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Sense and Sensibility

Sense and Sensibility is a novel by Jane Austen, published in 1811. It was published anonymously, it tells the story of the Dashwood sisters and Marianne as they come of age. They have an older half-brother, a younger sister, Margaret, 13; the novel follows the three Dashwood sisters as they must move with their widowed mother from the estate on which they grew up, Norland Park. Because Norland is passed down to John, the product of Mr. Dashwood's first marriage, his young son, the four Dashwood women need to look for a new home, they have the opportunity to rent a modest home, Barton Cottage, on the property of a distant relative, Sir John Middleton. There they experience love and heartbreak; the novel is set in southwest England and Sussex between 1792 and 1797. The novel, which sold out its first print run of 750 copies in the middle of 1813, marked a success for its author, it had a second print run that year. It was the first Austen title to be republished in England after her death, the first illustrated Austen produced in Britain, in Richard Bentley's Standard Novels series of 1833.

The novel continued in publication throughout the 19th, 20th and early 21st centuries and has many times been illustrated, excerpted and adapted for stage and film. Henry Dashwood, his second wife, their three daughters live for many years with Henry's wealthy bachelor uncle at Norland Park, a large country estate in Sussex; that uncle decides, in late life, to will the use and income only of his property first to Henry to Henry's first son John Dashwood, so that the property should pass intact to John's three-year-old son Harry. The uncle dies, but Henry lives just a year after that and he is unable in such short time to save enough money for his wife Mrs Dashwood, their daughters, Elinor and Margaret, who are left only a small income. On his deathbed, Mr Henry Dashwood extracts a promise from his son John to take care of his half-sisters, but before Henry is long in the grave, John's greedy wife, persuades her husband to renege on the promise, appealing to his concerns about diminishing his own son Harry's inheritance, despite the fact that John is independently wealthy thanks to both his inheritance from his mother, his wife's dowry.

Henry Dashwood's love for his second family is used by Fanny to arouse her husband's jealousy, persuade him not to help his sisters financially. John and Fanny move in as the new owners of Norland, while the Dashwood women are treated as unwelcome guests by a spiteful Fanny. Mrs Dashwood seeks somewhere else to live. In the meantime, Fanny's brother, Edward Ferrars, is attracted to Elinor. Fanny disapproves of their budding romance, offends Mrs Dashwood by implying that Elinor must be motivated by his expectations of coming into money. Mrs Dashwood moves her family to Barton Cottage in Devonshire, near the home of her cousin, Sir John Middleton, their new home is modest, but they are warmly received by Sir John and welcomed into local society, meeting his wife, Lady Middleton, his mother-in-law, the garrulous but well-meaning Mrs Jennings, his friend, Colonel Brandon. Colonel Brandon is attracted to Marianne, Mrs Jennings teases them about it. Marianne is not pleased, as she considers the thirty-five-year-old Colonel Brandon an old bachelor, incapable of falling in love or inspiring love in anyone.

While out for a walk, Marianne gets caught in the rain and sprains her ankle. The dashing John Willoughby sees the accident and assists her, picking her up and carrying her back to her home. After his rescue of her, Marianne comes to admire his good looks and his similar tastes in poetry, music and love, his attentions, Marianne's behaviour, lead Elinor and Mrs Dashwood to suspect that the couple are secretly engaged. Elinor cautions Marianne against her unguarded conduct. Willoughby engages in several intimate activities with Marianne, including taking her to see the home he expects to inherit one day and obtaining a lock of her hair; when an engagement, or at least the announcement of one, seems imminent, Mr Willoughby instead informs the Dashwoods that his aunt, upon whom he is financially dependent, is sending him to London on business, indefinitely. Marianne abandons herself to her sorrow. Edward Ferrars seems unhappy. Elinor fears that he no longer has feelings for her. After Edward departs, sisters Anne and Lucy Steele, vulgar cousins of Mrs. Jennings, come to stay at Barton Park.

Lucy informs Elinor in confidence of her secret four-year engagement to Edward Ferrars that started when he was studying with her uncle, she displays proof of their intimacy. Elinor realises Lucy's visit and revelations are the result of her jealousy and cunning calculation, it helps Elinor to understand Edward's recent sadness and behaviour towards her, she acquits Edward of blame and pities him for being held to a loveless engagement to Lucy by his sense of honour. Elinor and Marianne accompany Mrs Jennings to London. On arriving, Marianne rashly writes several personal letters to Willoughby; when they meet by chance at a dance, Willoughby is with another woman. He greets coldly, to her extreme distress, she leaves the party distraught. Soon Marianne receives a curt letter enclosing their former correspondence and love tokens, including a lock of her hair. Willoughby is revealed to be engaged to Miss Grey, who has a large fortune. Marianne is devastated. After Elinor

Hatmaking

Hat-making or millinery is the design and sale of hats and head-wear. A person engaged in this trade is called a hatter. Millinery is sold to women and children, though some definitions limit the term to women's hats. Milliners women shop-keepers, produced or imported an inventory of garments for men and children, sold these garments in their millinery shop. More the term milliner is more used to describe a person who designs, sells or trims hats for a women clientele; the origin of the term is the Middle English milener, meaning an inhabitant of the city of Milan or one who deals in items from Milan, once known for setting the fashion standards in Europe. Many styles of headgear have been popular through history and worn for different functions and events, they worn to indicate social status. Styles include the top hat, hats worn as part of military uniforms, cowboy hat, cocktail hat. A great variety of objects are or were used as trimmings on women's fashionable hats: see Trim. In the early 1900s, feathers and whole stuffed birds were used as hat trimmings.

Plume hunting was so popular that the indiscriminate shooting of birds in search for the snowy egret contributed to the extinction of the Carolina parakeet. Excessive plume hunting like this led to the formation of the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds and the passage of the Lacey Act of 1900. Link to images and descriptions of hats trimmed with birdsThis link, with references to 1880s newspaper issues, describes trims on fashionable hats as including bird feathers, stuffed birds, other small animals, flowers and lace. In 1889 in London and Paris, over 8,000 women were employed in millinery, in 1900 in New York, some 83,000 people women, were employed in millinery, it described a fashion for stuffed kittens' heads as hat ornaments in or around 1883 in Paris posed looking out from among foliage and feathers, to the point where some people were reported to breed kittens for the millinery trade. This is a partial list of people who have had a significant influence on millinery. International Hat Company, an American manufacturer credited with inventing one of America's most popular early 20th century harvest hats for field hands and workmen.

Hawley Products Company, an American manufacturer credited with inventing the tropical shaped, pressed fiber sun helmet used from World War II through the Persian Gulf War. John Cavanagh, an American hatter whose innovations included manufacturing regular and wide-oval fitting hats to enable customers to find better-fitting ready-to-wear hats. James Lock & Co. of London, is credited with the introduction of the bowler hat in 1849. John Batterson Stetson, credited with inventing the classic cowboy hat Giuseppe Borsalino, with the famous "Borsalino" Fedora hat. Anna Ben-Yusuf wrote The Art of one of the first reference books on millinery technique. Rose Bertin and modiste to Marie Antoinette, is described as the world's first celebrity fashion designer. Coco Chanel: Creator of the fashion house and creator of Chanel No.5. John Boyd was one of London's most respected milliners and is known for the famous pink tricorn hat worn by Diana, Princess of Wales. Lilly Daché was a famous American milliner of the mid-20th century.

Frederick Fox was an Australian born milliner noted for his designs for the British Royal family. Mr. John was an American milliner considered by some to be the millinery equivalent of Dior in the 1940s and 1950s. Stephen Jones of London, is considered one of the world's most radical and important milliners of the late 20th and early 21st centuries. Simone Mirman was known for her designs for Elizabeth II and other members of the British Royal Family. Barbara Pauli was the leading fashion modiste in Sweden during the Gustavian era. Caroline Reboux was a renowned milliner of the early 20th centuries. David Shilling is a renowned milliner and designer based in Monaco. Justin Smith is an award-winning milliner creating bespoke and couture hats under the J Smith Esquire brand. Philip Treacy Irish-born award-winning milliner. Draper Haberdasher Hat Works Mad hatter disease Mad as a hatter Marchandes de modes James Co.. All Sewn Up: Millinery, Dressmaking and Costume 18th Century millinery Popular Science, November 1941, "Pulling Hats Out Of Rabbits" article on modern mass production hat making Individuality in millinery, a 1923 book on hat-making from The Metropolitan Museum of Art Libraries Millinery guide

NEWPALMYRA

#NEWPALMYRA is an effort to reconstruct the ancient city of Palmyra as an immersive virtual environment, based on archaeological and other clues. The project was started from photos Bassel Khartabil had been taking of Palmyra since 2005, he began building models of the ancient city, with support from Al Aous Publishers. In 2012, Khartabil was arrested, the original project and open source files were lost. Barry Threw took over as director of the project, renamed #NEWPALMYRA, a community of developers and archaeologists began collaborating to model and recreate from scratch those historical structures captured on film and camera. In 2015, ISIL began destroying some of its famous historical sites. In late 2015, the Institute for Digital Archaeology began contributing to the New Palmyra Project, sending archaeologists with cheap 3D cameras to capture any further structures that ISIL might decide to destroy. Arch of Triumph One of the best known structures in Palmyra was the monumental Arch of Triumph.

Constructed during the reign of Emperor Septimius Severus, it was sometimes mistakenly referred to as Hadrian’s arch. It was restored in the 1930s, destroyed during the Syrian Civil War in 2015. Palmyra's main streets were not at right angles, this arch was famously built at a 30-degree turn in the colonnade between the tetrapylon and the Temple of Bel, with two richly carved façades angled away from one another. Tetrapylon A square platform, each corner containing a group of four columns; this was erected during the renovations of Diocletian at the end of the 3rd century. Each column had a pedestal in its center that supported a statue; the original columns were carved out of pink granite. Only one was undamaged in 1963. Destroyed again by ISIL on January 20, 2017. Temple of BelThis ancient temple was dedicated to the Mesopotamian god Bel in 32 AD. Bel was worshipped at Palmyra along with the sun god Yarhibol; the ruins of the temple were among the best preserved at Palmyra. They were destroyed by ISIL in August, 2015.

Roman theaterThe Roman Theatre at Palmyra dates to the time of Severus. Its remains were restored in the 20th century, it served for a time as a venue for the annual Palmyra festival, it was destroyed by ISIL in May 2015. Temple of Baal ShaminThe Temple of Baal Shamin dates to the 2nd century BC, dedicated to the Canaanite sky deity, its altar was built in 115 AD, the temple was rebuilt in 131 AD. In the 5th century AD, it was converted to a church. In 2015 it was destroyed by ISIL. Lion of Al-lāt statue This was the first statue modeled by #rsssd. In 2015 it was destroyed by ISIL. A 12-ton lifesize replica of part of the Arch of Triumph was carved into stone, from these models, installed in London's Trafalgar Square in 2016. A number of small artefacts were reconstructed and displayed at the 2016 Venice Architecture Biennale. A 10-foot model of part of the Tetrapylon, printed in a single piece, was unveiled at the April 2017 Creative Commons Summit; the project began to hold public events, partner with design groups and 3D printing shops, receive press coverage starting in 2015.

Reviving Palmyra, a book on the history and reconstruction of Palmyra, was published in 2017. Official website