The Sengoku period is a period in Japanese history marked by social upheaval, political intrigue and near-constant military conflict. Japanese historians named it after the otherwise unrelated Warring States period of China, it was initiated by the Ōnin War, which collapsed the Japanese feudal system under the Ashikaga shogunate, came to an end when the system was re-established under the Tokugawa shogunate by Tokugawa Ieyasu. During this period, although the Emperor of Japan was the ruler of his nation and every lord swore loyalty to him, he was a marginalized and religious figure who delegated power to the shōgun, a noble, equivalent to a general. In the years preceding this era, the shogunate lost influence and control over the daimyōs. Although the Ashikaga shogunate had retained the structure of the Kamakura shogunate and instituted a warrior government based on the same social economic rights and obligations established by the Hōjō with the Jōei Code in 1232, it failed to win the loyalty of many daimyōs those whose domains were far from the capital, Kyoto.
Many of these lords began to fight uncontrollably with each other for control over land and influence over the shogunate. As trade with Ming China grew, the economy developed, the use of money became widespread as markets and commercial cities appeared. Combined with developments in agriculture and small-scale trading, this led to the desire for greater local autonomy throughout all levels of the social hierarchy; as early as the beginning of the 15th century, the suffering caused by earthquakes and famines served to trigger armed uprisings by farmers weary of debt and taxes. The Ōnin War, a conflict rooted in economic distress and brought on by a dispute over shogunal succession, is regarded as the onset of the Sengoku period; the "eastern" army of the Hosokawa family and its allies clashed with the "western" army of the Yamana. Fighting in and around Kyoto lasted for nearly 11 years, leaving the city completely destroyed; the conflict in Kyoto spread to outlying provinces. The period culminated with a series of three warlords, Oda Nobunaga, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, Tokugawa Ieyasu, who unified Japan.
After Tokugawa Ieyasu's final victory at the siege of Osaka in 1615, Japan settled down into over two-hundred years of peace under the Tokugawa shogunate. The Ōnin War in 1467 is considered the starting point of the Sengoku period. There are several events which could be considered the end of it: Nobunaga's entry to Kyoto or abolition of the Muromachi shogunate, the Siege of Odawara, the Battle of Sekigahara, the establishment of the Tokugawa Shogunate, or the Siege of Osaka; the upheaval resulted in the further weakening of central authority, throughout Japan, regional lords, called daimyōs, rose to fill the vacuum. In the course of this power shift, well-established clans such as the Takeda and the Imagawa, who had ruled under the authority of both the Kamakura and Muromachi bakufu, were able to expand their spheres of influence. There were many, whose positions eroded and were usurped by more capable underlings; this phenomenon of social meritocracy, in which capable subordinates rejected the status quo and forcefully overthrew an emancipated aristocracy, became known as gekokujō, which means "low conquers high".
One of the earliest instances of this was Hōjō Sōun, who rose from humble origins and seized power in Izu Province in 1493. Building on the accomplishments of Sōun, the Hōjō clan remained a major power in the Kantō region until its subjugation by Toyotomi Hideyoshi late in the Sengoku period. Other notable examples include the supplanting of the Hosokawa clan by the Miyoshi, the Toki by the Saitō, the Shiba clan by the Oda clan, in turn replaced by its underling, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, a son of a peasant with no family name. Well-organized religious groups gained political power at this time by uniting farmers in resistance and rebellion against the rule of the daimyōs; the monks of the Buddhist True Pure Land sect formed numerous Ikkō-ikki, the most successful of which, in Kaga Province, remained independent for nearly 100 years. After nearly a century of political instability and warfare, Japan was on the verge of unification by Oda Nobunaga, who had emerged from obscurity in the province of Owari to dominate central Japan.
In 1582, Oda was assassinated by one of his generals, Akechi Mitsuhide, allowed Toyotomi Hideyoshi the opportunity to establish himself as Oda's successor after rising through the ranks from ashigaru to become one of Oda's most trusted generals. Toyotomi consolidated his control over the remaining daimyōs but ruled as Kampaku as his common birth excluded him from the title of Sei-i Taishōgun. During his short reign as Kampaku, Toyotomi attempted two invasions of Korea; the first attempt, spanning from 1592 to 1596, was successful but suffered setbacks and ended in a stalemate. The second attempt began in 1597 but was less successful as the Koreans and their Ming Chinese allies were prepared from their first encounter. In 1598, Toyotomi called for retreat from Korea prior to his death. Without leaving a capable successor, the country was once again thrust into political turmoil, Tokugawa Ieyasu took advantage of the opportunity. On his deathbed, Toyotomi appointed a group of the most powerful lords in Japan—Tokugawa, Maeda Toshiie, Ukita Hideie, Uesugi Kagekatsu, Mōri Terumoto—to govern as the Council of Five Regents until his infant son, came of age.
An uneasy peace lasted until
Lucas Gomes da Silva, known as Lucas Gomes, was a Brazilian footballer who played for Chapecoense as a forward. Lucas Gomes was one of the victims when LaMia Airlines Flight 2933 crashed on 28 November 2016. Born in Bragança, Pará, Lucas Gomes made his senior debuts with Bragantino Clube do Pará in 2010. After representing clubs in his native state, he signed for Londrina on 4 May 2013. On 18 September 2013 Lucas Gomes was loaned to Sampaio Corrêa in Série C, achieving promotion with the club, he returned to Londrina in December, appearing with the side in Campeonato Paranaense, moved to Icasa on 11 July 2014 in a temporary deal. Lucas Gomes made his professional debut on 8 August 2014, coming on as a second-half substitute for Vanger in a 2–0 home win against América-MG for the Série B championship, he scored his first goal in the competition on 12 September, netting the first in a 1–1 home draw against Joinville, finished the year with 22 appearances and six goals. On 23 December 2014 Lucas Gomes was loaned to Fluminense for a year.
He made his Série A debut the following 17 May, replacing Vinícius in a 1–4 away loss against Atlético Mineiro. Lucas Gomes' first goal in the top tier occurred on 2 July 2015, the winner in a 2–1 home success over Santos, he featured. On 4 January 2016 he moved to fellow league team Chapecoense, after agreeing to a one-year loan deal. On 28 November 2016, whilst at the service of Chapecoense, Lucas Gomes was among the fatalities of the LaMia Airlines Flight 2933 accident in the Colombian village of Cerro Gordo, La Unión, Antioquia; as of 27 November 2016 IcasaCopa Fares Lopes: 2014ChapecoenseCampeonato Catarinense: 2016 Copa Sudamericana: 2016 Lucas Gomes at Soccerway
The State News is the student newspaper of Michigan State University in East Lansing, Michigan. It is supported by a combination of advertising revenue and a $7.50 refundable tax that students pay at each semester's matriculation. Though The State News is supported by a student tax, the faculty and administration do not interfere in the paper's content; the State News is governed by a Board of Directors, which comprises journalism professionals and students. In 2010, the Princeton Review ranked The State News as the #8 best college newspaper in the country, and in 2015, the Society of Professional Journalists named TSN as the nation's best daily college newspaper for 2014. The State News traces its roots to March 10, 1909, it was first dubbed The Holcad, chosen by the president of the then-Michigan Agricultural College. Holcad was the name of a ship; the newspaper was seen as a way for students to defend themselves against charges of hooliganism by the Lansing press. In 1925, the newspaper changed its name to the Michigan State News.
This got clipped to The State News. The paper was overseen by a university-run publications board. In 1971, the newspaper was spun off from the university into a nonprofit corporation, State News Inc. governed by its own board of directors. The move was designed to protect the student publication from interference by university administrators who might disagree with its content, its incorporation protected the university from liability of anything published in The State News. The newspaper's masthead references this, referring to the publication as "Michigan State University's Independent Voice." In August 2005, The State News moved its offices from the Student Services Building, where it had resided since the building's opening in 1957, to an off-campus location at 435 E. Grand River Ave. Prior to its location at the Student Services Building, the newspaper had its offices in the MSU Union. In August 2014, the newspaper switched from a broadsheet to a tabloid format, in April 2015 it ceased publishing a print edition each weekday during the school year shifting to the current weekly print format.
On election day, 1948, The State News, going to press at 7 a.m. became the only morning daily to place Harry S. Truman in the lead for president. In June 1950, the first issue of the summer edition of The State News carried an editorial critical of the Michigan Department of the American Legion's Boy's State program held on the Michigan State College campus. Several days June 25, North Korea invaded South Korea initiating the Korean War; the following Monday the state American Legion held its summer encampment and adopted a resolution calling for the suspension of The State News and the expelling of its student editor, Ron M. Linton; that week, Michigan State suspended further summer publication of the paper but declined to expel its editor. The school did, announce the appointment of a full-time college employee, William McIlrath, as director of the publication with authority over the paper's content, it was learned that the school had planned this action but used this incident as a rationale.
This culminated a period of six years—since the end of World War II—of increasing irritation of the school's administration by the independent attitude of the student journalists. Returning veterans were a significant portion of the paper's staff and, being several years older than students enrolled directly from high school and matured by war, they tended to exercise a more critical attitude toward campus events; this led to a series of articles and editorials about the difficulty had by African-American male students in getting haircuts, including the refusal of the Union's barber shop to service African-Americans. It published a series critical of the school's plan to require male cooperative residences to hire "house mothers"; the State News, to the administration's consternation, exposed the administration's efforts to block unionization of dining room and school service employees. When the local Congressman demanded in 1950 that Michigan State remove left-leaning economist Paul Douglas from its lecture series, the paper fought back in a series of editorials that resulted in the Congressman turning tail.
The State News was the first U. S. daily newspaper, commercial or student, to editorially criticize then-U. S. Senator Joseph McCarthy for his sweeping charges without proof of communist activities by a number of citizens. In November 1965, four State News editors resigned over the faculty adviser's and the lead editor's decision to spike a story involving Paul Schiff, who claimed he was denied re-admission to MSU for his political views. Internal controversies include a group of junior editors dissatisfied with the editor-in-chief starting a weekly newspaper, Campus Observer, in 1968; the following year, the managing editor took over the editorial reins in response to staff grumbling. In April 1977, a one-day newsroom staff walkout followed the board's appointment of the next top editor when the staff's recommendation was not picked. In 2000, The State News published Fetus-X which contained psychedelic pictures of Jesus breakdancing with dead babies. After protests from the Catholic League, The State News fired artists Eric Millikin and Casey Sorrow.
In 2003, an advertisement printed in the State News showed Palestinians celebrating in the street while Israelis lit candles and prayed. The advertisement's caption claimed that these were the reactions to the 9/11 terrorist attacks. Pro-Palestinian groups protested outside the MSU Student Services building and demanded that their student fees be refunded. On Veterans Da
Madventures is a Pakistani adaptation of the popular reality show Fear Factor. The first season of the series premiered on 22 February 2013 on ARY Digital, was presented by Pakistani television actor Ahsan Khan; the second season began airing on 1 August 2015, hosted by Pakistani Comedian and Actor Ahmad Ali Butt. Madventures originated as a 13-part series that aired on SET Asia in 2013. Season 1 was shot in Thailand. Six Pakistani and six Indian celebrities participated. In the second season, all celebrities were Pakistani. Season 1 was hosted by the television actor Ahsan Khan. Season 2 was hosted by Ahmed Ali Butt. Season 3 will be hosted by Mohib Mirza. Six Pakistani and six Indian celebrities are participating in the show. Mehwish Hayat & Sana NawazWinner Priyamvada Kant Mehwish Hayat Sana Nawaz Sana Askari Ayesha Toor Zeba Ali Madiha Iftikhar Priyamvada Kant Leena Jumani Priyal Gor Shafaq Naaz Melanie Pais Hritu Dudani Only Pakistani Celebrities are combinedly participating in the show. Contestants Taifoor Khan & Saima Azhar Daniyal Raheel & Farah Ali Danish Hayat & Mehwish Hayat Saim Ali & Natasha Ali Fakhar Imam & Sana Nawaz Kanwar Arsalan & Fatima Effendi Minhaj Ali Askari & Sana Askari Khurram Patras & Hina Altaf Khan Faiq Khan & Rahma Ali Nouman Javaid & Rubab Winners Danish Hayat & Mehwish Hayat Taifoor Khan & Saima Azhar Daniyal Raheel & Farah Ali Season 3 was hosted by Mohib Mirza started airing from 2 March 2018 on ARY Zindagi.
As with season 2, only Pakistani celebrated participated in the show. Faizan Shaikh and Maham Amir Fahad Shaikh and Mahi Baloch Aadi Khan and Anum Aqeel Taqi Ahmed and Anam Tanveer Salman Saqib Shaikh and Eshita Syed Sohail and Dua Malik Ayaz Samoo and Anoushay Abbasi Noman Habib and Sukynah Khan
George de Bothezat was a Russian American engineer and pioneer of helicopter flight. George de Bothezat was born in 1882 in Saint Petersburg, Russian Empire, to Alexander Botezat and Nadine Rabutowskaja, his father Alexander Il'ich Botezat belonged to a family of Bessarabian landlords, graduated from the department of history and philology of the Saint Petersburg University and worked in the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, first in Saint Petersburg and in Paris. Mother, Nadezhda L'vovna Rabutovskaya, belonged to Russian nobility. After the father's death in 1900, the family returned to Russia and settled in Kishinev, where the family friend and local manufacturer Egor Ryshkan-Derozhinsky supported the educational expenses of all three children: George and his sisters Vera and Nina. After graduating the School of Exact Sciences in Kishinev in 1902, he started attending the Kharkov Polytechnic Institute Montefiore Electrotechnical Institute in Liege and graduated as engineer from Kharkov Polytechnical in 1908.
He continued his postgraduate studies at the University of Göttingen and Humboldt University of Berlin, received, in 1911, his Ph. D. at Sorbonne, for a study of aircraft stability. In 1911, he joined the Faculty of Shipbuilding from the Saint Petersburg Polytechnical University, continued theoretical studies of flight along with Stephen Timoshenko, Alexey Lebedev and Alexander Vanderfleet, his scientific interests moved from general aerodynamic theory to applied studies of propellers. In 1914, de Bothezat accepted the position of director at the Polytechnical Institute in Novocherkassk, but the outbreak of World War I compelled him to return to Saint Petersburg and join the Technical Commission of the Imperial Russian Air Force. In 1915, de Bothezat published standard bombing tables for the Air Forces, in 1916 he was appointed chief of the Main Airfield in Saint Petersburg – Russia's first flight research facility, he managed the design team of the DEKA aircraft plant in Saint Petersburg, was credited with the design of a single-engined aircraft, tested in 1917.
In May 1918, with his homeland in the throes of the Russian Revolution, de Bothezat fled from the Bolsheviks to the United States. In June 1918, he was hired by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, he lectured at the Massachusetts Institute of the Columbia University. In 1921, the US Army Air Service hired de Bothezat to build a prototype helicopter; the quadrotor helicopter, known as the de Bothezat helicopter, was built by de Bothezat and Ivan Jerome in the hangars of Wright Field near Dayton, Ohio. The first flight turned out to be successful for a machine, built without prototyping. In 1922, their "flying octopus" flew many times, although and at low altitudes. In fact, its horizontal motion was induced by wind more than by the pilot's controls, he was granted US Patent number 1,749,471 for his design. The US Army, now more interested in autogyros, cancelled the underperforming project. De Bothezat returned to New York City and started his own business in making industrial fans, incorporated in 1926 as de Bothezat Impeller Company, Inc.
The company's axial fans were installed on US Navy cruisers, but this was as far as de Bothezat would go in dealing with the government. He continued publishing essays on topics ranging from flight dynamics to economics of the Great Depression, his 1936 book Back to Newton attacked Albert Einstein's theory of relativity and the whole world of contemporary academics "who are utterly unable to acquaint themselves with the subject". Einstein refuted de Bothezat's claim at a public lecture given by de Bothezat at Princeton on 15 June 1935, he worked for the film industry, designing mechanical special effects props for Dudley Murphy's The Love of Sunya. In 1938 de Bothezat returned to building helicopters, his new company was incorporated as Air-Screw Research Syndicate and renamed Helicopter Corporation of America. Boris Sergievsky, former test pilot of Sikorsky Aircraft, became de Bothezat's partner and test pilot. De Bothezat's new helicopter was a coaxial design, with the engine mounted between two rotors.
The first machine, SV-2, was built and tested on Roosevelt Field in 1938. However de Bothezat, designing a one-man "personal helicopter" for infantrymen, died before the SV-5 could be properly tested; the new machine crashed. National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. General theory of the steady motion of an airplane. National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics; the Depression, Its Real Causes and the Remedy. Economic Security League
Mary Elizabeth Garrett was an American suffragist and philanthropist. She was the youngest child and only daughter of John W. Garrett, a philanthropist and president of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. Well-known for her "coercive philanthropy," Mary Garrett donated money to start the Johns Hopkins University Medical School in 1893 on the condition that the school would accept female students "on the same terms as men." She founded the Bryn Mawr School, a private college-preparatory school for girls in Baltimore and generously donated to Bryn Mawr College of Pennsylvania with the requirement that her intimate friend, Martha Carey Thomas, be the president. Like many other suffragists of the nineteenth century, Garrett chose not to marry. In her years, she collaborated with her longtime friends, Susan B. Anthony and Anna Howard Shaw, to secure the right for women to vote in the United States. Mary Elizabeth Garrett was born in Baltimore, Maryland on March 5, 1854. Both of Mary's parents, John W. Garret and Rachel Ann Harrison, came from prominent and wealthy Baltimore families.
Mary was the only youngest child of John W. Garrett, she was the favored child of the family, her father said, "I wish Mary had been born a boy!" Purportedly because he felt that Mary's potential was being suppressed by social barriers against women at the time. Mary Garrett was raised in a wealthy household. After her father was elected president of B&O Railroad, the Garrets moved into a mansion in Mount Vernon Place. Although living in a luxurious house in the most prosperous part of Baltimore, Garrett had a lonely and unhappy childhood, her youngest brother was 5 years older than her, the age difference made it difficult for her to connect with her brothers. Moreover, according to her memoir, she had serious trouble with the bone of her right ankle until she received effective treatment at the spas of Cape May. Garrett learned about charitable works in her young age as both her parents and grandparents were involved in philanthropy. Furthermore, she eavesdropped on her father's conversations with famous politicians and businessmen at home, during the Civil War.
She was greatly influenced by other Maryland women, who offered significant assistance to Union soldiers during the Civil War by providing water and nursing care. Garrett went to Miss Kummer's school. At school, she met two lifelong friends, Julia Rebecca Rogers, nicknamed "Dolly" and Elizabeth King, nicknamed "Bessie." Both Dolly and Bessie were from well-known families associated with the Garrett family in Baltimore. Dolly was the daughter of a steel magnate and became the legal ward of John W. Garrett after her father's death. Bessie, from a famous Quaker family, was the daughter of an associate of Mary's father. Mary was excited about school life and enjoyed it, but she got bored because of her school's conservative stances toward girls' education; the school principal, who once had a good relationship with Mary, believed "in cultivation, not in college." The school restricted girls from studying science. In response to the restrictive school policy, the three girls formed their own study group to learn biological science, dissected a rat to everyone's horror.
Disappointed with the lackluster experiences of school education, Mary quit school at age seventeen and never returned to school in the following years. She preferred to read literary classics. With only self-education, she learned to speak fluent Italian and French and practiced German and Greek. Adolescence was not a period of happiness for Garrett, she felt uncomfortable with the Victorian expectations of women at the time and was uncomfortable with the attitude towards sex in her family. Every family member avoided sex-related topics on purpose, she had to teach herself about puberty. Garrett showed interests in business and managed her personal business matters by herself during this time period. Given a weekly allowance of five to ten dollars per week, she kept record of all expenses in her notebook. Besides, she kept all the letters including Julia and Elizabeth. Garrett kept a diary, given to her by the philanthropist and longtime friend of the Garret family, George Peabody, the respectable founder of the Peabody Institute and George Peabody Library in Baltimore.
After leaving school, Garrett continued to learn from her father about commerce and the operation of a railroad company serving as his secretary. Garrett and her friends, including M. Carey Thomas, Mamie Gwinn, Elizabeth "Bessie" King, Julia Rogers, were known as the "Friday Evening" because of their bi-weekly meetings on Friday nights. "The Friday Evening," a book club and study group, aimed to improve girls' education and was active until 1895. Through collective effort, the members of "The Friday Evening" started the Bryn Mawr School for Girls in Baltimore, 1885, it was an elite preparatory institution for girls, named after the famous women's college, Bryn Mawr College of Pennsylvania. Garrett was the major financial supporter of the new school. On, Garrett shifted her focus to medical education. At the age of 22, she requested special permission from Daniel Coit Gilman, the first president of the Johns Hopkins University, to enroll in Johns Hopkins University, but was denied entrance due in part to her status as a woman.
However, her opportunity to establish justice came soon after. When the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine was under construction in the late nineteenth century, the school board ran out of the original endowment from Johns Hopkins. Garrett and her friends fou