Big Basin Redwoods State Park
Big Basin Redwoods State Park is a state park in the U. S. state of California, located in Santa Cruz County, about 36 km northwest of Santa Cruz. The park contains all of the Waddell Creek watershed, formed by the seismic uplift of its rim, the erosion of its center by the many streams in its bowl-shaped depression. Big Basin is California's oldest State Park, established in 1902, earning its designation as a California Historical Landmark, its original 3,800 acres have been increased over the years to over 18,000 acres. It is part of the Northern California coastal forests ecoregion and is home to the largest continuous stand of ancient coast redwoods south of San Francisco, it contains 10,800 acres of old-growth forest as well as recovering redwood forest, with mixed conifer, oaks and riparian habitats. Elevations in the park vary from sea level to over 600 m; the climate damp near the ocean to sunny, warm ridge tops. The park has over 130 km of trails; some of these trails link Big Basin to Castle Rock State Park and the eastern reaches of the Santa Cruz range.
The Skyline-to-the-Sea Trail threads its way through the park along Waddell Creek to Waddell Beach and the adjacent Theodore J. Hoover Natural Preserve, a freshwater marsh; the park has a large number of waterfalls, a wide variety of environments, many animals and abundant bird life – including Steller's jays, egrets and acorn woodpeckers. Contrary to popular belief that prehistoric people did not inhabit the old growth forests, archaeological evidence has been found, although sporadically, within the Park. Numerous resources would have been available to California Indians in the old growth forests, such as basketry material, plant foods like acorns and bulbs as well as animal prey for hunters and unknown traditional sacred places. Ohlone tribes that lived on watercoures which begin in Big Basin Redwoods State Park were the Quiroste, Achistaca and Sayante. In October 1769 the Portola expedition'discovered' the redwoods of southern Santa Cruz County, camped at the mouth of Waddell Creek, in present-day Big Basin that month.
Although many in the party had been ill with scurvy, they gorged themselves on berries and recovered. This miraculous recovery, as it seemed at the time, inspired the name given to the valley:'Cañada de la Salud' or Canyon of Health; the redwood forested country of Big Basin served as a refuge for Ohlone Indians early during the Spanish occupation of the area: "The first active resistance to Spanish power in the Bay Area was led by Charquin, a leader of the Quiroste in the area of Point Ano Nuevo, down the coast from San Francisco. Although he did not fight Spanish soldiers until early 1793, Charquin had harbored fugitive neophytes since November 1791. Charquin and his followers retreated into the rugged country behind Point Ano Nuevo in late 1791, lands that were equidistant from the missions San Francisco, Santa Clara, Santa Cruz. From there he invited dissatisfied neophytes to join him. On January 6, 1793, Mission San Francisco servant Diego Olbera baptized a 22-year-old woman on the verge of death'at the Quiroste village in the Mountains'.
Olbera was in the vicinity to convince Charquin and his followers to return to the Mission. Instead relations degenerated further. During the eighteen years that the Spanish military had been present among tribes of the Bay Area, its leaders had tried to avoid direct confrontation that might result in losses and a resultant weakening of its authority, but the success of Charquin goaded the soldiers into action. No known diary stemming from any successful expedition against Charquin exists, yet indirect evidence exist that one did take place, that it occurred in late April and early May 1793. An entry in the Mission San Francisco Libro de Difuntos on May 3, 1793 recorded the death of two children of runaway families in the mountain Quiroste Village of Chipletac. Charquin seems to have been captured at that time. Quiroste resistance did not end with the capture of Charquin in the spring of 1793. On December 14, 1793, Quirostes took part in a direct attack on Mission Santa Cruz, the only attack on a Mission north of Monterey reported during the entire Spanish era.
The attack on Mission Santa Cruz was a continuation of the ongoing history of the Charquin resistance. Clues suggest that the Quiroste anger resulted from mission penetration into traditional family control of Marriage. By the late 19th century, redwood forests were gaining international appreciation. Early conservationists, including such notables as Andrew P. Hill, Father Robert Kenna, John J. Montgomery, Carrie Stevens Walter and Josephine Clifford McCracken, led the movement to create a park to preserve the mighty redwoods. On May 19, 1900, the Sempervirens Club was formed at the base of Slippery Rock, within the present day park. In 1902, the California Redwood Park was created in Big Basin on 3,800 acres, most of it old growth forest. In the following decades, visitation to Big Basin grew as park amenities were developed; the Big Basin Inn offered cabins to rent, a restaurant, general store, barber shop, gas station and photographic studio. There were a post office, a concrete swimming pool, boating areas, tennis courts and a dance floor.
Campsites cost 50 cents a night in 1927 and many families stayed all summer. During the Great Depression of the 1930s, the Civilian Conservation Corps assigned a company to Big Basin; these men built the amphitheater, miles of trails, many of the buildings still used today. The main administration building, built by the CCC in 1936, is listed on t
Sequoia sempervirens is the sole living species of the genus Sequoia in the cypress family Cupressaceae. Common names include coastal redwood and California redwood, it is an evergreen, long-lived, monoecious tree living 1,200 -- more. This species includes the tallest living trees on Earth, reaching up to 379 feet in height and up to 29.2 feet in diameter at breast height. These trees are among the oldest living things on Earth. Before commercial logging and clearing began by the 1850s, this massive tree occurred in an estimated 2,100,000 acres along much of coastal California and the southwestern corner of coastal Oregon within the United States; the name sequoia sometimes refers to the subfamily Sequoioideae, which includes S. sempervirens along with Sequoiadendron and Metasequoia. Here, the term redwood on its own refers to the species covered in this article, not to the other two species. Scottish botanist David Don described the redwood as the evergreen taxodium in his colleague Aylmer Bourke Lambert's 1824 work A description of the genus Pinus.
Austrian botanist Stephan Endlicher erected the genus Sequoia in his 1847 work Synopsis coniferarum, giving the redwood its current binomial name of Sequoia sempervirens. Endlicher derived the name Sequoia from the Cherokee name of George Gist spelled Sequoyah, who developed the still-used Cherokee syllabary; the redwood is one of each in its own genus, in the subfamily Sequoioideae. Molecular studies have shown that the three are each other's closest relatives with the redwood and giant sequoia as each other's closest relatives; however and colleagues in 2010 queried the polyploid state of the redwood and speculate that it may have arisen as an ancient hybrid between ancestors of the giant sequoia and dawn redwood. Using two different single copy nuclear genes, LFY and NLY, to generate phylogenetic trees, they found that Sequoia was clustered with Metasequoia in the tree generated using the LFY gene, but with Sequoiadendron in the tree generated with the NLY gene. Further analysis supported the hypothesis that Sequoia was the result of a hybridization event involving Metasequoia and Sequoiadendron.
Thus and colleagues hypothesize that the inconsistent relationships among Metasequoia and Sequoiadendron could be a sign of reticulate evolution among the three genera. However, the long evolutionary history of the three genera make resolving the specifics of when and how Sequoia originated once and for all a difficult matter—especially since it in part depends on an incomplete fossil record; the coast redwood can reach 115 m tall with a trunk diameter of 9 m. It has a conical crown, with horizontal to drooping branches; the bark can be thick, up to 1-foot, quite soft and fibrous, with a bright red-brown color when freshly exposed, weathering darker. The root system is composed of wide-spreading lateral roots; the leaves are variable, being 15–25 mm long and flat on young trees and shaded shoots in the lower crown of old trees. On the other hand, they are scale-like, 5–10 mm long on shoots in full sun in the upper crown of older trees, with a full range of transition between the two extremes.
They have two blue-white stomatal bands below. Leaf arrangement is spiral, but the larger shade leaves are twisted at the base to lie in a flat plane for maximum light capture; the species is monoecious, with seed cones on the same plant. The seed cones are ovoid, 15–32 mm long, with 15–25 spirally arranged scales; each cone scale bears three to seven seeds, each seed 3–4 mm long and 0.5 mm broad, with two wings 1 mm wide. The seeds are open at maturity; the pollen cones are 4 -- 6 mm long. Its genetic makeup is unusual among conifers, being a hexaploid and allopolyploid. Both the mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes of the redwood are paternally inherited. Coast redwoods occupy a narrow strip of land 750 km in length and 5–47 mi in width along the Pacific coast of North America; the prevailing elevation range is 98–2,460 ft above sea level down to 0 and up to 3,000 ft. They grow in the mountains where precipitation from the incoming moisture off the ocean is greater; the tallest and oldest trees are found in deep valleys and gullies, where year-round streams can flow, fog drip is regular.
The trees above the fog layer, above about 2,296 ft, are shorter and smaller due to the drier and colder conditions. In addition, Douglas fir and tanoak crowd out redwoods at these elevations. Few redwoods grow close to the ocean, due to intense salt spray and wind. Coalescence of coastal fog accounts for a considerable part of the trees' water needs; the northern boundary of its range is marked by groves on the Chetco River on the western fringe of the Klamath Mountains, near the California-Oregon border. The largest populations are in Redwood National and State Parks (Del Norte and Humbo
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a numeric commercial book identifier, intended to be unique. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency. An ISBN is assigned to each variation of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN; the ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country; the initial ISBN identification format was devised in 1967, based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108. Published books sometimes appear without an ISBN; the International ISBN agency sometimes assigns such books ISBNs on its own initiative.
Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines and newspapers. The International Standard Music Number covers musical scores; the Standard Book Numbering code is a 9-digit commercial book identifier system created by Gordon Foster, Emeritus Professor of Statistics at Trinity College, for the booksellers and stationers WHSmith and others in 1965. The ISBN identification format was conceived in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the United States by Emery Koltay; the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108. The United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. ISO has appointed the International ISBN Agency as the registration authority for ISBN worldwide and the ISBN Standard is developed under the control of ISO Technical Committee 46/Subcommittee 9 TC 46/SC 9; the ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978.
An SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit "0". For example, the second edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has "SBN 340 01381 8" – 340 indicating the publisher, 01381 their serial number, 8 being the check digit; this can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8. Since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format, compatible with "Bookland" European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each variation of a book. For example, an ebook, a paperback, a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN; the ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. An International Standard Book Number consists of 4 parts or 5 parts: for a 13-digit ISBN, a prefix element – a GS1 prefix: so far 978 or 979 have been made available by GS1, the registration group element, the registrant element, the publication element, a checksum character or check digit. A 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces. Figuring out how to separate a given ISBN is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN is most used among others special identifiers to describe references in Wikipedia and can help to find the same sources with different description in various language versions. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency, responsible for that country or territory regardless of the publication language; the ranges of ISBNs assigned to any particular country are based on the publishing profile of the country concerned, so the ranges will vary depending on the number of books and the number and size of publishers that are active. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture and thus may receive direct funding from government to support their services. In other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded.
A full directory of ISBN agencies is available on the International ISBN Agency website. Partial listing: Australia: the commercial library services agency Thorpe-Bowker.
Andrew P. Hill
Andrew Putnam Hill was a Californian painter and photographer best known for leading an effort from 1899 to 1902 to save a forest of large redwoods in Big Basin, California, as a public park, the first in what became the California State Park System. Hill was the only child of Elijah and Jane Hill, both of whom were descended from early American settlers. Born on August 9, 1853, in Porter County, Indiana, he came to California with his uncle when he was fourteen. Although a Protestant, he studied for two years at the Catholic Santa Clara College, in Santa Clara: one year at high-school level and one at college freshman level. Forced by lack of funds to leave, he worked as a draftsman entered the California School of Design in San Francisco in 1875. In 1876 he opened a portrait painting business in San Jose with Louis Lussier, continuing solo after Lussier's death in 1882. In 1889, he opened the Hill and Franklin Photography Studio and Art Gallery with J. C. Franklin; when Franklin left a year he partnered with his mother-in-law, Laura Broughton Watkins, as the Hill and Watkins Photographers Studio.
For three years they were joined by Sidney Yard. In the earthquake of 1906, Hill's studio and the works there were destroyed, as was his painting The Murphy Party, which hung in the historical room of the California Pioneers Association in San Francisco and depicted the first settlers crossing Sunset Pass, he turned to absentee management of a goldmine in Calaveras County, with little success, but continued to paint and photograph out of his home. Hill married Florence Maria Watkins of Santa Clara in April 1883, they had three sons. Hill died in 1922. In 1899, Hill was commissioned by the English Wide World Magazine to photograph the scenery at what is now called Big Trees Grove at Felton in the Santa Cruz Mountains after a forest fire had been put out with wine from a local winery, he had an altercation with the landowner, who demanded payment for allowing photographs of the Coast Redwood trees and told him that they "were destined to become firewood and railroad ties." At the turn of the century only 25% of the old growth Redwood forests remained.
Hill vowed to save the redwoods for posterity. In his memoirs, he wrote of this decision: I was a little angry, somewhat disgusted, with my reception at the Santa Cruz Big Trees, it made. There were still fifteen minutes until the train time. Just as the gate closed, the thought flashed through my mind that these trees, because of their size and antiquity, were among the natural wonders of the world, should be saved for posterity. I said to myself, "I will start a campaign to make a public park of the place." I argued that as I had been furnishing illustrations for a number of writers, whom I knew quite well, that there was a latent force, when awakened to a noble cause, would respond, arouse the press of the whole country. Thus was born my idea of saving the redwoods, his attention shifted to Big Basin when it was suggested that the redwoods there were taller and more important. On May 18, 1900, while camping there, he and others founded the Sempervirens Club, which decided that Big Basin should become a public park.
Many prominent locals supported the effort, including Santa Clara College's president, Robert E. Kenna, S. J. Stanford University's president, David Starr Jordan, the mayor of San Francisco, James D. Phelan, Carrie Stevens Walter, who served as secretary of the club. After nearly two years of lobbying legislators in Sacramento, California, in which Father Kenna's persuasion of the Catholic members, who were in the majority, was crucial, after securing a monetary guarantee from Phelan, a bill that allocated $250,000 to purchase the Big Basin land passed; these were enormous sums of money at the time. Supporters secured a second $250,000 from private benefactors and, with the state, created California's first state park, California Redwood Park, now Big Basin Redwoods State Park and now encompassing over 18,000 acres of protected temperate rainforest lands. Father Kenna was appointed one of the first park commissioners; the park opened to camping in 1904. Hill photographed the trees until his death.
He in 1911 ran for park warden. Hill was unable to achieve financial success, leaving his family less than $900 at his death, "but Andrew P. Hill's name and strenuous efforts will forever be associated with the preservation to the state and to humanity of the beautiful California Redwood Park", among the last 3% of old growth Redwood forests remaining today; as stated in Eugene T. Sawyer's history of Santa Clara County, "Mr. Hill had a public duty to perform, he went at it with a singleness of purpose which has made men conquerors of fate since the beginning of time."The California State Parks named the Hill Award for Inspiration after him. The Victorian Preservation Association of Santa Clara Valley bought his San Jose house in 1995, moved it to History Park at Kelley Park, has restored it. Andrew P. Hill High School in San Jose is named after him. Carolyn de Vries. Grand and Ancient Forest: The Story of Andrew P. Hill and Big Basin Redwoods State Park. Fresno, California: Valley, 1978. ISBN 978-0-913548-51-6 Carolyn Gallant de Vries.
"Andrew Putnam Hill: Biography of an Artist-Conservationist". Thesis, Santa Clara University, 1975. OCLC 3603288 Eugene T. Sawyer. History of Santa Clara County, with Biographical Sketches of the Leading Men and Women of the County who Have
An old-growth forest — termed primary forest or late seral forest — is a forest that has attained great age without significant disturbance and thereby exhibits unique ecological features and might be classified as a climax community. Old-growth features include diverse tree-related structures that provide diverse wildlife habitat that increases the biodiversity of the forested ecosystem; the concept of diverse tree structure includes multi-layered canopies and canopy gaps varying tree heights and diameters, diverse tree species and classes and sizes of woody debris. Old-growth forests are valuable for economic reasons and for the ecosystem services they provide; this can be a point of contention when some in the logging industry may desire to cut down the forests to obtain valuable timber, while environmentalists seek to preserve the forests for benefits such as maintenance of biodiversity, water regulation, nutrient cycling. Old-growth forests tend to have large trees and standing dead trees, multilayered canopies with gaps that result from the deaths of individual trees, coarse woody debris on the forest floor.
Forest regenerated after a severe disturbance, such as wildfire, insect infestation, or harvesting, is called second-growth or'regeneration' until enough time passes for the effects of the disturbance to be no longer evident. Depending on the forest, this may take from a century to several millennia. Hardwood forests of the eastern United States can develop old-growth characteristics in 150–500 years. In British Columbia, old growth is defined as 120 to 140 years of age in the interior of the province where fire is a frequent and natural occurrence. In British Columbia’s coastal rainforests, old growth is defined as trees more than 250 years, with some trees reaching more than 1,000 years of age. In Australia, eucalypt trees exceed 350 years of age due to frequent fire disturbance. Forest types have different development patterns, natural disturbances and appearances. A Douglas-fir stand may grow for centuries without disturbance while an old-growth ponderosa pine forest requires frequent surface fires to reduce the shade-tolerant species and regenerate the canopy species.
In the Boreal-West Forest Region, catastrophic disturbances like wildfires minimize opportunities for major accumulations of dead and downed woody material and other structural legacies associated with old growth conditions. Typical characteristics of old-growth forest include presence of older trees, minimal signs of human disturbance, mixed-age stands, presence of canopy openings due to tree falls, pit-and-mound topography, down wood in various stages of decay, standing snags, multilayered canopies, intact soils, a healthy fungal ecosystem, presence of indicator species. Old-growth forests are biologically diverse, home to many rare species, threatened species, endangered species of plants and animals, such as the northern spotted owl, marbled murrelet and fisher, making them ecologically significant. Levels of biodiversity may be higher or lower in old-growth forests compared to that in second-growth forests, depending on specific circumstances, environmental variables, geographic variables.
Logging in old-growth forests is a contentious issue in many parts of the world. Excessive logging reduces biodiversity, affecting not only the old-growth forest itself, but indigenous species that rely upon old-growth forest habitat. A forest in old-growth stage has a mix of tree ages, due to a distinct regeneration pattern for this stage. New trees regenerate at different times from each other, because each one of them has different spatial location relative to the main canopy, hence each one receives a different amount of light; the mixed age of the forest is an important criterion in ensuring that the forest is a stable ecosystem in the long term. A climax stand, uniformly aged becomes senescent and degrades within a short time to result in a new cycle of forest succession. Thus, uniformly aged stands are less stable ecosystems. Forest canopy gaps are essential in maintaining mixed-age stands; some herbaceous plants only become established in canopy openings, but persist beneath an understory.
Openings are a result of tree death due to small impact disturbances such as wind, low-intensity fires, tree diseases. Old-growth forests are unique having multiple horizontal layers of vegetation representing a variety of tree species, age classes, sizes, as well as "pit and mound" soil shape with well-established fungal nets; because old-growth forest is structurally diverse, it provides higher-diversity habitat than forests in other stages. Thus, sometimes higher biological diversity can be sustained in old-growth forest, or at least a biodiversity, different from other forest stages; the characteristic topography of much old-growth forest consists of mounds. Mounds are caused by decaying fallen trees, pits by the roots pulled out of the ground when trees fall due to natural causes, including being pushed over by animals. Pits expose humus-poor, mineral-rich soil and collect moisture and fallen leaves, forming a thick organic layer, able to nurture certain types of organisms. Mounds provide a place free of leaf inundation and saturation, where other types of organisms thrive.
Standing snags provide food sources and habitat for many types of organisms. In particular, many species of dead-wood predators such as woodpeckers must have standing snags available for feeding. In North America, the spotted owl is well known for needing standing snags for nesting habitat. Fallen timber, or coarse woody debris, contributes carbon-rich organic matter directly to the soil, providing a substrate for mosses and seedlings, cr