Defamation, vilification, or traducement is the communication of a false statement that harms the reputation of, depending on the law of the country, an individual, product, government, religion, or nation. Under common law, to constitute defamation, a claim must be false and must have been made to someone other than the person defamed; some common law jurisdictions distinguish between spoken defamation, called slander, defamation in other media such as printed words or images, called libel. False light laws protect against statements which are not technically false, but which are misleading. In some civil law jurisdictions, defamation is treated as a crime rather than a civil wrong; the United Nations Human Rights Committee ruled in 2012 that the libel law of one country, the Philippines, was inconsistent with Article 19 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, as well as urging that "State parties should consider the decriminalization of libel". In Saudi Arabia, defamation of the state, or a past or present ruler, is punishable under terrorism legislation.
A person who defames another may be called a "defamer", "libeler", "slanderer", or a "famacide". The term libel is derived from the Latin libellus; as of 2017, at least 130 UNESCO Member States retained criminal defamation laws. In 2017, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe Office of the Representative on Freedom of the Media issued a report on criminal defamation and anti-blasphemy laws among its Member States, which found that defamation is criminalized in nearly three-quarters of the 57 OSCE participating States. Many of the laws pertaining to defamation include specific provisions for harsher punishment for speech or publications critical of heads of state, public officials, state bodies and the State itself; the OSCE report noted that blasphemy and religious insult laws exist in around one third of OSCE participating States. In Africa, at least four Member States decriminalized defamation between 2012 and 2017; the ruling by the African Court of Human and Peoples’ Rights in Lohé Issa Konaté v. the Republic of Burkina Faso set a precedent in the region against imprisonment as a legitimate penalty for defamation, characterizing it as a violation of the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the treaty of the Economic Community of West African States.
Countries in every region have moved to advance the criminalization of defamation by extending legislation to online content. Cybercrime and anti-terrorism laws passed throughout the world have led to bloggers appearing before courts, with some serving time in prison; the United Nations, OSCE, Organisation of American States and African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights Special Rapporteurs for Freedom of Expression stated in a joint declaration in March 2017 that ‘general prohibitions on the dissemination of information based on vague and ambiguous ideas, including "false news" or "non-objective information", are incompatible with international standards for restrictions on freedom of expression...and should be abolished.’ The common law origins of defamation lie in the torts of "slander" and "libel", each of which gives a common law right of action. Defamation is the general term used internationally, is used in this article where it is not necessary to distinguish between "slander" and "libel".
Libel and slander both require publication. The fundamental distinction between libel and slander lies in the form in which the defamatory matter is published. If the offending material is published in some fleeting form, as by spoken words or sounds, sign language, gestures or the like it is slander. Libel is defined as defamation by written or printed words, pictures, or in any form other than by spoken words or gestures; the law of libel originated in the 17th century in England. With the growth of publication came the growth of libel and development of the tort of libel. An early example of libel is the case of John Peter Zenger in 1735. Zenger was hired to publish New York Weekly Journal; when he printed another man's article that criticized William Cosby, British Royal Governor of Colonial New York, Zenger was accused of seditious libel. The verdict was returned as Not Guilty on the charge of seditious libel, because it was proven that all the statements Zenger had published about Cosby had been true, so there was not an issue of defamation.
Another example of libel is the case of New York Times Sullivan. The U. S. Supreme Court overruled a State court in Alabama that had found The New York Times guilty of libel for printing an advertisement that criticized Alabama officials for mistreating student civil rights activists. Though some of what The Times printed was false, the Court ruled in its favor, saying that libel of a public official requires proof of actual malice, defined as a "knowing or reckless disregard for the truth". There are several things. In the United States, a person must prove that 1) the statement was false, 2) caused harm, 3) was made without adequate research into the truthfulness of the statement; these steps are for an ordinary citizen. For a celebrity or public official, a person must prove the first three steps, that the statement was made with the intent to do harm or with reckless disregard for the truth, specifically referred to as "actual malice". At one time, the honour of peers was protected
The term Fourth Estate or fourth power refers to the press and news media both in explicit capacity of advocacy and implicit ability to frame political issues. Though it is not formally recognized as a part of a political system, it wields significant indirect social influence; the derivation of the term fourth estate arises from the traditional European concept of the three estates of the realm: the clergy, the nobility and the commoners. The equivalent term fourth power is somewhat uncommon in English, but it is used in many European languages referring to the separation of powers in government into a legislature, an executive and a judiciary. Thomas Carlyle attributed the origin of the term to Edmund Burke, who used it in a parliamentary debate in 1787 on the opening up of press reporting of the House of Commons of Great Britain. Earlier writers have applied the term to lawyers, to the British queens consort, to the proletariat. In modern use, the term is applied to the press, with the earliest use in this sense described by Thomas Carlyle in his book On Heroes and Hero Worship: "Burke said there were Three Estates in Parliament.
If, Burke did make the statement Carlyle attributes to him, the remark may have been in the back of Carlyle's mind when he wrote in his French Revolution that "A Fourth Estate, of Able Editors, springs up. In this context, the other three estates are those of the French States-General: the church, the nobility and the townsmen. Carlyle, may have mistaken his attribution: Thomas Macknight, writing in 1858, observes that Burke was a teller at the "illustrious nativity of the Fourth Estate". If Burke is excluded, other candidates for coining the term are Henry Brougham speaking in Parliament in 1823 or 1824 and Thomas Macaulay in an essay of 1828 reviewing Hallam's Constitutional History: "The gallery in which the reporters sit has become a fourth estate of the realm." In 1821, William Hazlitt had applied the term to an individual journalist, William Cobbett, the phrase soon became well established. Oscar Wilde wrote: In old days men had the rack. Now they have the Press; that is an improvement certainly.
But still it is bad, wrong, demoralizing. Somebody — was it Burke? — called journalism the fourth estate. That was true at the time no doubt, but at the present moment it is the only estate. It has eaten up the other three; the Lords Temporal say nothing, the Lords Spiritual have nothing to say, the House of Commons has nothing to say and says it. We are dominated by Journalism. In United States English, the phrase "fourth estate" is contrasted with the "fourth branch of government", a term that originated because no direct equivalents to the estates of the realm exist in the United States; the "fourth estate" is used to emphasize the independence of the press, while the "fourth branch" suggests that the press is not independent of the government. Yochai Benkler, author of the 2006 book The Wealth of Networks, described the "Networked Fourth Estate" in a May 2011 paper published in the Harvard Civil Liberties Review, he explains the growth of non-traditional journalistic media on the Internet and how it affects the traditional press using WikiLeaks as an example.
When Benkler was asked to testify in the United States vs. PFC Bradley E. Manning trial, in his statement to the morning 10 July 2013 session of the trial he described the Networked Fourth Estate as the set of practices, organizing models, technologies that are associated with the free press and provide a public check on the branches of government, it differs from the traditional press and the traditional fourth estate in that it has a diverse set of actors instead of a small number of major presses. These actors include small for-profit media organizations, non-profit media organizations, academic centers, distributed networks of individuals participating in the media process with the larger traditional organizations. In 1580 Montaigne proposed that governments should hold in check a fourth estate of lawyers selling justice to the rich and denying it to rightful litigants who do not bribe their way to a verdict: What is more barbarous than to see a nation where justice is lawfully denied him, that hath not wherewithall to pay for it.
An early citation for this is Henry Fielding in The Covent Garden Journal: None of our political writers... take notice of any more than three estates, Kings and Commons... passing by in silence that large and powerful body which form the fourth estate in this community... The Mob; this sense has prevailed in other countries: In Italy, for example, striking workers in 1890s Turin were depicted as Il quarto stato—The Fourth Estate—in a painting by Giuseppe Pellizza da Volpedo. A political journal of the left, Quarto Stato, published in Milan, Italy, in 1926 reflected this meaning. Far-right theorist Julius Evola saw the Fourth Estate as the final point of his historical cycle theory, the regression of the castes: h
Collaborative journalism is a growing practice in the field of journalism. One definition is "a cooperative arrangement between two or more news and information organizations, which aims to supplement each organization’s resources and maximize the impact of the content produced." It is practiced by both amateur reporters. It is not to be confused with citizen journalism. Collaborative journalism can take many forms. One way to categorize collaborations is by duration, or by the level of integration among collaborators. Most collaborations can be placed within a matrix defined by these two variables, as here: Depending on the system of collaboration, individuals may provide feedback or vote on whether an article is newsworthy. A single collaborative news story, may encompass multiple authors, varying articles, ranged perspectives. Professional and amateur reporters may work together to develop collaborative news articles, or mainstream media sites may gather amateur blog posts to complement reporting.
Collaborative journalists either contribute directly to stories, sometimes through a wiki-style collaboration platform, or build upon the story externally through personal blogs. Through combined authorship, collaborative journalism is thought by some to offer an increased independence of thought and experience unavailable to traditional media. Successful collaborative journalism projects require a participatory ethos with respect for content. Collaboration among reporters or between newsrooms has been practiced in different forms for more than one hundred years. One of the earliest journalism collaborations was among the newsrooms that made up “the wires” in the mid-nineteenth century, yet through most of the twentieth century after the advent of the penny papers, competition between outlets was the norm. Yet during the height of profitability in the late twentieth century, when competition, not collaboration, was the most salient relationship between newsrooms, it was common practice for journalists on the same beat to collaborate by sharing notes, swapping tips, in general helping each other out.
Formal collaboration during that period was most common within an organization, rather than between. For example, Cable News Network was formed in 1980, codified intra-newsroom sharing – between the national headquarters and its television news affiliates – with CNN NewsSource, in 1988. However, there is a qualitative difference in the consciousness and intentionality with which collaborations are now being undertaken; the current excitement about collaborative journalism began in the mid-2000s, when publishers, journalism scholars, foundations began to look at the opportunities made possible by digital networking. The Panama Papers project may be the largest example of a journalistic consortium to date, it began sometime in 2015 when Bastian Obermayer, an investigative reporter with the south German newspaper Süddeutsche Zeitung, was contacted by an anonymous source and offered the trove of 11.5 million electronic documents from Mossack Fonseca, the world’s fourth biggest offshore law firm detailing a web of secret offshore deals and loans worth billions of dollars, details of tax avoidance designs in numerous countries.
The newspaper's editors decided they could not handle the massive volume of information alone and initiated a collaborative journalistic consortium including more than 140 journalists and the International Consortium of Investigative Journalists, a project of the nonprofit Center for Public Integrity. The European Investigative Collaborations working with "over 60 journalists in 14 countries" published a "series of articles called Football Leaks—the "largest leak in sports history". Football Leaks "led to the prosecution of football superstar Cristiano Ronaldo and coach Jose Mourinho." EIC was established in the fall of 2015 with founding members that include Der Spiegel, El Mundo, Médiapart, the Romanian Centre for Investigative Journalism, Le Soir. Collaborative journalism should not be confused with citizen journalism, practiced only by amateur reporters who develop stories by reporting, collecting and disseminating news and information through blogs on the internet, it is not community journalism or civic journalism, which are practiced only by professionals: In community journalism, professional reporters focus their coverage on smaller communities, such as neighborhoods, suburbs, or small towns Civic journalism is the philosophy and practice of professional journalists and newspapers acting as participants within a community, rather than detached spectators.
Collaborative journalism is similar, but not identical, to interactive journalism, in which consumers contribute to a professional news story through commenting and conversing with the reporter. Wiki journalism is a type of collaborative journalism. "Link journalism", a phrase coined by Scott Karp in 2008, is "a form of collaborative journalism in which a news story's writer provides external links within the story to reporting or other sources on the web." These links are meant to enhance, or add context to the original reporting. Jeff Jarvis, from the Graduate School of Journalism's new media program at the City University of New York, has said that link journalism creates a "new architecture of news." Collaborative journalism has been implemented in several different ways. Wikinews, the "free-content online news source," lets any user edit or create a news story, similar in style to Wikipedia. Several mainstream news sites have adopted a collaborative journalism approach toward news, through use
Broadcast journalism is the field of news and journals which are "broadcast", that is, published by electrical methods instead of the older methods, such as printed newspapers and posters. Broadcast methods include radio and the World Wide Web; such media disperse visual text and sounds. Broadcast articles can be written as "packages", "readers", "voice-overs" and "sound on tape". A "sack" is common on television, it is narrated by a reporter. It is a story with audio, video and video effects; the news anchor, or presenter reads a "lead-in" before the package is aired and may conclude the story with additional information, called a "tag". A "reader" is an article read without accompanying sound. Sometimes an "over the shoulder digital on-screen graphic" is added. A voice-over, or VO, is a video article narrated by the anchor. Sound on tape, or SOT, is sound or video recorded in the field, it is an interview or soundbite. Radio was the first medium for broadcast journalism. Many of the first radio stations were co-operative community radio ventures not making a profit.
Radio advertising to pay for programs was pioneered in radio. Still, television displaced radio and newspapers as the main news sources for most of the public in industrialized countries; some of the programming on radio is locally produced and some is broadcast by a radio network, for example, by syndication. The "talent" talk including reading the news. People tune in to hear engaging radio personalities and information. In radio news, stories include speech soundbites, the recorded sounds of events themselves, the anchor or host; some radio news contain 12 -- 15 stories. These new bulletins must balance the desire for a broad overview of current events with the audience's limited capacity to focus on a large number of different stories; the radio industry has undergone a radical consolidation of ownership, with fewer companies owning the thousands of stations. Large media conglomerates such as Clear Channel Communications own most of the radio stations in the United States; that has resulted in more "niche" formats and the sharing of resources within clusters of stations, de-emphasizing local news and information.
There has been concern over. The opposition says that the range of political views expressed is narrowed and that local concerns are neglected, including local emergencies, for which communication is critical. Automation has resulted in many stations broadcasting for many hours a day with no one on the station premises; when radio first became popular, it was not used as a source of information. This began to change with a man named Edward R. Murrow. Edward Murrow was an American who traveled to England in order to broadcast news about World War II, he stayed in London throughout the war and was the first to report on events such as bombings in London and updated the people on Hitler's reign. Murrow gained his fame after reporting on Hitler's German army annexing Austria. Many Americans relied on his broadcasts throughout the war to gain information about the war. More people began to rely on radio for information after the attacks on Pearl Harbor. People found out about the bombing through President Roosevelt's broadcast interrupting their daily programming.
It set Americans on edge, people began to rely more on the radio for major announcements throughout World War II. World War II was a time where radio broadcasting became a much larger industry because it was the easiest and quickest way for people to get updates on what was going on throughout the world. Informative radio continued while television reporting began to take flight. Throughout the 40's and 50's television news sources grew, it wasn't until John F. Kennedy's assassination in 1963. Radio could only capture the sound of the event, but television showed people the true horror of the assassination; this was one of the first major events in which news companies competed with each other to get the news out to the public first. CBS News was the first to report that Kennedy was killed. News crews spent the next several days covering everything happening in Washington, including Kennedy's funeral; this set the standard for news stations to have to cover major events quicker and get them out to the public as they were happening.
The JFK assassination helped to transform television journalism to how it is today, with instantaneous coverage and live coverages at major events. Television offered faster coverage than radio and allowed viewers to feel more as if they were experiencing the event because they could visualize what was going on. NBC and CBS were the two competing forces of news broadcasting in the early years of broadcast journalism. NBC was established in 1926 and CBS in 1927. There was a divide in the industry because they were not only competing against each other, but radio news, established. Women had a hard time immersing themselves into radio news seeing as most of the radio broadcasts were men. There was a small number of women who hosted programs that were for homemakers and were on entertainment broadcast. After World War II, the doors for women in broadcasting opened up; this was due to the shortage of men that were home during the war, so news outlets looked to women to fill those
Sports journalism is a form of writing that reports on sporting topics and competitions. Sports journalism is the essential element of many news media organizations. While the sports department within some newspapers has been mockingly called the toy department, because sports journalists do not concern themselves with the'serious' topics covered by the news desk, sports coverage has grown in importance as sport has grown in wealth and influence; some media organizations are devoted to sports reporting — newspapers and magazines such as L'Equipe in France, La Gazzetta dello Sport in Italy, Marca in Spain, the defunct Sporting Life in Britain, American Sports Illustrated and Sporting News. Sports. Major League Baseball gave print journalists a special role in its games, they were named official scorers and kept statistics that were considered part of the official record of league. Active sportswriters were removed from this role in 1980. Although their statistical judgment calls could not affect the outcome of a game in progress, the awarding of errors and wins/saves were seen as powerful influences on pitching staff selections and play lists when coach decisions seemed unusual.
The removal of writers, who could benefit fiscally from sensational sports stories, was done to remove this perception of a conflict of interest, to increase statistics volume and accuracy. Sports stories transcend the games themselves and take on socio-political significance: Jackie Robinson breaking the color barrier in baseball is an example of this. Modern controversies regarding the hyper-compensation of top athletes, the use of anabolic steroids and other, banned performance-enhancing drugs, the cost to local and national governments to build sports venues and related infrastructure for Olympic Games demonstrates how sports can intrude on to the news pages. Sportswriters face more deadline pressure than other reporters because sporting events tend to occur late in the day and closer to the deadlines many organizations must observe, yet they are expected to use the same tools as news journalists, to uphold the same professional and ethical standards. They must take care not to show bias for any team.
The tradition of sports reporting attracting some of the finest writers in journalism can be traced to the coverage of sport in Victorian England, where several modern sports – such as association football, cricket and rugby – were first organized and codified into something resembling what we would recognize today. Andrew Warwick has suggested that The Boat Race provided the first mass spectator event for journalistic coverage; the Race, an annual rowing event between the University of Cambridge and University of Oxford, has been held annually from 1856. Cricket because of its esteemed place in society, has attracted the most elegant of writers; the Manchester Guardian, in the first half of the 20th century, employed Neville Cardus as its cricket correspondent as well as its music critic. Cardus was knighted for his services to journalism. One of his successors, John Arlott, who became a worldwide favorite because of his radio commentaries on the BBC, was known for his poetry; the first London Olympic Games in 1908 attracted such widespread public interest that many newspapers assigned their best-known writers to the event.
The Daily Mail had Sir Arthur Conan Doyle at the White City Stadium to cover the finish of the Marathon. Such was the drama of that race, in which Dorando Pietri collapsed within sight of the finishing line when leading, that Conan Doyle led a public subscription campaign to see the gallant Italian, having been denied the gold medal through his disqualification, awarded a special silver cup, presented by Queen Alexandra, and the public imagination was so well caught by the event that annual races in Boston and London, at future Olympics, were henceforward staged over the same, 26-mile, 385-yard distance used for the 1908 Olympic Marathon, the official length of the event worldwide to this day. The London race, called the Polytechnic Marathon and staged over the 1908 Olympic route from outside the royal residence at Windsor Castle to White City, was first sponsored by the Sporting Life, which in those Edwardian times was a daily newspaper which sought to cover all sporting events, rather than just a betting paper for horse racing and greyhounds that it became in the years after the Second World War.
The rise of the radio made sports journalism more focused on the live coverage of the sporting events. The first sports reporter in Great Britain, one of the first sports reporters in the World, was an English writer Edgar Wallace, who made a report on The Derby on June 6, 1923 for the British Broadcasting Company. In France, L'Auto, the predecessor of L'Equipe, had played an influential part in the sporting fabric of society when it announced in 1903 that it would stage an annual bicycle race around the country; the Tour de France was born, sports journalism's role in its foundation is still reflected today in the leading rider wearing a yellow jersey - the color of the paper on which L'Auto was published. After the Second World War, the sports sections of British national daily and Sunday newspapers continued to expand, to the point where many paper
The term muckraker was used in the Progressive Era to characterize reform-minded American journalists who attacked established institutions and leaders as corrupt. They had large audiences in some popular magazines. In the US, the modern term is investigative journalism—it has different and more pejorative connotations in British English—and investigative journalists in the US today are informally called "muckrakers"; the muckrakers played a visible role during the Progressive Era period, 1890s–1920s. Muckraking magazines—notably McClure's of the publisher S. S. McClure—took on corporate monopolies and political machines while trying to raise public awareness and anger at urban poverty, unsafe working conditions and child labor. Most of the muckrakers wrote nonfiction, but fictional exposes had a major impact as well, such as those by Upton Sinclair. In contemporary American use, the term describes either a journalist who writes in the adversarial or alternative tradition, or a non-journalist whose purpose in publication is to advocate reform and change.
Investigative journalists view the muckrakers as early influences and a continuation of watchdog journalism. In British English the term muckraker is more to mean a journalist who specialises in scandal and malicious gossip about celebrities or well-known personalities and is used in a derogatory sense; the term is a reference to a character in John Bunyan's classic Pilgrim's Progress, "the Man with the Muck-rake", who rejected salvation to focus on filth. It became popular. While a literature of reform had appeared by the mid-19th century, the kind of reporting that would come to be called "muckraking" began to appear around 1900. By the 1900s, magazines such as Collier's Weekly, Munsey's Magazine and McClure's Magazine were in wide circulation and read avidly by the growing middle class; the January 1903 issue of McClure's is considered to be the official beginning of muckraking journalism, although the muckrakers would get their label later. Ida M. Tarbell, Lincoln Steffens and Ray Stannard Baker published famous works in that single issue.
Claude H. Wetmore and Lincoln Steffens' previous article "Tweed Days in St. Louis" in McClure's October 1902 issue was called the first muckraking article; the muckrakers would become known for their investigative journalism, evolving from the eras of "personal journalism"—a term historians Emery and Emery used in The Press and America to describe the 19th century newspapers that were steered by strong leaders with an editorial voice —and yellow journalism. One of the biggest urban scandals of the post-Civil War era was the corruption and bribery case of Tammany boss William M. Tweed in 1871, uncovered by newspapers. In his first muckraking article "Tweed Days in St. Louis", Lincoln Steffens exposed the graft, a system of political corruption, ingrained in St. Louis. While some muckrakers had worked for reform newspapers of the personal journalism variety, such as Steffens, a reporter for the New York Evening Post under Edwin Lawrence Godkin, other muckrakers had worked for yellow journals before moving on to magazines around 1900, such as Charles Edward Russell, a journalist and editor of Joseph Pulitzer's New York World.
Publishers of yellow journals, such as Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst, were more intent on increasing circulation through scandal, crime and sensationalism. Just as the muckrakers became well known for their crusades, journalists from the eras of "personal journalism" and "yellow journalism" had gained fame through their investigative articles, including articles that exposed wrongdoing. Note that in yellow journalism, the idea was to stir up the public with sensationalism, thus sell more papers. If, in the process, a social wrong was exposed that the average man could get indignant about, fine, but it was not the intent as it was with true investigative journalists and muckrakers. Julius Chambers of the New York Tribune, could be considered to be the original muckraker. Chambers undertook a journalistic investigation of Bloomingdale Asylum in 1872, having himself committed with the help of some of his friends and his newspaper's city editor, his intent was to obtain information about alleged abuse of inmates.
When articles and accounts of the experience were published in the Tribune, it led to the release of twelve patients who were not mentally ill, a reorganization of the staff and administration of the institution and to a change in the lunacy laws. This led to the publication of the book A Mad World and Its Inhabitants. From this time onward, Chambers was invited to speak on the rights of the mentally ill and the need for proper facilities for their accommodation and treatment. Nellie Bly, another yellow journalist, used the undercover technique of investigation in reporting Ten Days in a Mad-House, her 1887 exposé on patient abuse at Bellevue Mental Hospital, first published as a series of articles in The World newspaper and as a book. Nellie would go on to write more articles on corrupt politicians, sweat-shop working conditions and other societal injustices. Helen Hunt Jackson –A Century of Dishonor, U. S. policy regarding Native Americans. Henry Demarest Lloyd – Wealth Against Commonwealth, exposed the corruption within the Standard
The news media or news industry are forms of mass media that focus on delivering news to the general public or a target public. These include print media, broadcast news, more the Internet; some of the first news circulations occurred in Renaissance Europe. These handwritten newsletters contained news about wars, economic conditions, social customs and were circulated among merchants; the first printed news appeared by the late 1400s in German pamphlets that contained content, highly sensationalized. The first newspaper written in English was The Weekly Newes, published in London in 1621. Several papers followed in 50's. In 1690, the first American newspaper was published in Boston by Richard Pierce and Benjamin Harris in Boston. However, it did not have permission from the government to be published and was suppressed. In 1729, Benjamin Franklin began writing a new form of newspaper, more satirical and more involved in civic affairs than seen. In 1735, John Peter Zenger was accused of seditious libel by the governor of New York, William Cosby.
Zenger was found not guilty in part to his attorney Andrew Hamilton, who wrote a paper in which he argued that newspapers should be free to criticize the government as long as it was true. With the ratification of the Bill of Rights in 1791, freedom of the press would be guaranteed by the First Amendment. In the 1830s, newspapers turned toward reportage; this began with the New York Sun in 1833. Advancements in technology made it cheaper to print newspapers and "penny papers" emerged; these issues sought out local coverage of society. News-gathering became a central function of newspapers. With the invention of the telegraph in 1845, the "inverted pyramid" structure of news was developed. Through the latter half of the 1800s, politics played a role. By the end of the century, modern aspects of newspapers, such as banner headlines, extensive use of illustrations, "funny pages," and expanded coverage of organized sporting events, began to appear. Media consolidation began with many independent newspapers becoming part of "chains".
The early 1900s saw Progressive Era journalists using a new style of investigative journalism that revealed the corrupt practices of government officials. These exposing articles became featured in many magazines; the people who wrote them became labeled as "muckrakers". They became influential and were a vital force in the Progressive reform movement. However, after 1912 muckraking declined; the public began to think the exposés were sensationalized, but they did make a great impact on future policies. During the 1920s, radio became a news medium, was a significant source of breaking news. Although, during World War I, radio broadcasts in America were only given information about Allied victories because Great Britain had a monopoly on the transatlantic radio lines. For the newspapers, the government suppressed any radical or German papers after the war. With the introduction of the television came The Communications Act of 1934, it was an agreement between commercial television and the people of the United States that established that: The airways are public property.
During the Vietnam War, the media reporting directly challenged the government, drawing attention to the "credibility gap" — official lies and half-truths about the war. Television news continued to expand during the 1970s, by 1990, more than half of American homes had cable systems and nationally oriented newspapers expanded their reach. With technological advancements in the newsroom, notably the Internet, a new emphasis on computer-assisted reporting and a new blending of media forms emerged, with one reporter preparing the same story in print, on camera for a newspaper's cable station. A "medium" is a carrier of something. Common things carried by media include art, or physical objects. A medium may provide storage of information or both; the industries which produce news and entertainment content for the mass media are called "the media". In the late 20th century it became commonplace for this usage to be construed as singular rather than as the traditional plural. "Press" is the collective designation of media vehicles that carry out journalism and other functions of informative communication, in contrast to purely propaganda or entertainment communication.
The term press comes from the printing press of Johannes Gutenberg in the sixteenth century and which, from the eighteenth century, was used to print newspapers the only existing journalistic vehicles. From the middle of the 20th century onwards, newspapers began to be broadcast and broadcast and, with the advent of the World Wide Web came the online newspapers, or cyberjornais, or webjornais; the term "press", was maintained. Broadcasting is the distribution of audio and video signals to a number of recipients that belong to a large group; this group may be the public in general, or a large audience within the public. Thus, an Internet channel may distribute text or music worldwide, while a public address system in a workplace may broadcast limited ad hoc soundbites to a small population within its range; the sequencing of content in a broadcast i