A senate is a deliberative assembly the upper house or chamber of a bicameral legislature. The name comes from the ancient Roman Senate, so-called as an assembly of the senior and therefore wiser and more experienced members of the society or ruling class. Thus, the literal meaning of the word "senate" is Assembly of Elders. Many countries have an assembly named a senate, composed of senators who may be elected, have inherited the title, or gained membership by other methods, depending on the country. Modern senates serve to provide a chamber of "sober second thought" to consider legislation passed by a lower house, whose members are elected. Most senates have asymmetrical duties and powers compared with their respective lower house meaning they have special duties, for example to fill important political positions or to pass special laws. Conversely many senates have limited powers in changing or stopping bills under consideration and efforts to stall or veto a bill may be bypassed by the lower house or another branch of government.
The modern word Senate is derived from the Latin word senātus, which comes from senex,'old man'. The members or legislators of a senate are called senators; the Latin word senator was adopted into English with no change in spelling. Its meaning is derived from a ancient form of social organization, in which advisory or decision-making powers are reserved for the eldest men. For the same reason, the word senate is used when referring to any powerful authority characteristically composed by the eldest members of a community, as a deliberative body of a faculty in an institution of higher learning is called a senate; this form adaptation was used to show the power of those in body and for the decision-making process to be thorough, which could take a long period of time. The original senate was the Roman Senate, which lasted until at least AD 603, although various efforts to revive it were made in Medieval Rome. In the Eastern Roman Empire, the Byzantine Senate continued until the Fourth Crusade, circa 1202–1204.
Modern democratic states with bicameral parliamentary systems are sometimes equipped with a senate distinguished from an ordinary parallel lower house, known variously as the "House of Representatives", "House of Commons", "Chamber of Deputies", "National Assembly", "Legislative Assembly", or "House of Assembly", by electoral rules. This may include minimum age required for voters and candidates, proportional or majoritarian or plurality system, an electoral basis or collegium; the senate is referred to as the upper house and has a smaller membership than the lower house. In some federal states senates exist at the subnational level. In the United States all states with the exception of Nebraska have a senate. There is the US Senate at the federal level. In Argentina, in addition to the Senate at federal level, eight of the country's provinces, Buenos Aires, Corrientes, Entre Ríos, Salta, San Luis and Santa Fe, have bicameral legislatures with a Senate. Córdoba and Tucumán changed to unicameral systems in 2003 respectively.
In Australia and Canada, only the upper house of the federal parliament is known as the Senate. All Australian states other than Queensland have an upper house known as a Legislative council. Several Canadian provinces once had a Legislative Council, but these have all been abolished, the last being Quebec's Legislative council in 1968. In Germany, the last Senate of a State parliament, the Senate of Bavaria, was abolished in 1999. Senate membership can be determined either through appointments. For example, elections are held every three years for half the membership of the Senate of the Philippines, the term of a senator being six years. In contrast, members of the Canadian Senate are appointed by the Governor General upon the recommendation of the Prime Minister of Canada, holding the office until they resign, are removed, or retire at the mandatory age of 75; the terms senate and senator, however, do not refer to a second chamber of a legislature: The Senate of Finland was, until 1918, the executive branch and the supreme court.
The Senate of Latvia fulfilled a similar judicial function during the interbellum. In German politics:In the Bundesländer of Germany which form a City State, i.e. Berlin and Hamburg, the senates are the executive branch, with senators being the holders of ministerial portfolios. In a number of cities which were former members of the Hanse, such as Greifswald, Lübeck, Stralsund, or Wismar, the city government is called a Senate. However, in Bavaria, the Senate was a second legislative chamber until its abolition in 1999. In German jurisdiction:The term Senat in higher courts of appeal refers to the "bench" in its broader metonymy meaning, describing members of the judiciary collectively occupied with a particular subject-matter jurisdiction. However, the judges are not called "senators"; the German term Strafsenat in a German court translates to Bench of penal-law jurisdiction and Zivilsenat to Bench of private-law jurisdiction. The Federal Constitutional Court of Germany consists of two senates of eight judges each.
In its case the division is of an organizational nature
Damien Moore is a British Conservative Party politician. He is the Member of a former Councillor on Preston City Council, he was elected in the 2017 general election with a majority of 2,914 votes, taking a seat held by Liberal Democrat John Pugh until his retirement. Moore was born in Workington in Cumbria, he studied history at the University of Central Lancashire. After graduating, he worked in various roles in the retail sector, gaining promotion to be a retail manager for Asda, he was first elected as a councillor for the Conservative Party on Preston City Council on 3 May 2010 for the Greyfriars Ward. Although the vote share for the Conservatives fell, he won by a large majority, he was re-elected with an increased majority on 5 May 2016. He has served as deputy leader of the Conservative group on the Council and as Chairman of the Preston Conservative Association, he unsuccessfully stood as the Conservative candidate in the Preston West division in the Lancashire County Council elections in 2013 and 2017.
Moore stood unsuccessfully as the Conservative candidate for Southport in the 2015 general election, losing to the incumbent Liberal Democrat John Pugh. After Pugh declined to stand again, Moore achieved a swing of 7.6% from the Liberal Democrats to take the Southport in the 2017 general election, becoming the first Conservative MP for the seat since 1997 and the first gay MP in the seat's history. The election left him as the only Conservative MP on Merseyside. In advance of the 2018 Preston City Council election, Moore resigned as a city councillor. Moore has voted for cutting ties with the EU since becoming an MP. On 11 September 2017, Damien Moore was appointed to the Petitions Committee; the committee assists members of the public in raising issues directly. Since January 2018 he has served on the Science and Technology Committee. Moore lives in Southport, he is gay. Profile at Parliament of the United Kingdom Contributions in Parliament at Hansard Voting record at Public Whip Record in Parliament at TheyWorkForYou Profile at Preston City Council
The Girl from Monaco is a 2008 French comedy-drama film directed by Anne Fontaine. The film stars Fabrice Luchini, Roschdy Zem, Louise Bourgoin, Stéphane Audran. Middle-aged and successful lawyer Bertrand Beauvois is hired by Monaco businessman Louis Lassalle to defend his mother Édith Lassalle, who has killed her former lover. Lassalle assigns a bodyguard to Christophe Abadi. Audrey Varella, a beautiful but promiscuous local TV weather girl whose previous lovers include Christophe, enamors Beauvois, hoping to make a better life with him; this despite the warnings of Christophe to Beauvois, who have formed a bond of friendship, to stay away from her. Audrey spends all her time with Beauvois, including nights of exhausting wild sex, Beauvois entreats Christophe to make her disappear from his life, he continues to the court for his final plead in the Lassalle case. After having sex with her, Christophe kills her. Beauvois willingly takes the blame. In one of the last scenes, we see Mrs. Lassalle being freed from prison after only one year of imprisonment while Beauvois remains among the inmates.
Fabrice Luchini as Bertrand Beauvois Roschdy Zem as Christophe Abadi Louise Bourgoin as Audrey Varella Stéphane Audran as Édith Lassalle Jeanne Balibar as Hélène Gilles Cohen as Louis Lassalle Alexandre Steiger as Alain Philippe Duclos as Inspector Taurand Christophe Vandevelde as Tony César Awards Nominated: Best Actor – Supporting Role Nominated: Most Promising Actress The Girl from Monaco on IMDb