Veliky Ustyug is a town in Vologda Oblast, located in the northeast of the oblast at the confluence of the Sukhona and Yug Rivers. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 31,665. Veliky Ustyug has a great historical significance and was one of the major cities of the Russian North, it preserved many of the architectural monuments. It has lost its former leading role and is nowadays known for tourism. Veliky Ustyug is close to the confluence of the Yug rivers. Downstream from this confluence the rivers form a single waterway known as the Northern Dvina, sometimes referred to as the Little Northern Dvina; the historical center of the town is on the left bank of the Sukhona and, in contrast to many historical Russian towns, there is an embankment along the Sukhona. Dymkovskaya Sloboda and Troitse-Gledensky Monastery are on the right bank of the Sukhona. New parts of the town industrial areas, face the Northern Dvina; the only bridge in Veliky Ustyug is across the Sukhona upstream of the town center.
Gleden was a fortress, the left bank of the Sukhona was a posad—a territory outside the fortress populated by craftsmen. In the 15th century, the fortress was destroyed in an attack by Vyatka army, the new fortress was built in the former posad area; the fortress was demolished. The first recorded settlement in the area was the monastic settlement at Gleden, founded near the confluence of the Yug and the Sukhona, where Troitsko-Gledensky Monastery is now; the name Ustyug means "the mouth of the Yug". By the late 15th century, the name changed to Veliky Ustyug; the town of Veliky Ustyug was first mentioned in a chronicle in 1207. In 1212, Mikhaylo-Arkhangelsky Monastery was founded, it was a part of the Vladimir-Suzdal Principality. Thus Veliky Ustyug created the only obstacle to Novgorod's trade with the north, as the Sukhona and the Northern Dvina were the main waterways connecting Novgorod with the White Sea. Clashes between Novgorod and Ustyug became regular throughout the whole 14th century.
In 1328, Ustyug was annexed by the Grand Duchy of Moscow. The town was not affected by the Mongol invasion of Rus' in the 13th century. In the 15th century, Veliky Ustyug became notable for the war between Vasily II of Moscow and his cousin Dmitry Shemyaka, which left northern Russia deserted. Shemyaka took Veliky Ustyug in 1450, drowned in the Sukhona those citizens who refused to accept him as a prince, made the town his residence for two years, until he was driven off by the forces of Vasily. In the 15th century, the town had a great military importance and became the base for the operations against the Finno-Ugric peoples. In 1613, during the Time of Troubles, Veliky Ustyug was never taken. At the junction of important trade routes, the town turned into a significant commercial and industrial center in the 16th and 17th centuries. Veliky Ustyug area was the birthplace of the explorers Semyon Dezhnyov, Yerofey Khabarov, Vladimir Atlasov, of St. Stephen of Perm. Veliky Ustyug lost its key role as a river port with the diminishing importance of the Sukhona River route for trade between China and western Europe, which started with the foundation of Saint-Petersburg in 1703, whereby the trade was diverted to the Baltic Sea.
The 16th and 17th centuries were the time of the highest rise of the culture in Veliky Ustyug, in which it acquired a national-wide significance. The town is known for its remarkable handicrafts, such as silver filigree, birch bark fretwork, decorative copper binding, niello; the town developed a distinct manner of icon painting — Ustyug icon painting. In the 17th century, Veliky Ustyug was a major producer of tiles, which are visible on many Ustyug churches and were sold to neighboring towns of the Russian North. On January 25, 1613, the town was unsuccessfully besieged by Polish-Lithuanian vagabonds led by Jakub Jacki. In the course of the administrative reform carried out in 1708 by Peter the Great, Veliky Ustyug was explicitly mentioned as one of the 20 towns included into the Archangelgorod Governorate. From 1719, it was the center of one of the four provinces of the Governorate. In 1780, the governorate was transformed into Vologda Viceroyalty; the latter was abolished in 1796, Veliky Ustyug became the center of Velikoustyugsky Uyezd of Vologda Governorate.
In 1918, the town became the administrative center of the newly established Northern Dvina Governorate. In 1924, the uyezds were abolished in favor of the districts. In 1929, Northern Dvina Governorate was merged into Northern Krai; the krai consisted of five okrugs, one of which, Northern Dvina Okrug, had its administrative center in Veliky Ustyug. In July 1930, the okrugs were abolished, the districts were directly subordinated to Northern Krai. In 1936, Northern Krai was transformed into Northern Oblast, in 1937, Northern Oblast was split into Arkhangelsk Oblast and Vologda Oblast. Veliky Ustyug remained in Vologda Oblast since. Veliky Ustyug, in contrast to the majority of historical Russian towns, managed to preserve all of its architectural and cultural monuments; this was in a great part due to the efforts of the local intellectuals grouped around the Regional Museum, most notably of Nikolay Bekryashev, the museum director from 1924 to 1938. This group managed to convince the authorities that the churches and
The Bering Sea is a marginal sea of the Pacific Ocean. It comprises a deep water basin, which rises through a narrow slope into the shallower water above the continental shelves; the Bering Sea is separated from the Gulf of Alaska by the Alaska Peninsula. It covers over 2,000,000 square kilometers and is bordered on the east and northeast by Alaska, on the west by Russian Far East and the Kamchatka Peninsula, on the south by the Alaska Peninsula and the Aleutian Islands and on the far north by the Bering Strait, which connects the Bering Sea to the Arctic Ocean's Chukchi Sea. Bristol Bay is the portion of the Bering Sea which separates the Alaska Peninsula from mainland Alaska; the Bering Sea is named for Vitus Bering, a Danish navigator in Russian service, who in 1728 was the first European to systematically explore it, sailing from the Pacific Ocean northward to the Arctic Ocean. The Bering Sea ecosystem includes resources within the jurisdiction of the United States and Russia, as well as international waters in the middle of the sea.
The interaction between currents, sea ice, weather makes for a vigorous and productive ecosystem. Most scientists believe that during the most recent ice age, sea level was low enough to allow humans to migrate east on foot from Asia to North America across what is now the Bering Strait. Other animals including megafauna migrated in both directions; this is referred to as the "Bering land bridge" and is believed by most, though not all scientists, to be the first point of entry of humans into the Americas. There is a small portion of the Kula Plate in the Bering Sea; the Kula Plate is an ancient tectonic plate. On 18 December 2018, a large meteor exploded above the Bering Sea; the space rock exploded with 10 times the energy released by the Hiroshima atomic bomb. The International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Bering Sea as follows: On the North; the Southern limit of the Chuckchi Sea. On the South. A line running from Kabuch Point in the Alaskan Peninsula, through the Aleutian Islands to the South extremes of the Komandorski Islands and on to Cape Kamchatka in such a way that all the narrow waters between Alaska and Kamchatka are included in the Bering Sea.
Islands of the Bering Sea include: Pribilof Islands, including St. Paul Island Komandorski Islands, including Bering Island St. Lawrence Island Diomede Islands King Island St. Matthew Island Karaginsky Island Nunivak Island Sledge Island Hagemeister Island Regions of the Bering Sea include: Bering Strait Bristol Bay Gulf of Anadyr Norton SoundThe Bering Sea contains 16 submarine canyons including the largest submarine canyon in the world, Zhemchug Canyon; the Bering Sea shelf break is the dominant driver of primary productivity in the Bering Sea. This zone, where the shallower continental shelf drops off into the North Aleutians Basin is known as the "Greenbelt". Nutrient upwelling from the cold waters of the Aleutian basin flowing up the slope and mixing with shallower waters of the shelf provide for constant production of phytoplankton; the second driver of productivity in the Bering Sea is seasonal sea ice that, in part, triggers the spring phytoplankton bloom. Seasonal melting of sea ice causes an influx of lower salinity water into the middle and other shelf areas, causing stratification and hydrographic effects which influence productivity.
In addition to the hydrographic and productivity influence of melting sea ice, the ice itself provides an attachment substrate for the growth of algae as well as interstitial ice algae. Some evidence suggests that great changes to the Bering Sea ecosystem have occurred. Warm water conditions in the summer of 1997 resulted in a massive bloom of low energy coccolithophorid phytoplankton. A long record of carbon isotopes, reflective of primary production trends of the Bering Sea, exists from historical samples of bowhead whale baleen. Trends in carbon isotope ratios in whale baleen samples suggest that a 30–40% decline in average seasonal primary productivity has occurred over the last 50 years; the implication is that the carrying capacity of the Bering Sea is much lower now than it has been in the past. The sea supports many whale species including the beluga, humpback whale, bowhead whale, gray whale and blue whale, the vulnerable sperm whale, the endangered fin whale, sei whale and the rarest in the world, the North Pacific right whale.
Other marine mammals include walrus, Steller sea lion, northern fur seal and polar bear. The Bering Sea is important to the seabirds of the world. Over 30 species of seabirds and 20 million individuals breed in the Bering Sea region. Seabird species include tufted puffins, the endangered short-tailed albatross, spectacled eider, red-legged kittiwakes. Many of these species are unique to the area, which provides productive foraging habitat along the shelf edge and in other nutrient-rich upwelling regions, such as the Pribilof and Pervenets canyons; the Bering Sea is home to colonies of crested auklets, with upwards of a million individuals. Two Bering Sea species, the Steller's sea cow and spectacled cormorant, are extinct because of overexploitation by man. In addition, a small subspecies of Canada goose, the Bering Canada goose is extinct due to overhunting and introduction of rats to their breeding islands; the Bering Sea supports many species of fish. Some species of fish support valuable commercial fisheries.
Commercial fish species include 6 species of Pacific salmon
Ostrog is a Russian term for a small fort wooden and non-permanently manned. Ostrogs were encircled by 4–6 metres high palisade walls made from sharpened trunks; the name derives from the Russian word строгать, "to shave the wood". Ostrogs were smaller and military forts, compared to larger kremlins that were the cores of Russian cities. Ostrogs were built in remote areas or within the fortification lines, such as the Great Abatis Line. From the 17th century, after the start of the Russian conquest of Siberia, the word ostrog was used to designate the forts founded in Siberia by Russian explorers. Many of these forts transformed into large Siberian cities; when Siberia became a favourite destination for criminals sent there to serve katorga, Siberian ostrogs became associated with imprisonment, in the 18th and 19th centuries the word ostrog meant prison. Kremlin Blockhouse Ostrog at the Great Soviet Encyclopedia
The Yakuts or the Sakha are a Turkic ethnic group who live in the Republic of Sakha in the Russian Federation, with some extending to the Amur, Sakhalin regions, the Taymyr and Evenk Autonomous Districts. The Yakut language belongs to the Siberian branch of the Turkic languages; the Yakuts engage in animal husbandry focusing on cattle. The ancestors of Yakuts were Kurykans who migrated from Yenisey river to Lake Baikal and were subject to a certain Mongolian admixture prior to migration in the 7th century; the Yakuts lived around Olkhon and the region of Lake Baikal. Beginning in the 13th century they migrated to the basins of the Middle Lena, the Aldan and Vilyuy rivers under the pressure of the rising Mongols; the northern Yakuts were hunters and reindeer herders, while the southern Yakuts raised cattle and horses. In the 1620s the Tsardom of Muscovy began to move into their territory and annexed or settled down on it, imposed a fur tax and managed to suppress several Yakut rebellions between 1634 and 1642.
The tsarist brutality in collection of the pelt tax sparked a rebellion and aggression among the Yakuts and Tungusic-speaking tribes along the River Lena in 1642. The voivode Peter Golovin, leader of the tsarist forces, responded with a reign of terror: native settlements were torched and hundreds of people were killed; the Yakut population alone is estimated to have fallen by 70 percent between 1642 and 1682 because of the Muscovite expeditions. In the 18th century the Russians reduced the pressure, gave Yakut chiefs some privileges, granted freedom for all habitats, gave them all their lands, sent Eastern Orthodox missions, educated the Yakut people regarding agriculture; the discovery of gold and the building of the Trans-Siberian Railway, brought ever-increasing numbers of Russians into the region. By the 1820s all the Yakuts claimed to have converted to the Russian Orthodox church, but they retained a number of shamanist practices. Yakut literature began to rise in the late 19th century, a national revival occurred in the early 20th century.
In 1922, the new Soviet government named the area the Yakut Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. The last conflict of the Russian Civil War, known as the Yakut Revolt, occurred here when Cornet Mikhail Korobeinikov, a White Russian officer, led an uprising and a last stand against the Red Army. In the late 1920s through the late 1930s, Yakut people were systematically persecuted, when Joseph Stalin launched his collectivization campaign. It's possible that hunger and malnutrition during this period resulted in a decline in the Yakut total population from 240,500 in 1926 to 236,700 in 1959. By 1972, the population began to recover; the majority of Yakut males belong to Haplogroup N3a. Yakuts form a large plurality of the total population within the vast Sakha Republic. According to the 2010 Russian census, there were a total of 466,492 Yakuts residing in the Sakha Republic during that year, or 49.9% of the total population of the Republic. According to the 2010 census, some 87% of the Yakuts in the Sakha Republic are fluent in the Yakut language, while 90% are fluent in Russian.
The Sakha/Yakut language belongs to the North Siberian of the Siberian Turkic languages. It is most related to the Dolgan language, to a lesser extent related to Tuvan and Shor; the cuisine of Sakha prominently features the traditional drink kumis, dairy products of cow and reindeer milk, sliced frozen salted fish stroganina, loaf meat dishes, frozen fish, thick pancakes, salamat — a millet porridge with butter and horse fat. Kuerchekh or kierchekh, a popular dessert, is made of cow cream with various berries. Indigirka is a traditional fish salad; this cuisine is only used in Yakutia. Aisyt, the name of the mythic mother goddess of the Sakha people Music in the Sakha Republic Yakutian cattle Yakutian horse Yakutian knife Conolly, Violet. "The Yakuts," Problems of Communism, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 81–91. Sakha Yakut Republic Regional Investment and Business Guide. International Business Publications, 2001. Recipes for traditional Yakut cuisine Yakut language site with lyrics, mp3 and video Yakut newspaper site A good brief description of Yakut Society Russian translations of Yakut texts A multi-language dictionary: Yakut – Classical Mongolian – Khalkha – Russian – German – English Historical and administrative background Korolenko, Vladimir Galaktionovich "Sibirskie rasskazy i ocherki" Hudozhestvennaya literatura, Moscow in Russian Ethnic groups -Yakuts North-Eastern Federal University in Yakutsk Yakut People and Their Culture Trannie Mystics Yakut History of America
The Indigirka River is a river in the Sakha Republic in Russia between the Yana River and the Kolyma River. It is 1,726 kilometres long; the area of its basin is 360,000 square kilometres. The river flows into East Siberian Sea, it stays under the ice until May -- June. The main tributaries are the: Kuydusun River Kyuente River Elgi River Nera River, Moma River Badyarikha River Selennyakh River Uyandina Main ports on the river are: Khonuu Druzhina Chokurdakh Tabor. There is a gold prospecting industry in the Indigirka basin. Ust-Nera, a gold-mining center, is the largest settlement on the river; the Indigirka River teems with a variety of fishes. Among the most valuable are several whitefish species, such as vendace, muksun, omul, etc; the isolated village of Russkoye Ustye, located on the delta of the Indigirka, is known for the unique traditional culture of the Russian settlers whose ancestors came there several centuries ago. Some historians have speculated. In 1638 Ivan Rebrov reached the Indigirka.
In 1636–42 Elisei Buza pioneered the overland route to the Indigirka river system. At about the same time, Poznik Ivanov ascended a tributary of the lower Lena, crossed the Verkhoyansk Range to the upper Yana and crossed the Chersky Range to the Indigirka. In 1642 Mikhail Stadukhin reached the Indigirka overland from the Lena. Zashiversk on the Indigirka was an important colonial outpost during the early days of Russian colonization, it was subsequently abandoned in the 19th century. Other historical settlements, now long abandoned, were Uyandinskoye Zimov ` ye. In 1892–94 Baron Eduard Von Toll carried out geological surveys in the basin of the Indigirka on behalf of the Russian Academy of Sciences. During one year and two days the expedition covered 25,000 kilometres, of which 4,200 kilometres were up rivers, carrying out geodesic surveys en route; the Indigirka forms a large delta, consisting of a number of islands. About 100 kilometres before reaching the East Siberian Sea, the river splits into two major northeast-flowing streams.
The left arm is known as the Russko-Ustyinskaya Protoka. Further downstream, the third major arm, the Kolymskaya Protoka splits off the Srednyaya Protoka as its right distributary, thus justifying the "middle" moniker for the Srednyaya Protoka. While Srednyaya Protoka means the "Middle Arm", the names of the main western and eastern arms indicate their relative location as well; the Kolymskaya Protoka, or Kolymskoye Ustye is the arm one located on the eastern side, i.e. the "Kolyma side" of the delta. The Russko-Ustyinskaya Protoka known earlier as Russkoye Ustye is the arm one located on the western side, i.e. the "Russian side" of the delta. These days the name of the Russko-Ustyinskaya Protoka appears as if it were formed from the name of the old Russian village Russkoye Ustye situated there, but the opposite is to have been the case, the village being named after the river arm on which it was located. Several flat islands are formed by the channels of the delta. Listed from the east to the west, the major ones are: Usun-Ary 71.387°N 151.255°E / 71.387.
It is 12 kilometres and 2.7 kilometres wide. Uparovskiy Island 71.582°N 151.196°E / 71.582. It is 1 km wide. Ploskiy Island 71.480°N 150.890°E / 71.480. It is about 3 km long. Bolshoy Fedorovskiy 71.533°N 150.510°E / 71.533. It has a maximum width of 4 km. Vkodnoy and Oleniy islands lie right at the Prot. Russko Ust'inskaya mouth 71.546°N 150.266°E / 71.546. Both are of about 4 km in length. Krestovyy Island 71.447°N 149.766°E / 71.447. It is 1.6 km wide. Indigirka at GEOnet Names Server Location of islands William Barr, Baron Eduard Von Toll's Last Expedition. Arctic, Sept 1980
Yakutsk is the capital city of the Sakha Republic, located about 450 kilometers south of the Arctic Circle. Yakutsk, with an average temperature of −8.8 °C, is the second coldest city with more than 100,000 inhabitants in the world after Norilsk, although Yakutsk experiences colder temperatures in the winter. Yakutsk is the largest city located in continuous permafrost and one of the largest that cannot be reached by road. Yakutsk is a major port on the Lena River, it is served by the Yakutsk Airport as well as the smaller Magan Airport. The Yakuts known as the Sakha people, migrated to the area during the 13th and 14th centuries from other parts of Siberia; when they arrived they mixed with other indigenous Siberians in the area. The Russian settlement of Yakutsk was founded in 1632 as an ostrog by Pyotr Beketov. In 1639, it became the center of a voyevodstvo; the Voyevoda of Yakutsk soon became the most important Russian official in the region and directed expansion to the east and south. With an extreme subarctic climate, Yakutsk has the coldest winter temperatures for any major city on Earth.
Average monthly temperatures in Yakutsk range from +19.5 °C in July to −38.6 °C in January, only Norilsk has a lower mean annual temperature than any other settlement of over 100,000. Yakutsk is the largest city built on continuous permafrost, many houses there are built on concrete piles; the lowest temperatures recorded on the planet outside Antarctica occurred in the basin of the Yana River to the northeast of Yakutsk, making it the coldest major city in the world. Although winters are cold and long – Yakutsk has never recorded a temperature above freezing between 10 November and 14 March inclusive – summers are warm, with daily maximum temperatures exceeding +30 °C, making the seasonal temperature differences for the region the greatest in the world at 105 °C; the lowest temperature recorded in Yakutsk was −64.4 °C on 5 February 1891 and the highest temperatures +38.4 °C on 17 July 2011 and +38.3 °C on 15 July 1943. The hottest month in records going back to 1834 has been July 1894, with a mean of +23.2 °C, the coldest, January 1900, which averaged −51.2 °C.
Yakutsk has a distinct inland location, being 1,000 kilometres from the Pacific Ocean, which coupled with the high latitude means exposure to severe winters and lack of temperature moderation. July temperatures soar to an above-normal average for this parallel, with the average being several degrees hotter than such more southerly Far East cities as Vladivostok or Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk; the July daytime temperatures are hotter than some marine subtropical areas. The warm summers ensure; the climate is quite dry, with most of the annual precipitation occurring in the warmest months, due to the intense Siberian High forming around the cold continental air during the winter. However, summer precipitation is not heavy since the moist southeasterly winds from the Pacific Ocean lose their moisture over the coastal mountains well before reaching the Lena valley. With the Lena River navigable in the summer, there are various boat cruises offered, including upriver to the Lena Pillars, downriver tours which visit spectacular scenery in the lower reaches and the Lena delta.
Yakutia Airlines has its head office in the city. There are several theaters in Yakutsk: the State Russian Drama Theater, named after A. S. Pushkin. There are a number of museums as well: the National Fine Arts Museum of Sakha; the annual Ysyakh summer festival takes place the last weekend in June. The traditional Yakut summer solstice festivities include a celebration of the revival and renewal of the nature and beginning of a new year, it is accompanied by national Yakut rituals and ceremonies, folk dancing, horse racing, Yakut ethnic music and singing, national cuisine, competitions in traditional Yakut sports. There is a local punk scene in Yakutsk, with many bands. Shows can bring up to 300 people, young but older too. Yakutsk is the capital of the Sakha Republic; as an inhabited locality, Yakutsk is classified as a city under republic jurisdiction. Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with the settlement of Zhatay and eleven rural localities, incorporated as the city of republic significance of Yakutsk—an administrative unit with a status equal to that of the districts.
As a municipal division and the eleven rural localities are incorporated as Yakutsk Urban Okrug. The settlement of Zhatay is not a part of Yakutsk Urban Okrug and is independently incorporated as Zhatay Urban Okrug. Divisional source:Population source:*Administrative centers are shown in bold Yakutsk is a destination of the Lena Highway; the city's connection to that highway is only usable by ferry in the summer, or in the dead of winter, by driving directly over the frozen Lena River, since Yakutsk lies on its western bank, there is no bridge anywhere in the Sakha Republic that crosses the Lena. The river is impassable for long periods of the year when it contains loose ice, when the ice cover is not thick enough to support traffic, or when the water level is too high and the river is turbulent with spring f
The Amur River or Heilong Jiang is the world's tenth longest river, forming the border between the Russian Far East and Northeastern China. The largest fish species in the Amur is the kaluga; the river basin is home to a variety of large predatory fish such as northern snakehead, Amur pike, Amur catfish, predatory carp and yellowcheek, as well as the northernmost populations of the Amur softshell turtle and Indian lotus. It was common to refer to a river as "water"; the word for "water" is similar in a number of Asiatic languages: mul in Korean, muren in Mongolian, mizu in Japanese. The name "Amur" may have evolved from a root word for water, coupled with a size modifier for "Big Water"; the Chinese name for the river, Heilong Jiang, means Black Dragon River in Chinese, its Mongolian name, Khar mörön, means Black River. The river rises in the hills in the western part of Northeast China at the confluence of its two major affluents, the Shilka River and the Ergune River, at an elevation of 303 metres.
It flows east forming the border between China and Russia, makes a great arc to the southeast for about 400 kilometres, receiving many tributaries and passing many small towns. At Huma, it is joined by the Huma River. Afterwards it continues to flow south until between the cities of Blagoveschensk and Heihe, it widens as it is joined by the Zeya River, one of its most important tributaries; the Amur arcs to the east and turns southeast again at the confluence with the Bureya River does not receive another significant tributary for nearly 250 kilometres before its confluence with its largest tributary, the Songhua River, at Tongjiang. At the confluence with the Songhua the river turns northeast, now flowing towards Khabarovsk, where it joins the Ussuri River and ceases to define the Russia–China border. Now the river spreads out into a braided character, flowing north-northeast through a wide valley in eastern Russia, passing Amursk and Komsomolsk-on-Amur; the valley narrows after about 200 kilometres and the river again flows north onto plains at the confluence with the Amgun River.
Shortly after, the Amur turns east and into an estuary at Nikolayevsk-on-Amur, about 20 kilometres downstream of which it flows into the Strait of Tartary. In many historical references these two geopolitical entities are known as Outer Manchuria and Inner Manchuria, respectively; the Chinese province of Heilongjiang on the south bank of the river is named after it, as is the Russian Amur Oblast on the north bank. The name Black River was used by the native Manchu people and their Qing Empire of China, who regarded this river as sacred; the Amur River is an important symbol of, geopolitical factor in, Chinese–Russian relations. The Amur was important in the period following the Sino–Soviet political split in the 1960s. For many centuries the Amur Valley was populated by the Tungusic, Mongol people, some Ainu and, near its mouth, by the Nivkhs. For many of them, fishing in the Amur and its tributaries was the main source of their livelihood; until the 17th century, these people were not known to the Europeans, little known to the Han Chinese, who sometimes collectively described them as the Wild Jurchens.
The term Yupi Dazi was used for the Nanais and related groups as well, owing to their traditional clothes made of fish skins. The Mongols, ruling the region as the Yuan dynasty, established a tenuous military presence on the lower Amur in the 13–14th centuries. During the Yongle and Xuande eras, the Ming dynasty reached the Amur as well in their drive to establish control over the lands adjacent to the Ming Empire to the northeast, which were to become known as Manchuria. Expeditions headed by the eunuch Yishiha reached Tyr several times between 1411 and the early 1430s, re-building the Yongning Temple and obtaining at least the nominal allegiance of the lower Amur's tribes to the Ming government; some sources report a Chinese presence during the same period on the middle Amur – a fort existed at Aigun for about 20 years during the Yongle era on the left shore of the Amur downstream from the mouth of the Zeya River. This Ming Dynasty Aigun was located on the opposite bank to the Aigun, relocated during the Qing Dynasty.
In any event, the Ming presence on the Amur was as short-lived. Chinese cultural and religious influence such as Chinese New Year, the "Chinese god", Chinese motifs like the dragon, spirals and material goods like agriculture, heating, iron cooking pots and cotton spread among the Amur natives like the Udeghes and Nanais. Russian Cossack expeditions led by Vassili Poyarkov and Yerofey Khabarov explored the Amur and its tributaries in 1643–44 and 1649–51, respectively; the Cossacks established the fort of Albazin on the upper Amur, at the site of the former capital of the Solons. At the time, the Manchus were busy with conquering the region.