The Senkaku Islands are a group of uninhabited islands in the East China Sea. They are located east of Mainland China, northeast of Taiwan, west of Okinawa Island, north of the southwestern end of the Ryukyu Islands, they are known as the Diaoyu Islands or Diaoyu Dao and its affiliated islands in Mainland China, the Diaoyutai Islands in Taiwan, the Pinnacle Islands. As a result of the discovery of potential undersea oil reserves in 1968 in the area and the 1971 transfer of administrative control of the islands from the United States to Japan, the latter's sovereignty over the territory is disputed by both the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China. China claims the discovery and ownership of the islands from the 14th century, while Japan maintained ownership of the islands from 1895 until its surrender at the end of World War II; the United States administered the islands as part of the United States Civil Administration of the Ryukyu Islands from 1945 until 1972, when the islands returned to Japanese control under the Okinawa Reversion Agreement between the United States and Japan.
The islands are disputed between Japan and Taiwan. Despite the diplomatic stalemate between mainland China and Taiwan, both governments agree that the islands are part of Taiwan as part of Toucheng Township in Yilan County. Japan administers and controls the Senkaku islands as part of the city of Ishigaki in Okinawa Prefecture, it does not acknowledge the claims of China nor Taiwan and has not allowed the Ishigaki administration to develop the islands. As a result of the dispute, the public is barred from approaching the uninhabited islands, which are about a seven-hour boat ride from Ishigaki. Vessels from the Japan Coast Guard pursue Chinese ships crossing the maritime boundary in what one visiting journalist described in 2012 as "an cold war-style game of cat-and-mouse", fishing and other civilian boats are prevented from getting too close to avoid a provocative incident. Chinese records of these islands date back to as early as the 15th century when they were referred as Diaoyu in books such as Voyage with a Tail Wind and Record of the Imperial Envoy's Visit to Ryūkyū.
Adopted by the Chinese Imperial Map of the Ming Dynasty, the Chinese name for the island group and the Japanese name for the main island both mean "fishing". The Chinese had used the uninhabited islands as navigational markers in making the voyage to the Ryukyu Kingdom upon commencement of diplomatic missions to the kingdom, "resetting the compass at a particular isle in order to reach the next one"; the first published description of the islands in Europe appears in a book imported by Isaac Titsingh in 1796. His small library of Japanese books included Sangoku Tsūran Zusetsu by Hayashi Shihei; this text, published in Japan in 1785, described the Ryūkyū Kingdom. Hayashi followed convention in giving the islands their Chinese names in his map in the text, where he coloured them in the same pink as China. In 1832, the Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland supported the posthumous abridged publication of Titsingh's French translation; the name, "Pinnacle Isles" was first used by James Colnett, who charted them during his 1789-1791 voyage in the Argonaut.
William Robert Broughton sailed past them in November 1797 during his voyage of discovery to the North Pacific in HMS Providence, referred to Diaoyu Island/Uotsuri Island as "Peaks Island". Reference was made to the islands in Edward Belcher's 1848 account of the voyages of HMS Sammarang. Captain Belcher observed that "the names assigned in this region have been too hastily admitted." Belcher reported anchoring off Pinnacle Island in March 1845. In the 1870s and 1880s, the English name Pinnacle Islands was used by the British navy for the rocks adjacent to the largest island Uotsuri-shima / Diaoyu Dao. A Japanese navy record issued in 1886 first started to identify the islets using equivalents of the Chinese and English terms employed by the British; the name "Senkaku Retto" is not found in any Japanese historical document before 1900, first appeared in print in a geography journal published in 1900. It was derived from a translation of the English name Pinnacle Islands into a Sinicized Japanese term "Sento Shoto", which has the same meaning.
The collective use of the name "Diaoyutai" to denote the entire group began with the advent of the controversy in the 1970s. As the uninhabited islets were used as maritime navigational markers, they were never subjected to administrative control other than the recording of the geographical positions on maps, descriptions in official records of Chinese missions to the Ryukyu Kingdom, etc; the Japanese central government annexed the islands in early 1895 while still fighting China in the First Sino-Japanese War. Around 1900, Japanese entrepreneur Koga Tatsushirō constructed a bonito fish processing plant on the islands, employing over 200 workers; the business failed around 1940 and the islands have remained deserted since. In the 1970s, Koga Tatsushirō's son Zenji Koga and Zenji's wi
The Bozzuto Group is a real estate company. Bozzuto has four main divisions—Bozzuto Management Company, Bozzuto Construction Company, Bozzuto Development Company, Bozzuto Homes Inc; the company has developed and built more than 45,000 homes and apartments. It manages more than 70,000 apartments and 2.2 million square feet of retail space along the East Coast between Miami and Boston, in the Northeast and Chicago. Its headquarters are in Maryland, it was subsidized by Prince George's County, Maryland in 2013. Tom S. Bozzuto and his three partners John Slidell, Rick Mostyn, the late Bernie Lubcher founded the company in 1988. In 2013, Tom's son Toby Bozzuto took over as President. In 2014 he received the developer of the year award from the Maryland Building Industry Association. According to the Washington Post, the company has developed more than 50,000 homes and apartments since its inception. Bozzuto has been recognized by many regional organizations. For five consecutive years, from 2015 to 2019, Bozzuto has been named Top Property Management Company for Online Reputation by Multifamily Executive Magazine and J Turner Research.
In 2016, the National Association of Home Builders named Bozzuto Multifamily Development Firm of the Year at their Pillars of Industry Awards. Bozzuto Construction Company was ranked 17th out of the National Multifamily Housing Council’s 2017 25 Largest General Contractors. Bozzuto is celebrated for their workplace culture earning awards like The Washington Post’s Top Workplaces, the Washington Business Journal’s Best Places to Work and Baltimore Sun’s Top Workplace, they have several offices in the Washington D. C. and Northern Virginia area. Official website
Philodemus of Gadara was an Epicurean philosopher and poet. He studied under Zeno of Sidon in Athens, before moving to Rome, to Herculaneum, he was once known chiefly for his poetry preserved in the Greek Anthology, but since the 18th century, many writings of his have been discovered among the charred papyrus rolls at the Villa of the Papyri at Herculaneum. The task of excavating and deciphering these rolls is difficult, work continues to this day; the works of Philodemus so far discovered include writings on ethics, rhetoric, music and the history of various philosophical schools. Barker 1908 suggested. Philodemus was born c. 110 BC, in Coele-Syria. He studied under the Epicurean Phoenician philosopher, Zeno of Sidon, the head of the Epicurean school, in Athens, before settling in Rome about 80 BC, he was a follower of Zeno, but an innovative thinker in the area of aesthetics, in which conservative Epicureans had little to contribute. He was a friend of Lucius Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus, was implicated in Piso's profligacy by Cicero, however, praises Philodemus warmly for his philosophic views and for the elegans lascivia of his poems.
Philodemus was an influence on Horace's Ars Poetica. The Greek anthology contains. There was an extensive library at Piso's Villa of the Papyri at Herculaneum, a significant part of, formed by a library of Epicurean texts, some of which were present in more than one copy, suggesting the possibility that this section of Piso's library was Philodemus' own; the contents of the villa were buried in the eruption of Vesuvius, 79 CE, the papyri were carbonized and flattened but preserved. During the 18th-century exploration of the Villa by tunnelling, from 1752 to 1754 there were recovered carbonized papyrus rolls containing thirty-six treatises attributed to Philodemus; these works deal with music, ethics, signs and vices, the good king, defend the Epicurean standpoint against the Stoics and the Peripatetics. The first fragments of Philodemus from Herculaneum were published in 1824. In 2019, a scroll on the history of Plato's Academy, unrolled and glued to cardboard in 1795, was analyzed using shortwave-infrared hyperspectral imaging.
This not only revealed what was written on the back of the scroll, but illuminated 150 new words on the front."The difficulties involved in unrolling and interpreting these texts were formidable. Naples was not a hospitable destination for classical scholars; the philosophies of the Hellenistic schools were neither well-known nor regarded until quite recently. These factors combined to use of the Herculaneum papyri. However, in part due to the efforts of the International Center for the Study of the Herculaneum Papyri, these rolls have been the object of renewed scholarly work and have yielded many findings indispensable for the study of Hellenistic philosophy." Today researchers work from digitally enhanced photographs, infra-red and multiple-imaging photography, 18th-century transcriptions of the documents, which were being destroyed as they were being unrolled and transcribed. The actual papyri are in the National Naples. Named for the philosopher poet, the Philodemus Project is an international effort, supported by a major grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities and by contributions of individuals and participating universities, to reconstruct new texts of Philodemus' works on Poetics and Music.
These texts will be edited and translated and published in a series of volumes by Oxford University Press. Philodemus: On Poems. I, edited with Introduction and Commentary by Richard Janko, appeared in 2001 and won the Charles J. Goodwin Award of Merit. "Philodemus’ On Poems, in particular, opens a window onto a lost age of scholarship—the period between Aristotle's Poetics and Horace's Art of Poetry, the works which define classicism for the ancient and modern worlds," Janko has written. The Project's next volumes are scheduled to be: On Poems V, edited and translated by David Armstrong, James Porter, Jeffrey Fish, Cecilia Mangoni On Rhetoric I-II, edited and translated by David Blank On Rhetoric III, edited and translated by Dirk Obbink and Juergen Hammerstaedt. In On Methods of Inference, Philodemus comments on the problem of induction, doubting the reliability of inductive reasoning from the observed to the unobserved. One problem is the existence of unique events that could never be guessed from what happens elsewhere.
"There are in our experience some infrequent occurrences, as for example the man in Alexandria half a cubit high, with a colossal head that could be beaten with a hammer, who used to be exhibited by the embalmers. Induction is unreliable if it extrapolates far beyond our experience: "We shall not, use the that since the men among us are mortal the men in Libya would be mortal, much less the inference that since the living beings among us are mortal, if there are any living beings in Britain, they would be mortal." This is a list of the major works of Philodemus found so far at Herculaneum. Index Stoicorum Index Academicorum On the Stoics On Epicurus Works on the Records of Epicurus and some others To Friends of the School On Phenomena and Inferences On Piety On the Gods On the Way of Life o
Harry Burrows Acton cited as H. B. Acton, was an English academic in the field of political philosophy, known for books defending the morality of capitalism, attacking Marxism-Leninism, he in particular produced arguments on the incoherence of Marxism, which he described as a'farrago'. His book The Illusion of the Epoch, in which this appears, is a standard point of reference. Other interests were the Marquis de Condorcet, John Stuart Mill, Herbert Spencer, F. H. Bradley, Bernard Bosanquet and Sidney Webb. Acton endorsed a version of negative utilitarianism, according to which the reduction of suffering has unique moral importance, he had teaching positions at the London School of Economics, Bedford College, the University of Edinburgh where he occupied the Chair of Moral Philosophy, the University of Chicago. He was editor of Philosophy, the journal of the Royal Institute of Philosophy, of which he was for a time Director, he was president of the Aristotelian Society from 1952 to 1953. He is buried in Grange Cemetery in Edinburgh close to the main entrance.
The Illusion of the Epoch: Marxism-Leninism as a Philosophical Creed The Philosophy of Language in Revolutionary France Dawes Hicks Lecture of the British Academy What Marx Really Said Philosophy of Punishment editor Kant's moral philosophy The Morals of Markets: an Ethical Exploration essays edited by David Gordon and Jeremy Shearmur. 2nd edition, Liberty Fund, ISBN 978-0-86597-106-6 The Right to Work and the Right to Strike The ethics of capitalism The idea of a spiritual power: 1973 Auguste Comte memorial trust lecture H. B. Acton, The Illusion of the Epoch: Marxism-Leninism as a Philosophical Creed. See original text in The Online Library of Liberty
Sreevalsan J. Menon is an Indian Carnatic vocalist and a music composer from Kerala. After initial training under Rajalakshmi Krishnan and violinist T. V. Ramani at Thrissur, Menon had much of his advanced tutelage under the late Neyyattinkara Vasudevan. Menon is an'A' grade artist of All India Radio and has given concerts all over the country including the National Concerts of AIR and Doordarshan, he has received several awards including Kerala Sangeetha Nataka Akademi Award 2013, from the Madras Music Academy, a title from Krishna Gana Sabha in Chennai, besides such institutions of repute in the Deccan. He has participated in Music Transcends, a symphony held at Washington, D. C. in 2004, integrating Indian classical music. His jugalbandis with Hindustani vocalist Ramesh Narayan and late Kathakali musicians Kalamandalam Sankaran Embranthiri and Kalamandalam Hyderali have been appreciated. Menon's two songs and background score for Saint Dracula has been qualified for songs and original score categories of 85th Academy Awards.
The background score by Sreevalsan for the film Ottaal which won the crystal bear at the Berlin festival 2016 was praised for its laid back music in the award citation. Known for the spiritual quality of his renditions, Sreevalsan's carnatic music style is marked by a majestic sweep in Krithi rendering, brevity in alapana, meaningful Niraval elaborations. Sreevalsan has carved a niche area for himself through his thematic musical productions on the Rains, Seasons and Temples of Kerala. Menon is married to Indu since 8 September 1996 and they have a daughter Subadra and a son Narayanan who are known for their musical talent. Menon's music albums are innovative, they include Vanaprastham, a musical interpretation of the famous short story by M. T. Vasudevan Nair. Vismaya, a fantasy video album featuring Artist Namboodiri, M T Vasudevan Nair and menon himself, he has given Carnatic vocal performances and lecture demonstrations throughout India, the Middle East, UK, US, Canada and Africa. Menon works as Professor at the Kerala Agricultural University in Thrissur, has a Ph D in Agricultural Extension from IARI, New Delhi.
A native of Kunissery in Palakkad district, Menon lives in the temple town of Tripunithura off Kochi. Krishna - A Musical Reflection Vanaprastham Kshetranjali Monsoon Anuraga Classical Encounters - with guru Sri. Neyyatinkara Vasudevan Vismaya - Emotional Expressions: audio & music video album with Bini Panicker Manasa Smarami Madhuram Gayati Ananda Poonkatru Sree Guruvayurappan Gananjali: Vol - 3 Jugal Bandi: Vol 1 & 2 - with Kalamandalam Shankaran Embranthiri & Meledam Narayanan Sringaram Begane Baro Ramanan Bhavayami Navarasa Thillana Irayimman Thampi Kritis Rituleela Hare Swami Ayyappan The genius of Kunjan Nambiar Sreevalsan J. Menon - Official website 75 Original Songs Tune Up For 2012 Oscar® Will Sreevalsan bring home an Oscar? 104 Original Scores in 2012 Oscar® Race Video Interview - Carnatic musician, Vocalist - Sreevalsan J. Menon The Hindu - Kunnakkudi Vaidyanathan and Sreevalsan J. Menon Swathithirunal.org The Hindu - AWESOME TRIO: Sreevalsan J. Menon, flanked by M. T. Vasudevan Nair and artist Namboodiri Newindpress - When dusk settles...
Video - Vismaya Music Album My Mother's Laptop - Music & Background Score The Hindu - A musical version of Changampuzha’s ‘Ramanan' The Hindu - WELL composed! Sreevalsan with Nithyasree Mahadevan Remembering Mandolin U. Sreenivas Interview with Sreevalsan J Menon - Times of India Sreevalsan J. Menon on IMDb Sreevalsan praises Action Hero Biju
Fountain Street Church in Grand Rapids, was for a time unique in the United States as being large, religiously liberal and non-denominational in a notably conservative city. It arose from its beginnings as a Baptist church which responded to the ascendency of liberal Christianity in the late 19th century through graduates of the University of Chicago Divinity School, a leader in the movement. Established in the largest town in West Michigan, in 1869 as Fountain Street Baptist Church, by 1960 FSC surrendered its Baptist name and identity altogether to become an independent, non-denominational liberal church. In 1959, a book chronicling the story of Fountain Street Church titled Liberal Legacy – A History of Fountain Street Church was published in-house by Philip Buchen, a member of the church and legal advisor to President Gerald Ford. In the years between 1896 and 2006 Fountain Street Church shed its explicitly Christian identity for a non-creedal spiritual life that approximated Unitarian Universalism.
Its newest mantra to "Free the Mind, Grow the Soul and Change the World" summarizes the church's approach to religion from the earlier days to this. The roots of Fountain Street Church date to 1824, when the region’s original Baptist mission established itself “to convert the Ottawa Native Americans.” A lengthy history of institutional squabbles between themselves and other area Baptists culminated in the two factions' reunion in 1869 to create Fountain Street Baptist Church. Following the ministry of John L. Jackson, the church selected John Herman Randall, a young graduate of the new University of Chicago Divinity School. Over his 10-year ministry, Randall converted Fountain Street Baptist Church from orthodox to progressive, reflecting the spirit of the Divinity School, still known for its liberal approach to religious studies, he left to serve Mount Morris Baptist Church in New York City and moved on to serve with John Haynes Holmes' Community Church of New York, beginning a kinship with Unitarians that continues to this day.
Randall's son, John Herman Randall, Jr.. became a noted philosopher at Columbia University While Randall's career moved the church toward a more liberal direction, his successor, Alfred Wesley Wishart — a graduate of the UC Divinity School— permanently set FSC on a liberal path. Wishart's career was marked by three significant events: 1) The 1911 Furniture Workers Strike, 2) the rebuilding of the church following destruction by fire in 1917, 3) the use of FSC as a public venue for debates and lectures that brought world-famous faces and voices to Grand Rapids. Coming early in Wishart's career at FSC, the Furniture Workers Strike began as an effort to organize the furniture-making factories once so common to Grand Rapids; when the union's demands for a nine-hour day, pay by the hour and a 10 percent raise of the average wage were denied and others intervened to try to prevent a strike with a commission whose report supported management. The workers went on strike for 17 weeks failing in their efforts.
While supportive of Labor in principle, Wishart did not approve of union tactics. However, his social secretary Viva Flaherty was publicly supportive of the workers, making the strike issue one that divided sympathies in the church as well as the community. Ms Flaherty had begun her career at FSC working with John Randall and chided Wishart for lacking the zeal she found in his predecessor. In May 1917, the American neo-Gothic building which housed Fountain Street Church burned to the ground. No cause was determined; the massive neo-Romanesque structure which now stands in its place was completed in 1924 following seven years of work and planning on behalf of Wishart and the church. Designed to serve as a public auditorium as well as a house of worship, the new building had a seating capacity of over 1500; the large bell tower became part of the city's official World War I Memorial, with tower room dedicated to the memory of those slain in the war which remains part of the church to this day.
In 1928, three years after his notable defense of John Scopes, Clarence Darrow came to FSC to debate Wishart on the subject of whether a "belief in a general purpose of the universe is rational and justified." Other notables had appeared before at the church, but this particular debate, conducted in the still-new auditorium, marked the beginning of FSC's inviting national and world figures to Grand Rapids to share their opinions and otherwise bring the world to West Michigan. A partial list and description of those who have appeared follows below. Wishart died in 1933 while still serving, leaving a church building with a substantial mortgage to pay off at the outset of the Great Depression, his successor, Milton McGorrill, thus endured a difficult ministry, though he was the first FSC preacher to begin broadcasting his sermons. He left after 10 years to pursue a more prosperous career on the East Coast serving both Baptist and Unitarian churches in New England. Following his departure, Fountain Street Baptist Church found itself at its lowest ebb since 1869, with the mortgage taking up nearly half of the annual budget and the Great Depression making each year more challenging than the last.
Attendance was above 100, it was clear that a different and daring direction had to be pursued in order for Fountain Street Church to survive. The search committee again consulted the University of Chicago Divinity School, taking the university's recommendation to consider a young minister in Kenilworth Illinois named Duncan Littlefair. Arriving in 1944 at the age of 32