History of Bengal
The history of Bengal is intertwined with the history of the broader Indian subcontinent and the surrounding regions of South Asia and Southeast Asia. It includes modern-day Bangladesh and the Indian states of West Bengal and Assam's Barak Valley, located in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent, at the apex of the Bay of Bengal and dominated by the fertile Ganges delta; the advancement of civilisation in Bengal dates back four millennia. The region was known to Romans as Gangaridai; the Ganges and the Brahmaputra rivers act as a geographic marker of the region, but connects the region to the broader Indian subcontinent. Bengal, at times, has played an important role in the history of the Indian subcontinent; the area's early history featured a succession of Indian empires, internal squabbling, a tussle between Hinduism and Buddhism for dominance. Ancient Bengal was the site of several major Janapadas, while the earliest cities date back to the Vedic period. A thalassocracy and an entrepôt of the historic Silk Road, Ancient Bengal established colonies on Indian Ocean islands and in Southeast Asia.
The region was part including the Mauryans and Guptas. It was a bastion of regional kingdoms; the citadel of Gauda served as capital of the Gauda Kingdom, the Buddhist Pala Empire and Hindu Sena Empire. This era saw the development of Bengali language, literature, music and architecture; the Muslim conquest of the Indian subcontinent absorbed Bengal into the medieval Islamic and Persianate worlds. Between the 1204 and 1352, Bengal was a province of the Delhi Sultanate; this era saw the introduction of the taka as monetary currency, which has endured into the modern era. An independent Bengal Sultanate was formed in 1352 and ruled the region for two centuries, during which a distinct form of Islam based on Sufism and the Bengali language emerged; the ruling elite turned Bengal into the easternmost haven of Indo-Persian culture. The Sultans exerted influence in the Arakan region of Southeast Asia, where Buddhist kings copied the sultanate's governance and fashion. A relationship with Ming China flourished under the sultanate.
The Bengal Sultanate was notable for its Hindu aristocracy, including the rise of Raja Ganesha and his son Jalaluddin Muhammad Shah as usurpers. Hindus served in the royal administration as prime poets. Under the patronage of Sultans like Alauddin Hussain Shah, Bengali literature began replacing the strong influence of Sanskrit in the region. Hindu principalities included the Koch Kingdom, Kingdom of Mallabhum, Kingdom of Bhurshut and Kingdom of Tripura. In the late 16th and early 17th centuries, Isa Khan, a Muslim Rajput chief, who led the Baro Bhuiyans, dominated the Bengal delta. Following the decline of the sultanate, Bengal came under the suzerainty of the Mughal Empire, as its wealthiest province. Under the Mughals, Bengal Subah generated 50% of the empire's gross domestic product and 12% of the world's GDP, According to economic historian Indrajit Ray, it was globally prominent in industries such as textile manufacturing and shipbuilding, with the capital Dhaka having a population exceeding a million people and being more wealthy than all European empires.
The gradual decline of the Mughal Empire led to quasi-independent states under the Nawabs of Bengal, subsequent Maratha expeditions in Bengal, the conquest by the British East India Company. The British took control of the region from the late 18th century; the company consolidated their hold on the region following the Battle of Plassey in 1757 and Battle of Buxar in 1764 and by 1793 took complete control of the region. The plunder of Bengal directly contributed to the Industrial Revolution in Britain, with the capital amassed from Bengal used to invest in British industries such as textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution and increase British wealth, while at the same time leading to deindustrialisation in Bengal. Kolkata served for many years as the capital of British controlled territories in India; the early and prolonged exposure to British administration resulted in the expansion of Western education, culminating in development of science, institutional education, social reforms in the region, including what became known as the Bengali renaissance.
A hotbed of the Indian independence movement through the early 20th century, Bengal was divided during India's independence in 1947 along religious lines into two separate entities: West Bengal—a state of India—and East Bengal—a part of the newly created Dominion of Pakistan that became the independent nation of Bangladesh in 1971. The exact origin of the word Bangla is unknown, though it is believed to be derived from the Dravidian-speaking tribe Bang/Banga that settled in the area around the year 1000 BCE. Other accounts speculate that the name is derived from Venga, which came from the Austric word "Bonga" meaning the Sun-god. According to the Mahabharata, the Puranas and the Harivamsha, Vanga was one of the adopted sons of King Vali who founded the Vanga Kingdom, it was either under Kalinga Rules except few years under Pals. The earliest reference to "Vangala" has been traced in the Nesari plates of Rashtrakuta Govinda III which speak of Dharmapala as the king of Vangala; the records of Rajendra Chola I of the Chola dynasty, who invaded Bengal in the 11th century, use the term Vangaladesa.
The term Bangalah is one of the precursors to the modern terms Bengal an
The Varman dynasty is the first historical dynasty of the Kamarupa kingdom. It was established by a contemporary of Samudragupta; this dynasty became vassals of the Gupta Empire, but as the power of the Guptas waned, Mahendravarman performed two horse sacrifices and threw off the imperial yoke. The first of the three Kamarupa dynasties, the Varmans were followed by the Mlechchha and the Pala dynasties; the genealogy of the Varman dynasty appears most in the Dubi and Nidhanpur copperplate inscription of the last Varman king, where Pushyavarman is named the founder. The Dubi copper plate inscription of Bhaskaravarman asserts that Pushyavarman was born in the family of Naraka and Vajradatta three thousand years after these mythical ancestors; the middle or Mlechha dynasty, though claim same descent, are native tribal rulers. K. L. Barua opines that there was a Mlechha revolt in Kamarupa and Salastambha, the leader or governor of the Mlecchas usurped the throne by deposing Bhaskaravarman's immediate successor Avantivarman.
The dynasty traces its lineage from Naraka. The exact ethnic genealogy of Naraka is in dispute, with authors such as N N Vasu and K L Barua claiming he was Dravidian, whereas authors like P C Choudhury consider him to be of Alpine origin. Since the claim to Naraka's lineage was made at the end of the Varman dynasty. Historical documents and legends are contradictory on the ethnicity of this dynasty. Naraka, according to an early account was the son of an asura named Bhumi. In the late 10th-century Kalika Purana, Naraka is said to be the son of Vishnu in his Varaha form and Bhumi, who grew up in household of Janaka; the Kalika Purana goes on to describe two Narakas: one, religious and the other, hostile to Brahminism. The relationship of Bhagadatta mentioned as an ancestor of the Varmans, with Naraka is not clear from legendary sources either: Bhagadatta is called a grandson, a son or not specified at all. In the Mahabharata, a much earlier text, the son of Naraka is mentioned as Mleccha, an appellation used sometimes for degraded Aryans, non-Aryans and foreigners, such as Hunas.
All three Kamarupa dynasties draw their lineage from Bhagadatta and Vajradatta. Xuanzang, a Chinese traveler who stayed in Kamarupa for three months termed Bhaskaravarman a Brahmana king who originated with Narayana Deva. Lévi Sylvain wrote, when Bhaskaravarman had business with others than Indians, the same prince boasted of another origin altogether. Bhaskaravarman told She-Kia-Fang-Che that his ancestors hailed from China, four thousand years ago, flying through the air as the holy spirit; as though he would show sympathy for China, he asked the envoy to get him a portrait of Lao-tseu and a Sanskrit translation of the Tao-to-king. There are oral stories among the Hajong people, a tribe of Kachari origin, that their ancestral home was Hajo. Padanku was their first king and Bhaskar Varman was the last king. After his death, the Hajongs had settled in the plains and foothills of Garo Hills. Many scholars have opined that the Varman dynasty is of Indo-Aryan descent, overthrown by Salastambha of Mongoloid origin, who made himself the king of Kamarupa.
Suniti Kumar Chatterjee calls Bhaskaravarman a mleccha king, Mukunda Madhava Sharma considers all the dynasties of Kamarupa as of Aryan origin. Urban terms all kings of Brahmaputra Valley as non-Aryans. Kanak Lal Barua asserts; the most illustrious of this dynasty was the last, who claimed be a descendant from god Vishnu and referred to as "lord of eastern India". He accompanied King Harshavardhana to religious processions from Pataliputra to Kannauj. Kings of Varman dynasty maintained both diplomatic and matrimonial relations with other countries of Aryavarta. Pushyavarman who himself named after king Pushyamitra Shunga, named his son Samudravarman after king Samudragupta in appreciations of kings of Aryavarta. King Balavarman organised Swayamvara for his daughter Amrita Prabha. Princess has chosen the prince of Kashmir Meghavahana as her groom; the alliance between king Harsha of Thanesar and Bhaskaravarman lead to spread of political influence of to entire eastern India. In the Nidhanpur plate of Bhaskaravarman the genealogy of all rulers of dynasty mentioned therein is traced from Naraka and Vajradatta.
Chinese traveller designated the rulers of this dynasty as Brahmins
Nabadwip is a city and a municipality in Nadia district in the Indian state of West Bengal. It is a holy place. Located on the western bank of the Hooghly River, it is considered to have been founded in 1063 AD, served as the old capital of the Sena dynasty. A center of learning and philosophy in medieval India, the city is still noted for its traditional Sanskrit schools; the Navya Nyaya school of logic reached its peak with the efforts of some well known contemporary philosophers of Nabadwip. The great Vaishnava saint, social reformer and an important figure of the Bhakti movement, Chaitanya Mahaprabhu was born here, for whose sake, this place has turned into an important center of pilgrimage for the Vaishnavs worldwide as well as the Hindus in general. Many devotees who adhere to the Gaudiya Vaishnavism come to Nabadwip for pilgrimage on the auspicious occasion of the Birthday celebration of Shri Mahaprabhu on the Phalguni Purnima, for various festivals in relation to Leelas of Shri Mahaprabhu like Sri Nabadwip-mandala Parikrama and other festivities like Dol yatra, Ras purnima Gaura-purnima.
The Bhagirathi river flowed down the west of Nabadwip in the past, forming a natural boundary between the districts of Purba Bardhaman and Nadia. With time it has shifted its course to where it is at present, cutting the city off from the rest of the Nadia district. Prior to Gour, Nabadwip was the capital of Sena dynasty during the reigns of Ballal Sen and Lakshman Sen, they ruled Bengal from here in the period from 1159 to 1206. In 1202, Nabadwip was invaded by Bakhtiyar Khilji who plundered Nabadwip; the Lakshman Sen, the old King, being afraid left the Capital. This victory paved the way for Muslim rule in Bengal. Nabadwip and Nadia were great centres of learning and intellectual prowess. For five centuries, it was referred to as "Oxford of East"; the name of the city is derived from the conjugation of the Bengali words /naba/ and /dwipa/ meaning New-island. In the down stream of the river Ganga, the alluvial deposits carried over during its course that starts at the Himalayas, were deposited, forming a new island, present day's Nabadwip.
The name Nabadwip and Nadia has the same connotation of the same geographical location flanked at west and north by the Ganga at earlier times. The claim that the name Nabadwip refers to an area comprising nine islets has no ground. There are many historical references in this respect; the misconception around the nomenclature of the name "Nabadwip" arose since the publication of the book "Bhakti Ratnakar" of Narahari Chakraborty. Narahari Chakraborty's claim, however, is not supportable from the perspective of geographical definition of the term Island, he might have made-up the idea of "nine islands" since "naba" in Bengali means'nine'. Hence "Nabadwip" i.e. nine islands, namely Antardwip, Rudradwip, Godrumdwip, Jahnudwip and Koladwip. However again, it is to mention that all these islands are loosely scattered over a vast geographical area that the Historians do not approve of the idea as being "Nabadwip". Bablari Dewanganj Char Brahmanagar Char Maijdia Gadigachha Majdia Nabadwip and Tiorkhali In the 2011 census, Nabadwip Urban Agglomeration had a population of 175,474, out of which 90,810 were males and 84,664 were females.
The 0–6 years population was 8,388. In education section, total literates in Nabadwip city are 102,793 of which 55,569 are males while 47,224 are females. Average literacy rate of Nabadwip city is 87.75 percent of which male and female literacy was 91.14 and 84.07 percent. Total children in Nabadwip city are 8,388 as per figure from Census India report on 2011. There were 4,329 boys; the child forms 6.68% of total population of Nabadwip City. As of 2001 India census, Nabadwip had a population of 115,036. Males constitute 51% of the population and females 49%. Nabadwip has an average literacy rate of 75%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 80%, female literacy is 70%. In Nabadwip, 9% of the population is under 6 years of age. Hinduism is majority religion in Nabadwip city with 98.97% followers. Islam is second most popular religion in city of Nabadwip with 0.79% following it. In Nabadwip city, Christianity is followed by 0.04%, Jainism by 0.00%, Sikhism by 0.01% and Buddhism by 0.00%.
Around 0.01% stated Other Religion 0.18% stated No Particular Religion. Nabadwip police station has jurisdiction over Nabadwip municipality and Nabadwip CD Block; the total area covered by the police station is 102.94 km2 and the population covered is 260,843. There are a total of 18 high and higher secondary schools in Nabadwip, Notables among them are Nabadwip Bakultala High School, Nabadwip Hindu School,Nabadwip Siksha Mandir, R. C. B Saraswatmandir, Jatiya Vidyalaya, Tarasundari Girls High School, Nabadwip Bakultala Girls High School, Nabadwip Balika Vidyalaya,Sudarshan High School and Techno India School e.t.c There is a college namely Nabadwip Vidyasagar College affiliated under University of Kalyani. In summer, i.e. from April to June, the weather remains hot and temperature ranges from maximum of 35 °C to minimum of 26 °C. Monsoon season prevails during beginning-June to mid-September. Retrieving monsoon from mid-October till mid-NovemberThe weather is quite pleasant, the summers and winters are moderate.
The level of moisture increases during summers. There are a number of medical associations- Nabadwip Homœo Study circle Indian Medical Association &c. Festivals which are popular in Nabadwip Pohela Boishakh or Bangla Ne
The Ganesha dynasty began with Raja Ganesha in 1414, from the Bengal region of the Indian subcontinent. After Raja Ganesha seized control over Bengal, he faced an imminent threat of invasion. Ganesha appealed to a powerful Muslim holy man named Qutb al Alam to stop the threat; the saint agreed on the condition that Raja Ganesha's son, would convert to Islam and rule in his place. Raja Ganesha agreed and Jadu started ruling Bengal as Jalaluddin Muhammad Shah in 1415. Qutb al Alam died in 1416 and Raja Ganesha was emboldened to depose his son and return to the throne as Danujamarddana Deva. Jalaluddin was reconverted to Hinduism by the Golden Cow ritual. After the death of his father Jalaluddin started ruling again. Jalaluddin's son, Shamsuddin Ahmad Shah ruled for only 3 years due to anarchy; the dynasty is known for its liberal policies as well as its focus on justice and charity
The Sena Empire was a Hindu dynasty during the Late Classical period on the Indian subcontinent, that ruled from Bengal through the 11th and 12th centuries. The empire at its peak covered much of the north-eastern region of the Indian subcontinent; the rulers of the Sena Dynasty traced their origin to the south Indian region of Karnataka. The dynasty's founder was Samanta Sena. After him came Hemanta Sena who usurped power and styled himself king in 1095 AD, his successor Vijaya Sena helped lay the foundations of the dynasty, had an unusually long reign of over 60 years. Ballala Sena conquered Gaur from the Pala, became the ruler of the Bengal Delta, made Nabadwip the capital as well. Ballala Sena married Ramadevi a princess of the Western Chalukya Empire which indicates that the Sena rulers maintained close social contact with south India. Lakshmana Sena succeeded Ballala Sena in 1179, ruled Bengal for 20 years, expanded the Sena Empire to Assam, Bihar and to Varanasi. In 1203–1204 AD, the Turkic general Bakhtiyar Khalji attacked Nabadwip.
Khalji defeated Lakshman Sen and captured northwest Bengal – although Eastern Bengal remained under Sena control. The political space after the decline of the Pala power in Bengal was occupied by the Senas whose king Vijayasena succeeded in conquering a large part of Pala territory; the Senas were the supporters of orthodox Hinduism. The dynasty traces its origin to the Western Chalukya Empire of southern India. Theres is a record of a Western Chalukya invasion during the reign of Someshvara I led by his son Vikramaditya VI who defeated the kings of Gauda and Kamarupa; this invasion of the Kannada ruler brought bodies of his countrymen from Karnataka into Bengal which explains the origin of the Sena Dynasty. The founder of the Sena rule was Samantasena who described himself as a Brahma-Kshatriya of Karnataka, he himself stated that he fought the outlaws of Karnataka and turned an ascetic. The inscriptions of the Sena kings mention them as Kshatriyas. Sources have identified them with the Vaidya and they married with and were identified with the Bengali Vaidyas in Vaidya Kula-panjikas.
Sena Dynasty had ruled Bengal for little over a century. The emergence of the dynasty, which supplanted the Palas in Bengal towards the close of 11th century A. D. had constituted a significant epoch in the history of ancient India. Taking advantage of the revolt of Samantachakra in Varendra during the reign of Mahipala II, founder of the Sena dynasty consolidated his position in western Bengal and assumed an independent position during the reign of Madanapala. One important aspect of Sena rule in Bengal is that the whole territory of Bengal was brought under a single rule for the first time, it is impossible to provide definite information to the question as to how the family entered Bengal. The Sena records are amazingly silent about this; the Sena kings claim in their own inscriptions. Their remote ancestor was one Virasena; the "Deopara Inscription" of the Senas traces the Sena ancestry from Virasena. Since there are no authentic records available still, a keen controversy prevails among scholars regarding origin of the Senas.
Like the origin of the Senas, their early history or circumstances, which led them to concentrate in Bengal is still unknown. It has been presumed by historians that the Senas came to Bengal on the eve of the invading army led by the Chalukya kings Vikramaditya VI and Someswara III; some scholars have suggested that when Rajendra Chola's army had invaded Bengal, the Senas had accompanied them. According to some other historians, a few Karnataka officials, who were subordinate to the Pala kings, had established their independent kingdom in the region of Radha, taking advantage of the weakness of the Pala powers; those Karnataka chiefs might have arrived in Bengal in wake of the Chalukya invasion and had settled into a kingdom of their own. According to historians Samantasena was such a chief who had established his independent kingdom in the Radha region of Bengal. Samantasena was a scion of the Sena family, who had distinguished himself through various warfares in South India, he had settled in Radha at an old age.
He had laid the foundation of the Sena family in Bengal. His son Hemantasena carved out an important kingdom in Radha, taking advantage of the decline of the Pala Empire. From their base in Radha, the Senas extended their powers over the whole of Bengal. A copperplate was found in the Adilpur or Edilpur pargana of Faridpur District in 1838 A. D. and was acquired by the Asiatic Society of Bengal, but now the copperplate is missing from collection. An account of the copperplate was published in the Dacca Epigraphic Indica; the copperplate inscription is written in Sanskrit and in Ganda character, dated 3rd jyaistha of 1136 samval, or 1079 A. D. In the Asiatic Society's proceeding for January 1838, an account of the copperplate states that three villages were given to a Brahman in the third year of Keshava Sena; the grant was given with the landlord rights, which include the power of punishing the chandrabhandas or Sundarbans, a race that lived in the forest. The land was granted in the village of Leliya in the Kumaratalaka mandala, situated in shatata-padamavati-visaya.
The copperplate of Keshava Sena records that the king Vallala Sena car
Sanskrit is a language of ancient India with a history going back about 3,500 years. It is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism and the predominant language of most works of Hindu philosophy as well as some of the principal texts of Buddhism and Jainism. Sanskrit, in its variants and numerous dialects, was the lingua franca of ancient and medieval India. In the early 1st millennium CE, along with Buddhism and Hinduism, Sanskrit migrated to Southeast Asia, parts of East Asia and Central Asia, emerging as a language of high culture and of local ruling elites in these regions. Sanskrit is an Old Indo-Aryan language; as one of the oldest documented members of the Indo-European family of languages, Sanskrit holds a prominent position in Indo-European studies. It is related to Greek and Latin, as well as Hittite, Old Avestan and many other extinct languages with historical significance to Europe, West Asia, Central Asia, South Asia, it traces its linguistic ancestry to the Proto-Indo-Aryan language, Proto-Indo-Iranian and the Proto-Indo-European languages.
Sanskrit is traceable to the 2nd millennium BCE in a form known as the Vedic Sanskrit, with the Rigveda as the earliest known composition. A more refined and standardized grammatical form called the Classical Sanskrit emerged in mid-1st millennium BCE with the Aṣṭādhyāyī treatise of Pāṇini. Sanskrit, though not Classical Sanskrit, is the root language of many Prakrit languages. Examples include numerous modern daughter Northern Indian subcontinental languages such as Hindi, Bengali and Nepali; the body of Sanskrit literature encompasses a rich tradition of philosophical and religious texts, as well as poetry, drama, scientific and other texts. In the ancient era, Sanskrit compositions were orally transmitted by methods of memorisation of exceptional complexity and fidelity; the earliest known inscriptions in Sanskrit are from the 1st-century BCE, such as the few discovered in Ayodhya and Ghosundi-Hathibada. Sanskrit texts dated to the 1st millennium CE were written in the Brahmi script, the Nāgarī script, the historic South Indian scripts and their derivative scripts.
Sanskrit is one of the 22 languages listed in the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution of India. It continues to be used as a ceremonial and ritual language in Hinduism and some Buddhist practices such as hymns and chants; the Sanskrit verbal adjective sáṃskṛta- is a compound word consisting of sam and krta-. It connotes a work, "well prepared and perfect, sacred". According to Biderman, the perfection contextually being referred to in the etymological origins of the word is its tonal qualities, rather than semantic. Sound and oral transmission were valued quality in ancient India, its sages refined the alphabet, the structure of words and its exacting grammar into a "collection of sounds, a kind of sublime musical mold", states Biderman, as an integral language they called Sanskrit. From late Vedic period onwards, state Annette Wilke and Oliver Moebus, resonating sound and its musical foundations attracted an "exceptionally large amount of linguistic and religious literature" in India; the sound was visualized as "pervading all creation", another representation of the world itself, the "mysterious magnum" of the Hindu thought.
The search for perfection in thought and of salvation was one of the dimensions of sacred sound, the common thread to weave all ideas and inspirations became the quest for what the ancient Indians believed to be a perfect language, the "phonocentric episteme" of Sanskrit. Sanskrit as a language competed with numerous less exact vernacular Indian languages called Prakritic languages; the term prakrta means "original, normal, artless", states Franklin Southworth. The relationship between Prakrit and Sanskrit is found in the Indian texts dated to the 1st millennium CE. Patanjali acknowledged that Prakrit is the first language, one instinctively adopted by every child with all its imperfections and leads to the problems of interpretation and misunderstanding; the purifying structure of the Sanskrit language removes these imperfections. The early Sanskrit grammarian Dandin states, for example, that much in the Prakrit languages is etymologically rooted in Sanskrit but involve "loss of sounds" and corruptions that result from a "disregard of the grammar".
Dandin acknowledged that there are words and confusing structures in Prakrit that thrive independent of Sanskrit. This view is found in the writing of the author of the ancient Natyasastra text; the early Jain scholar Namisadhu acknowledged the difference, but disagreed that the Prakrit language was a corruption of Sanskrit. Namisadhu stated that the Prakrit language was the purvam and they came to women and children, that Sanskrit was a refinement of the Prakrit through a "purification by grammar". Sanskrit belongs to the Indo-European family of languages, it is one of the three ancient documented languages that arose from a common root language now referred to as the Proto-Indo-European language: Vedic Sanskrit. Mycenaean Greek and Ancient Greek. Mycenaean Greek is the older recorded form of Greek, but the limited material that has survived has a ambiguous writing system. More important to Indo-European studies is Ancient Greek, documented extensively beginning with the two Homeric poems. Hittite.
This is the earliest-recorded of all Indo-European languages, distinguishable into Old Hittite, Middle Hittite and Neo-Hittite. I
Harikela was a kingdom in ancient Bengal in the eastern Indian Subcontinent. There are numerous references to the kingdom in historical texts as well as archeological artifacts including silver coinage; the location of Harikela remains unclear. There is a debate over whether the kingdom was located in what are now the Sylhet Division and Chittagong Division of Bangladesh; the kingdom fell within the larger geopolitical division of Samatata. Its capital was near Chittagong before being moved to Bikrampur by the Chandra dynasty. Arab traders recognised Harikela as the coastal regions of Bengal as well as Sylhet; the kingdom may have extended to the Sundarbans. Majumdar, Ramesh Chandra; the History of Bengal. Dacca: B. R. Publishing. Pp. 16–18, 134–135. ISBN 81-7646-237-3. Singh, Nagendra Kr.. Encyclopaedia of Bangladesh. Anmol Publications Pvt Ltd. ISBN 81-261-1390-1. Rashid, M Harunar. "Harikela". In Islam, Sirajul. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh