Bulverhythe known as West St Leonards, Bo Peep, West Marina, or Harley Shute, is a suburb of Hastings, East Sussex, England with its Esplanade and 15 ft thick sea wall. Bulverhythe is translated as "Burghers' landing place", it used to be under a small headland called Gallows Head, washed away by flooding. Bulverhythe village is located to the southwest of the area; the ancient village had a small harbour and pier, is where the remains of the Amsterdam can be seen. The village was once under the'Limb' of Hastings, it helped supply one ship together with Petit Ihamme. Filsham Manor was a house on Harley Shute Road dating back to Saxon times; the house was rebuilt in 1682, part of this remains today. In the east of the area lie West Marina Gardens which were designed by James Burton and are in between the West St Leonards and Burton's town of St Leonards; the land was purchased in 1886 and laid out as a pleasure garden by 1891. The site includes a bowls green, putting course and formal gardens, it is at the western extreme of the frontline garden displays.
Decorative lighting has been installed. The Bulverhythe Salts was a site of a racecourse, moved to the Saxon shoreway. In January 1921 a British tug was towing a German submarine in the English Channel when it broke adrift in a gale and was washed ashore at Bulverhythe; the U-boat was of a smaller type than the other that came ashore at Hastings in April 1919. The event was reported in the Hastings Observer with the headline: "Another Submarine Visitor!" Three tugs tried to refloat the submarine without success and after the hull was badly damaged by stormy seas, it was dismantled. Another boat that washed up was the Amsterdam that set sail to Java but ended up being washed away at the sandy strip in 1749; the remains can still be seen today at low tide, just opposite the footbridge over the railway line at Bulverhythe. Bulverhythe was only served by a temporary station until the line extended to West Marina; the line was constructed by the Brighton and Hastings Railway and when the South Eastern Railway line came from London and tunnelled through to St Leonards and the Marshlink Line, a feud started between the companies.
The junction for the two routes, called Bo-Peep junction, was named after a nearby public house, which in turn came from the activities of smugglers and excise men. West Marina is now closed and, although both platforms and lights still remain, West St Leonards station is the only remaining station in this area. Media related to Bulverhythe at Wikimedia Commons
The pun called paronomasia, is a form of word play that exploits multiple meanings of a term, or of similar-sounding words, for an intended humorous or rhetorical effect. These ambiguities can arise from the intentional use of homophonic, metonymic, or figurative language. A pun differs from a malapropism in that a malapropism is an incorrect variation on a correct expression, while a pun involves expressions with multiple interpretations. Puns may be regarded as in-jokes or idiomatic constructions as their usage and meaning are specific to a particular language or its culture. Puns have a long history in human writing. For example, the Roman playwright Plautus was famous for word games. Puns can be classified in various ways; the homophonic pun, a common type, are not synonymous. Walter Redfern summarized this type with his statement, "To pun is to treat homonyms as synonyms." For example, in George Carlin's phrase "atheism is a non-prophet institution", the word prophet is put in place of its homophone profit, altering the common phrase "non-profit institution".
The joke "Question: Why do we still have troops in Germany? Answer: To keep the Russians in Czech" relies on the aural ambiguity of the homophones check and Czech. Puns are not homophonic, but play on words of similar, not identical, sound as in the example from the Pinky and the Brain cartoon film series: "I think so, but if we give peas a chance, won't the lima beans feel left out?" which plays with the similar—but not identical—sound of peas and peace in the anti-war slogan "Give Peace a Chance". A homographic pun exploits words which are spelled the same but possess different meanings and sounds; because of their nature, they rely on sight more than hearing, contrary to homophonic puns. They are known as heteronymic puns. Examples in which the punned words exist in two different parts of speech rely on unusual sentence construction, as in the anecdote: "When asked to explain his large number of children, the pig answered simply:'The wild oats of my sow gave us many piglets.'" An example that combines homophonic and homographic punning is Douglas Adams's line "You can tune a guitar, but you can't tuna fish.
Unless of course, you play bass." The phrase uses the homophonic qualities of tune a and tuna, as well as the homographic pun on bass, in which ambiguity is reached through the identical spellings of, and. Homographic puns do not need to follow grammatical rules and do not make sense when interpreted outside the context of the pun. Homonymic puns, another common type, arise from the exploitation of words which are both homographs and homophones; the statement "Being in politics is just like playing golf: you are trapped in one bad lie after another" puns on the two meanings of the word lie as "a deliberate untruth" and as "the position in which something rests". An adaptation of a joke repeated by Isaac Asimov gives us "Did you hear about the little moron who strained himself while running into the screen door?" Playing on strained as "to give much effort" and "to filter". A homonymic pun may be polysemic, in which the words must be homonymic and possess related meanings, a condition, subjective.
However, lexicographers define polysemes as listed under a single dictionary lemma while homonyms are treated in separate lemmata. A compound pun is a statement. In this case, the wordplay cannot go into effect by utilizing the separate words or phrases of the puns that make up the entire statement. For example, a complex statement by Richard Whately includes four puns: "Why can a man never starve in the Great Desert? Because he can eat the sand, there, but what brought the sandwiches there? Why, Noah sent Ham, his descendants mustered and bred." This pun uses sand, there/sandwiches there, Ham/ham, mustered/mustard, bred/bread. The phrase "piano is not my forte" links two meanings of the words forte and piano, one for the dynamic markings in music and the second for the literal meaning of the sentence, as well as alluding to "pianoforte", the older name of the instrument. Compound puns may combine two phrases that share a word. For example, "Where do mathematicians go on weekends? To a Möbius strip club!"
Puns on the terms Möbius strip club. A recursive pun is one in which the second aspect of a pun relies on the understanding of an element in the first. For example, the statement "π is only half a pie.". Another example is. Another example is "a Freudian slip is when you say one thing but mean your mother." The recursive pun "Immanuel doesn't pun, he Kant," is attributed to Oscar Wilde. Visual puns are sometimes used in logos, emblems and other graphic symbols, in which one or more of the pun aspects is replaced by a picture. In European heraldry, this technique is called canting arms. Visual and other puns and word games are common in Dutch gable stones as well as in some cartoons, such as Lost Consonants and The Far Side. Another type of visual pun exists in languages. For example, in Chinese, a pun may be based on a similarity in shape of the written character, despite a complete lack of phonetic similarity in the words punned upon. Mark Elvin describes how this "peculiarly Chinese form of visual punning involved comparing written characters to objects."
Richard J. Alexander notes two additional forms which puns may take: graphological (sometimes
Battle of Hastings
The Battle of Hastings was fought on 14 October 1066 between the Norman-French army of William, the Duke of Normandy, an English army under the Anglo-Saxon King Harold Godwinson, beginning the Norman conquest of England. It took place 7 miles northwest of Hastings, close to the present-day town of Battle, East Sussex, was a decisive Norman victory; the background to the battle was the death of the childless King Edward the Confessor in January 1066, which set up a succession struggle between several claimants to his throne. Harold was crowned king shortly after Edward's death, but faced invasions by William, his own brother Tostig, the Norwegian King Harald Hardrada. Hardrada and Tostig defeated a hastily gathered army of Englishmen at the Battle of Fulford on 20 September 1066, were in turn defeated by Harold at the Battle of Stamford Bridge five days later; the deaths of Tostig and Hardrada at Stamford Bridge left William as Harold's only serious opponent. While Harold and his forces were recovering, William landed his invasion forces in the south of England at Pevensey on 28 September 1066 and established a beachhead for his conquest of the kingdom.
Harold was forced gathering forces as he went. The exact numbers present at the battle are unknown; the composition of the forces is clearer. Harold appears to have tried to surprise William, but scouts found his army and reported its arrival to William, who marched from Hastings to the battlefield to confront Harold; the battle lasted from about 9 am to dusk. Early efforts of the invaders to break the English battle lines had little effect. Harold's death near the end of the battle, led to the retreat and defeat of most of his army. After further marching and some skirmishes, William was crowned as king on Christmas Day 1066. There continued to be rebellions and resistance to William's rule, but Hastings marked the culmination of William's conquest of England. Casualty figures are hard to come by, but some historians estimate that 2,000 invaders died along with about twice that number of Englishmen. William founded a monastery at the site of the battle, the high altar of the abbey church placed at the spot where Harold died.
In 911, the Carolingian ruler Charles the Simple allowed a group of Vikings to settle in Normandy under their leader Rollo. Their settlement proved successful, they adapted to the indigenous culture, renouncing paganism, converting to Christianity, intermarrying with the local population. Over time, the frontiers of the duchy expanded to the west. In 1002, King Æthelred II married the sister of Richard II, Duke of Normandy, their son Edward the Confessor spent many years in exile in Normandy, succeeded to the English throne in 1042. This led to the establishment of a powerful Norman interest in English politics, as Edward drew on his former hosts for support, bringing in Norman courtiers and clerics and appointing them to positions of power in the Church. Edward was childless and embroiled in conflict with the formidable Godwin, Earl of Wessex, his sons, he may have encouraged Duke William of Normandy's ambitions for the English throne. King Edward's death on 5 January 1066 left no clear heir, several contenders laid claim to the throne of England.
Edward's immediate successor was the Earl of Wessex, Harold Godwinson, the richest and most powerful of the English aristocrats and son of Godwin, Edward's earlier opponent. Harold was elected king by the Witenagemot of England and crowned by Ealdred, the Archbishop of York, although Norman propaganda claimed that the ceremony was performed by Stigand, the uncanonically elected Archbishop of Canterbury. Harold was at once challenged by two powerful neighbouring rulers. Duke William claimed that he had been promised the throne by King Edward and that Harold had sworn agreement to this. Harald Hardrada of Norway contested the succession, his claim to the throne was based on an agreement between his predecessor Magnus the Good and the earlier King of England Harthacnut, whereby, if either died without heir, the other would inherit both England and Norway. William and Harald Hardrada set about assembling troops and ships for separate invasions. In early 1066, Harold's exiled brother Tostig Godwinson raided southeastern England with a fleet he had recruited in Flanders joined by other ships from Orkney.
Threatened by Harold's fleet, Tostig raided in East Anglia and Lincolnshire. He was driven back to his ships by the brothers Edwin, Earl of Mercia and Morcar, Earl of Northumbria. Deserted by most of his followers, he withdrew to Scotland, where he spent the middle of the year recruiting fresh forces. Hardrada invaded northern England in early September, leading a fleet of more than 300 ships carrying 15,000 men. Hardrada's army was further augmented by the forces of Tostig, who supported the Norwegian king's bid for the throne. Advancing on York, the Norwegians occupied the city after defeating a northern English army under Edwin and Morcar on 20 September at the Battle of Fulford; the English army was organised along regional lines, with the fyrd, or local levy, serving under a local magnate – whether an earl, bishop, or sheriff. The fyrd was composed of men who owned their own land, were equipped by their community to fulfil the king's demands for military for
Hastings is a town and borough in East Sussex on the south coast of England, 24 mi east of the county town of Lewes and 53 mi south east of London. It has an estimated population of 90,254. Hastings gives its name to the Battle of Hastings, which took place 8 mi to the north at Senlac Hill in 1066; the town became one of the medieval Cinque Ports, a popular seaside resort in the 19th century with the coming of the railway. Today, Hastings is a fishing port with a beach-based fishing fleet; the first mention of Hastings is found in the late 8th century in the form Hastingas. This is derived from the Old English tribal name Hæstingas, meaning `the constituency/followers of Hæsta'. Symeon of Durham records the victory of Offa in 771 over the Hestingorum gens, that is, "the people of the Hastings tribe.", Hastingleigh in Kent was named after that tribe. The place name Hæstingaceaster is found in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle entry for 1050, may be an alternative name for Hastings. However, the absence of any archaeological remains of or documentary evidence for a Roman fort at Hastings suggest that Hæstingaceaster may refer to a different settlement, most that based on the Roman remains at Pevensey.
Evidence of prehistoric settlements have been found at the town site: flint arrowheads and Bronze Age artefacts have been found. This suggests; the settlement was based on the port when the Romans arrived in Britain for the first time in 55 BC. At this time, they began to exploit the iron, shipped it out by boat. Iron was worked locally at Beauport Park, to the north of the town, which employed up to one thousand men and is considered to have been the third largest mine in the Roman Empire. With the departure of the Romans, the town suffered setbacks; the Beauport site had been abandoned, natural and man-made attacks began. The Sussex coast has always suffered from occasional violent storms; the original Roman port could well now be under the sea. Bulverhythe was a harbour used by Danish invaders, which suggests that -hythe or hithe means a port or small haven. From the 6th century AD until 771, the people of the area around modern-day Hastings, identified the territory as that of the Haestingas tribe and a kingdom separate from the surrounding kingdoms of Suth Saxe and Kent.
It worked to retain its separate cultural identity until the 11th century. The kingdom was a sub-kingdom, the object of a disputed overlordship by the two powerful neighbouring kingdoms: when King Wihtred of Kent settled a dispute with King Ine of Sussex & Wessex in 694, it is probable that he seceded the overlordship of Haestingas to Ine as part of the treaty. In 771 King Offa of Mercia invaded Southern England, over the next decade seized control of Sussex and Kent. Symeon of Durham records a battle fought at an unidentified location near Hastings in 771, at which Offa defeated the Haestingas tribe ending its existence as a separate kingdom. By 790, Offa controlled Hastings enough to confirm grants of land in Hastings to the Abbey of St Denis, in Paris. But, the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle for 1011 relates that Vikings overran "all Kent, Sussex and Haestingas", indicating the town was still considered a separate'county' or province to its neighbours 240 years after Offa's conquest. During the reign of Athelstan, he established a royal mint in Hastings in AD 928.
The start of the Norman Conquest was the Battle of Hastings, fought on 14 October 1066, although the battle itself took place 8 mi to the north at Senlac Hill, William had landed on the coast between Hastings and Eastbourne at Pevensey. It is thought; that "New Burgh" is mentioned in the Domesday Book as such. William defeated and killed Harold Godwinson, the last Saxon King of England, destroyed his army, thus opening England to the Norman conquest. William caused a castle to be built at Hastings using the earthworks of the existing Saxon castle. Hastings was shown as a borough by the time of the Domesday Book; as a borough, Hastings had a corporation consisting of a "bailiff and commonalty". By a Charter of Elizabeth I in 1589, the bailiff was replaced by a mayor. Muslim scholar Muhammad al-Idrisi, writing c.1153, described Hastings as "a town of large extent and many inhabitants and handsome, having markets and rich merchants". By the end of the Saxon period, the port of Hastings had moved eastward near the present town centre in the Priory Stream valley, whose entrance was protected by the White Rock headland.
It was to be a short stay: Danish attacks and huge floods in 1011 and 1014 motivated the townspeople to relocate to the New Burgh. In the Middle Ages Hastings became one of the Cinque Ports. In the 13th century, much of the town and half of Hastings Castle was washed away in the South England flood of February 1287. During a naval campaign of 1339, again in 1377, the town was raided and burnt by the French, seems then
Shrewsbury is the county town of Shropshire, England. The town is on the River Severn and the 2011 census recorded a town population of 71,715. Shrewsbury is a market town whose centre has a unspoilt medieval street plan and over 660 listed buildings, including several examples of timber framing from the 15th and 16th centuries. Shrewsbury Castle, a red sandstone fortification, Shrewsbury Abbey, a former Benedictine monastery, were founded in 1074 and 1083 by the Norman Earl of Shrewsbury, Roger de Montgomery; the town is where he spent 27 years of his life. Located 9 miles east of the Welsh border, Shrewsbury serves as the commercial centre for Shropshire and mid-Wales, with a retail output of over £299 million per year and light industry and distribution centres, such as Battlefield Enterprise Park, on the outskirts; the A5 and A49 trunk roads come together as the town's by-pass, five railway lines meet at Shrewsbury railway station. The town is located 150 miles north-west of London; the town was the early capital of the Kingdom of Powys, known to the ancient Britons as Pengwern, signifying "the alder hill".
This name evolved in three directions, into Sciropscire, which became Shropshire. Its Welsh name Amwythig means "fortified place". Over the ages, the geographically important town has been the site of many conflicts between the English and Welsh; the Angles, under King Offa of Mercia, took possession in 778. Nearby is the village of 5 miles to the south-east; this was once the site of the fourth largest cantonal capital in Roman Britain. As Caer Guricon it is a possible alternative for the Dark Age seat of the Kingdom of Powys; the importance of the Shrewsbury area in the Roman era was underlined with the discovery of the Shrewsbury Hoard in 2009. Shrewsbury's known history commences in the Early Middle Ages, having been founded c. 800 AD. It is believed that Anglo-Saxon Shrewsbury was most a settlement fortified through the use of earthworks comprising a ditch and rampart, which were shored up with a wooden stockade. There is evidence to show; the Welsh were repelled by William the Conqueror. Roger de Montgomery was given the town as a gift from William, built Shrewsbury Castle in 1074, taking the title of Earl.
He founded Shrewsbury Abbey as a Benedictine monastery in 1083. The 3rd Earl, Robert of Bellême, was deposed in 1102 and the title forfeited, in consequence of rebelling against Henry I and joining the Duke of Normandy's invasion of England in 1101. In 1138, King Stephen besieged the castle held by William FitzAlan for the Empress Maud during the period known as the Anarchy, it was in the late Middle Ages. This success was due to wool production, a major industry at the time, the wool trade with the rest of Britain and Europe, with the River Severn and Watling Street acting as trading routes; the Shrewsbury Drapers Company dominated the trade in Welsh wool for many years. Despite its commercial success, Shrewbury was not immune from the effects of the Black Death. Records suggest the plague arrived in the spring of 1349, was devastating. Examining the number of local church benefices falling vacant due to death, 1349 alone saw twice the vacancies as the previous ten years combined, suggesting a high death toll in Shrewsbury.
In 1403 the Battle of Shrewsbury was fought a few miles north at Battlefield. Shrewsbury's monastic gathering was disbanded with the Dissolution of the Monasteries and as such the Abbey was closed in 1540. However, it is believed that Henry VIII thereafter intended to make Shrewsbury a cathedral city after the formation of the Church of England, but the citizens of the town declined the offer. Despite this, Shrewsbury thrived throughout the 17th centuries; as a result, a number of grand edifices, including the Ireland's Mansion and Draper's Hall, were constructed. It was in this period that Edward VI gave permission for the foundation of a free school, to become Shrewsbury School. During the English Civil War, the town was a Royalist stronghold and only fell to Parliament forces after they were let in by a parliamentarian sympathiser at the St Mary's Water Gate. After Thomas Mytton captured Shrewsbury in February 1645; this prompted Prince Rupert to respond by executing Parliamentarian prisoners in Oswestry.
Shrewsbury Unitarian Church was founded in 1662. By the 18th century Shrewsbury had become an important market town and stop off for stagecoaches travelling between London and Holyhead on their way to Ireland. Local soldier and statesman Robert Clive was Shrewsbury's MP from 1762 until his death in 1774. Clive served once as the town's mayor in 176
Mark Antony Lower
Mark Antony Lower F. S. A. M. A. was a Sussex historian who founded the Sussex Archaeological Society and is credited with starting the "cult of the Sussex Martyrs", however he was against the excesses of the "Bonfire Boys". Lower was born 14 July 1813 to Richard Lower, a schoolmaster, his wife in Chiddingly. Richard and Mary gave Lower a good education, it appears he showed an early interest in heraldry as a painted coat of arms in the local church is attributed to him. He worked first at his sister's school in East Hoathly, before further extending the family's interests in local education with a school at Alfriston under his control. Within three years however he left to establish another school in Lewes in Sussex in 1835, he married Mercy Holman in 1835. He was elected a member of the American Antiquarian Society in 1844, his establishment of the Sussex Archaeological Society with J. H. Hurdis in 1846 established Lower as a well regarded notable antiquarian, his publication of The Sussex Martyrs, their Examinations and Cruel Burnings in the time of Queen Mary... in 1851 together with an etching by James Henry Hurdis of Richard Woodman and nine other martyrs is credited with establishing the "cult of the Sussex Martyrs".
However it is noted that his Sussex Martyrs was a re-publication of John Foxe's account in his Book of Martyrs. Although Lower is credited with publicising the Sussex Martyrs, he does not appear to have started the Bonfire Societies, his biography credits him with writing a note complaining of the excesses of the "Bonfire Boys", he had himself been an active member of the Lewes New Temperance Society. Lower said that he had published the Sussex Martyrs because their deaths had been forgotten and high churchmen were referring to the Reformation and the deaths of these people as a mistake. Following the publications "anti-popish" demonstrations took place each year around 5 Nov. In 1868 a figure dressed as the "Bishop of Lewes" warned protestants of the Roman Catholic threat and the following year an effigy of the pope was to be blown up with gunpowder. Lower published numerous articles for the Sussex Archaeological Society and he was employed for a number of years as a secretary, he published Patronymica Britannica: A Dictionary of the Family Names of the United Kingdom in 1860 and The Worthies of Sussex in 1865.
Mercy Lower died in 1867. The widower married Sarah Scrase three years after moving to Seaford, his important Sussex local history book, A Compendious History of Sussex was completed just a year before he left Lewes for London. His guide to Scandinavia was published in 1874. Lower died on 22 March 1876 in Enfield, he was buried in St Anne's Church in Lewes. English surnames, 1842 The Curiosities of Heraldry, 1845 Chronicles of Pevensey, 1846 Sussex Archaeological Society, various publications, 1846– The Sussex Martyrs, their Examinations and Cruel Burnings in the time of Queen Mary, comprising the interesting personal narrative of Richard Woodman, &c. &c. 1852 Patronymica Britannica, 1860 The Song of Solomon in the dialect of Sussex. Patronymica Britannica: A Dictionary of the Family Names of the United Kingdom. J. R. Smith. Battle Abbey; the Chronicle of Battel Abbey, from 1066 to 1176: now first translated with notes, an abstract of the subsequent history of the establishment. J. R. Smith. Mark Antony Lower.
A compendious history of Sussex: topographical, archæological & anecdotical. Containing an index to the first twenty volumes of the "Sussex archæological collections". G. P. Bacon. Mark Antony Lower. English Surnames: An Essay on Family Nomenclature, Historical and Humorous. J. R. Smith. Two lectures on the Bayeux tapestry, 1857 by Mark Antony Lower at Mount Holyoke College The Sussex Archaeological Society official website Works by Mark Antony Lower at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Mark Antony Lower at Internet Archive