the service industry are now more significant; the industries of the canton are specialized in watches, textiles, paper and auto parts. Until the manufacturing of shoes was an important economic activity, but global competition thought that the Swiss canton was not competitive enough; the canton is home to the Gösgen Nuclear Power Plant near Däniken which started operation in 1979. ^a FDP before 2009, FDP. The Liberals after 2009 ^ b" *" indicates; the canton has good connections both by rail and by road. There is a railway junction at Olten with direct trains to Geneva, Zurich and the Ticino via Lucerne.
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The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable; the works of William Shakespeare and Beethoven, most early silent films, are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired. Some works are not covered by copyright, are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes, all computer software created prior to 1974. Other works are dedicated by their authors to the public domain; the term public domain is not applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission". As rights vary by country and jurisdiction, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another; some rights depend on registrations on a country-by-country basis, the absence of registration in a particular country, if required, gives rise to public-domain status for a work in that country.
The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". Although the term "domain" did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the concept "can be traced back to the ancient Roman Law, as a preset system included in the property right system." The Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined "many things that cannot be owned" as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated; the term res communes was defined as "things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air and ocean." The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, the term res universitatis meant things that were owned by the municipalities of Rome. When looking at it from a historical perspective, one could say the construction of the idea of "public domain" sprouted from the concepts of res communes, res publicae, res universitatis in early Roman law.
When the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by French jurists in the 18th century. Instead of "public domain", they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law; the phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-19th century France to describe the end of copyright term. The French poet Alfred de Vigny equated the expiration of copyright with a work falling "into the sink hole of public domain" and if the public domain receives any attention from intellectual property lawyers it is still treated as little more than that, left when intellectual property rights, such as copyright and trademarks, expire or are abandoned. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a, "little coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain." Copyright law differs by country, the American legal scholar Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries".
Definitions of the boundaries of the public domain in relation to copyright, or intellectual property more regard the public domain as a negative space. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the term public domain and equates the public domain to public property and works in copyright to private property. However, the usage of the term public domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions; such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair-use rights and limitation on ownership. A conceptual definition comes from Lange, who focused on what the public domain should be: "it should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private appropriation that threatened such expression". Patterson and Lindberg described the public domain not as a "territory", but rather as a concept: "here are certain materials – the air we breathe, rain, life, thoughts, ideas, numbers – not subject to private ownership.
The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival." The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". A public-domain book is a book with no copyright, a book, created without a license, or a book where its copyrights expired or have been forfeited. In most countries the term of protection of copyright lasts until January first, 70 years after the death of the latest living author; the longest copyright term is in Mexico, which has life plus 100 years for all deaths since July 1928. A notable exception is the United States, where every book and tale published prior to 1924 is in the public domain.
Neuenkirch is a municipality in the district of Sursee in the canton of Lucerne in Switzerland. Neuenkirch is first mentioned in 1256 as nova ecclesia. In 1259 it was mentioned as Nuwenkilch. Neuenkirch has an area of 25.5 km2. Of this area, 71.2% is used for agricultural purposes, while 19.6% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 9.2% is settled and the remainder is non-productive. In the 1997 land survey, 19.63% of the total land area was forested. Of the agricultural land, 67.65% is used for farming or pastures, while 3.49% is used for orchards or vine crops. Of the settled areas, 3.85% is covered with buildings, 0.47% is industrial, 0.51% is classed as special developments, 0.27% is parks or greenbelts and 4.04% is transportation infrastructure. Of the unproductive areas, 0.04% is unproductive flowing water and 0.04% is other unproductive land. The municipality is located on the upper end of Lake Sempach, it consists of the village of Neuenkirch and the hamlets of Adelwil, Büezwil, Hälfestäge, Hellbühl, Lipperüti, Mättiwil, Rippertschwand, Rüeggringe and Werlige as well as Schloss Wartensee.
Neuenkirch has a population of 7,104. As of 2007, 8.2% of the population was made up of foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years the population has grown at a rate of 12.8%. Most of the population speaks German, with Albanian being second most common and Serbo-Croatian being third. In the 2007 election the most popular party was the CVP which received 30.9% of the vote. The next three most popular parties were the FDP, the SVP and the SPS; the age distribution in Neuenkirch is. 1,594 people or 26.9% are 20–39 years old, 2,081 people or 35.1% are 40–64 years old. The senior population distribution is 466 people or 7.9% are 65–79 years old, 128 or 2.2% are 80–89 years old and 35 people or 0.6% of the population are 90+ years old. In Neuenkirch about 74.4% of the population have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or additional higher education. As of 2000 there are 1,949 households, of which 458 households contain only a single individual. 267 or about 13.7% are large households, with at least five members.
As of 2000 there were 948 inhabited buildings in the municipality, of which 693 were built only as housing, 255 were mixed use buildings. There were 464 single family homes, 109 double family homes, 120 multi-family homes in the municipality. Most homes were either three story structures. There were only 39 single story buildings and 81 four or more story buildings. Neuenkirch has an unemployment rate of 1.52%. As of 2005, there were 349 people employed in the primary economic sector and about 128 businesses involved in this sector. 700 people are employed in the secondary sector and there are 67 businesses in this sector. 1076 people are employed in the tertiary sector, with 157 businesses in this sector. As of 2000 53.7% of the population of the municipality were employed in some capacity. At the same time, females made up 41.8% of the workforce. In the 2000 census the religious membership of Neuenkirch was. There are 174 individuals who are Muslim. Of the rest; the historical population is given in the following table: Heinrich Krauer and statesman Franz Xaver Schnyder von Wartensee Composer Niklaus Wolf von Rippertschwand and healtcare Bernhard Berset, Testpilot Neuenkirch in German and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland
Battle of Sempach
The Battle of Sempach was fought on 9 July 1386, between Leopold III, Duke of Austria and the Old Swiss Confederacy. The battle was a decisive Swiss victory in which numerous Austrian nobles died; the victory helped turn the loosely allied Swiss Confederation into a more unified nation and is seen as a turning point in the growth of Switzerland. During 1383 and 1384, the expansion of the Old Swiss Confederacy collided with Austrian interests; the interests of Austria were further undermined in the Pact of Constance, a union of Zürich, Solothurn and 51 cities of Swabia. In 1385, there were various attacks, without formal declaration of war or central organization, by forces of Zürich and Lucerne on the Austrian strongholds of Rapperswil, Rothenburg and Wolhusen. In January 1386, Lucerne expanded its sphere of influence by entering pacts with a number of towns and valleys under Austrian control, including Entlebuch, Meienberg and Willisau; this move was the immediate cause of war. A local Austrian force defeated the confederate garrison at Meienberg.
On 14 January, Lucerne called the confederacies for assistance. An armistice was called on 21 February, negotiations were held in Zürich, but neither side had any real interest in ending the conflict at this point, as the armistice ended, the conflict escalated into a full-scale military confrontation. Duke Leopold gathered his troops at Brugg, consisting of his feudal vassals from Swabia, the Alsace, Thurgau, Tyrol, as well as bourgeois forces of various towns and Italian and German mercenaries. In the course of a few weeks, no less than 167 noblemen, both secular and of the church, declared war on the Swiss; these declarations were sent to the Swiss diet in 20 packets, in order to increase the effect of shock. On 24 June, a messenger from Württemberg brought 15 declarations of war. Before all letters had been read, the messenger from Pfirt delivered another eight, before he had finished speaking, letters from the lords of Schaffhausen were brought in. Another eight messengers arrived on the following day.
The gathering of Austrian forces at Brugg suggested an intended attack on Zürich, the Confederate forces moved to protect that city. But Leopold marched south, to Zofingen and on to Willisau with the intention of ravaging the Lucerne countryside and ultimately aiming for the city of Lucerne; the Austrian army had a troop of mowers with them with the purpose of cutting down the corn and destroying the harvests along their route. The town of Willisau was plundered and burned, the army moved on to Sursee on Lake Sempach, thence towards Sempach on 9 July. Leopold's men taunted those behind the walls of the town, a knight waved a noose at them and promised them he would use it on their leaders. Another mockingly pointed to the soldiers setting fire to the ripe fields of grain, asked them to send a breakfast to the reapers. From behind the walls, there was a shouted retort: "Lucerne and the allies will bring them breakfast!" Confederate troops of Lucerne, Uri and Unterwalden had marched back from Zürich once it became clear that this was not Leopold's target.
The forces of Zürich had remained behind defending their own city, while those of Bern had not heeded the confederate call for assistance. The Confederation army had assembled at the bridge over the Reuss River at Gisikon, it marched from there, hoping to catch Leopold still at Sempach where he could be pressed against the lake. Around noon, the two armies made contact about 2 km outside of Sempach; this was to the mutual surprise of both armies, which were both not in battle order. But both sides formed ranks; the site of the battle is marked by the old battle chapel, consecrated in the year after the battle. The Swiss held the wooded high ground close to the village of Hildisrieden. Since the terrain was not deemed suitable for a cavalry attack, Leopold's knights dismounted, because they did not have time to prepare for the engagement, they were forced to cut off the tips of their poulaines which would have hindered their movement on foot; the Swiss chroniclers report how a huge pile of these shoe-tips was found in a heap after the battle, they are depicted in the background of the battle scene in the Lucerne Chronicle of 1513.
The main body of the Confederation army completed its deployment from the marching column, formed up, attacked the knights from the flank aggressively. The Austrian force, on the other hand, formed a wide rank and threatened to surround the outnumbered confederates. How and at what point the battle turned in favour of the confederates is a matter of debate, it has been suggested that an important factor was the midday heat in July, which wore out the Austrian knights wearing heavy armour much more than the armed confederates. Another factor may have been a fatal underestimation of the confederates on the part of the nobility. According to the account by Tschudi, seeing the small strength of the confederate force, the nobles were concerned that if they sent the mercenaries in front, as would have been common practice, they might not see any action at all, as the mercenaries would finish the job on their own. Therefore, they insisted on taking the front ranks. Traditional Swiss historiography since the 16th century has attributed the turning of the tide to the heroic deed of Arnold von Winkelried, who opened a breach in the Habsburg lines by throwing himself into their pikes, taking them down with his body so that the confederates could attack through the opening.
Winkelried is explained as a legendary figure introduced t
Tertiary sector of the economy
The tertiary sector or service sector is the third of the three economic sectors of the three-sector theory. The others are the secondary sector, the primary sector; the service sector consists of the production of services instead of end products. Services include attention, access and affective labor; the production of information has long been regarded as a service, but some economists now attribute it to a fourth sector, the quaternary sector. The tertiary sector of industry involves the provision of services to other businesses as well as final consumers. Services may involve the transport and sale of goods from producer to a consumer, as may happen in wholesaling and retailing, pest control or entertainment; the goods may be transformed in the process of providing the service, as happens in the restaurant industry. However, the focus is on people interacting with people and serving the customer rather than transforming physical goods, it is sometimes hard to define whether a given company is part and parcel of the secondary or tertiary sector.
And it is not only companies. In order to classify a business as a service, one can use classification systems such as the United Nations' International Standard Industrial Classification standard, the United States' Standard Industrial Classification code system and its new replacement, the North American Industrial Classification System, the Statistical Classification of Economic Activities in the European Community in the EU and similar systems elsewhere; these governmental classification systems have a first-level hierarchy that reflects whether the economic goods are tangible or intangible. For purposes of finance and market research, market-based classification systems such as the Global Industry Classification Standard and the Industry Classification Benchmark are used to classify businesses that participate in the service sector. Unlike governmental classification systems, the first level of market-based classification systems divides the economy into functionally related markets or industries.
The second or third level of these hierarchies reflects whether goods or services are produced. For the last 100 years, there has been a substantial shift from the primary and secondary sectors to the tertiary sector in industrialized countries; this shift is called tertiarisation. The tertiary sector is now the largest sector of the economy in the Western world, is the fastest-growing sector. In examining the growth of the service sector in the early Nineties, the globalist Kenichi Ohmae noted that: "In the United States 70 percent of the workforce works in the service sector; these are not busboys and live-in maids. Many of them are in the professional category, they are earning as much as manufacturing workers, more.”Economies tend to follow a developmental progression that takes them from a heavy reliance on agriculture and mining, toward the development of manufacturing and toward a more service-based structure. The first economy to follow this path in the modern world was the United Kingdom.
The speed at which other economies have made the transition to service-based economies has increased over time. Manufacturing tended to be more open to international trade and competition than services. However, with dramatic cost reduction and speed and reliability improvements in the transportation of people and the communication of information, the service sector now includes some of the most intensive international competition, despite residual protectionism. Service providers face obstacles selling services that goods-sellers face. Services are intangible, making it difficult for potential customers to understand what they will receive and what value it will hold for them. Indeed, such as consultants and providers of investment services, offer no guarantees of the value for price paid. Since the quality of most services depends on the quality of the individuals providing the services, "people costs" are a high fraction of service costs. Whereas a manufacturer may use technology and other techniques to lower the cost of goods sold, the service provider faces an unrelenting pattern of increasing costs.
Product differentiation is difficult. For example, how does one choose one investment adviser over another, since they are seen to provide identical services? Charging a premium for services is an option only for the most established firms, who charge extra based upon brand recognition. Examples of tertiary industries may include: Telecommunication Hospitality industry/tourism Mass media Healthcare/hospitals Public health Pharmacy Information technology Waste disposal Consulting Gambling Retail sales Fast-moving consumer goods Franchising Real estate Education Financial services Banking Insurance Investment management Professional services Accounting Legal services Management consultingTransportation Below is a list of countries by service output at market exchange rates in 2016. Quaternary sector of the economy Indigo Era National Occupational Research Agenda Service Sector Council, USA Media related to Service industries at Wikimedia Commons
A Fachhochschule, abbreviated FH, or University of Applied Sciences is a German tertiary education institution, specializing in topical areas. Fachhochschulen were first founded in Germany, were adopted in Austria, Switzerland and Greece. An increasing number of Fachhochschulen are abbreviated as Hochschule, the generic term in Germany for institutions awarding academic degrees in higher education, or expanded as Hochschule für angewandte Wissenschaften. Universities of Applied Sciences are designed with a focus on teaching professional skills. Swiss law calls Fachhochschulen and Universitäten "separate but equal". Due to the Bologna process, Universitäten and Fachhochschulen award equivalent academic bachelor's and master's degrees. Fachhochschulen do not award doctoral degrees themselves. Combined with the rule that they appoint only professors with a professional career of at least three years outside the university system, those are the two major ways in which they differ from traditional universities.
However, they may run doctoral programs. Due to the Bologna process, most German Universitäten and Fachhochschulen have ceased admitting students to programs leading to the traditional German Diplom, but now apply the new degree standard of Bachelor's and Master's degrees. In line with the Bologna process, bachelor's and master's degrees awarded by both types of universities are equivalent. With a Master's from either, one can now enter a doctoral degree program at a Universität, but a graduate with a bachelor's degree from either is unable to proceed directly to a doctoral degree program in Germany. With the master's degree of either of the institutions a graduate can enter the höheren Dienst career for civil servants; the Fachhochschule or University of Applied Sciences and Arts is a type of German institution of higher education that emerged from the traditional Engineering Schools and similar professional schools of other disciplines. It differs from the traditional university through its more practical orientation.
Subjects taught at Fachhochschulen include engineering, computer science and management, arts and design, communication studies, social service, other professional fields. The traditional degree awarded at a Fachhochschule was the Diplom. Coursework totaled eight semesters of full-time study, with various options for specialization. In addition, there were one or two practical training semesters to provide hands-on experience in real working environments; the program concluded after five years, with the final examination and a thesis, an extensive project on a current practical or scientific aspect of the profession. In an effort to make educational degrees more compatible within Europe, the German Diplom degrees were phased out by 2010 and replaced by the European bachelor's and master's degree; the Fachhochschule represents a close relationship between higher education and the employment system. Their practical orientation makes them attractive to employers. Today, Fachhochschulen conduct research.
Research projects sponsored by industry. In Germany the right to confer doctoral degrees is still reserved to Universitäten. In 2016, Fulda University of Applied Sciences became the first Fachhochschule to be conferred this right for its graduate center for social sciences. Several Fachhochschulen run doctoral programs where the degree itself is awarded by a partner university in Germany or abroad. There are a few universities, such as Catholic University of Eichstätt-Ingolstadt and Bundeswehr University Munich, which run Fachhochschule courses in addition to their normal courses; the Austrian government decided to establish Fachhochschulen in 1990. In the academic year of 2010/11, there were twenty-one institutions considered as Fachhochschulen plus a number of other providers of Fachhochschulstudiengängen with a total of over 27,000 students. About a third of the 136 Fachhochschulstudiengänge are organized as part-time courses of studies; the Swiss Universities of Applied Sciences UAS are vocational universities established in Switzerland in 1995 following the model of the German Fachhochschulen.
They are called Fachhochschule in German, Haute école specialisée in French and scuola universitaria professionale in Italian. The Swiss Universities of Applied Sciences offer third level education, continuing education, services businesses and institutions, produce applied research activities. In 2013 there are seven public UAS approved by the Swiss Federal Council in 1998 and two private UAS approved by the Federal Council in 2005 and 2008; the public UAS are run by one or more cantons. UAS have the institutional mandate to provide degree programmes, continuing education and training, to conduct applied research and to offer services to companies and institutions. Students with a finished apprenticeship and a Fachmatura and students with the Matura and a practical year in a company can access further education within the Universities for Applied Science; the UAS and their Bachelor’s and Master’s degrees are federally accredited. The Federal Department of Eco
Eich is a municipality in the district of Sursee in the canton of Lucerne in Switzerland. Eich is first mentioned in 1045 as Heiche. In 1173 it was mentioned as Eiche. Eich has an area of 5.9 km2. Of this area, 67.9% is used for agricultural purposes, while 19.5% is forested. The rest of the land, is settled. In the 1997 land survey, 19.52% of the total land area was forested. Of the agricultural land, 59.76% is used for farming or pastures, while 8.15% is used for orchards or vine crops. Of the settled areas, 5.26% is covered with buildings, 0.34% is classed as special developments, 0.68% is parks or greenbelts and 6.28% is transportation infrastructure. FALSE The municipality is located östl. Ufer des Sempachersees gelegen, it consists of the hamlets of östl. Ufer des Sempachersees gelegen. Eich has a population of 1,574. Over the last 10 years the population has grown at a rate of 37.1%. Most of the population speaks German, with French being second most English being third. In the 2007 election the most popular party was the CVP which received 35.4% of the vote.
The next three most popular parties were the FDP and the Green Party. The age distribution in Eich is. 414 people or 25.7% are 20–39 years old, 664 people or 41.2% are 40–64 years old. The senior population distribution is 147 people or 9.1% are 65–79 years old, 18 or 1.1% are 80–89 years old and 4 people or 0.2% of the population are 90+ years old. The entire Swiss population is well educated. In Eich about 85.4% of the population have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or additional higher education. As of 2000 there are 447 households, of which 76 households contain only a single individual. 52 or about 11.6% are large households, with at least five members. As of 2000 there were 297 inhabited buildings in the municipality, of which 235 were built only as housing, 62 were mixed use buildings. There were 194 single family homes, 18 double family homes, 23 multi-family homes in the municipality. Most homes were either three story structures. There were only 21 single story buildings and 12 four or more story buildings.
Eich has an unemployment rate of 1.4%. As of 2005, there were 90 people employed in the primary economic sector and about 29 businesses involved in this sector. 187 people are employed in the secondary sector and there are 18 businesses in this sector. 226 people are employed in the tertiary sector, with 48 businesses in this sector. As of 2000 55.9% of the population of the municipality were employed in some capacity. At the same time, females made up 43.4% of the workforce. In the 2000 census the religious membership of Eich was. There are 6 individuals who are Muslim. Of the rest; the historical population is given in the following table: Eich in German and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland