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Sense of balance

The sense of balance or equilibrioception is the perception of balance and spatial orientation. It helps prevent humans and nonhuman animals from falling over when moving. Equilibrioception is the result of a number of sensory systems working together: the eyes, the inner ears, the body's sense of where it is in space ideally need to be intact; the vestibular system, the region of the inner ear where three semicircular canals converge, works with the visual system to keep objects in focus when the head is moving. This is called the vestibulo-ocular reflex; the balance system works with the skeletal systems to maintain orientation or balance. Visual signals sent to the brain about the body's position in relation to its surroundings are processed by the brain and compared to information from the vestibular and skeletal systems. In the vestibular system, equilibrioception is determined by the level of a fluid called endolymph in the labyrinth, a complex set of tubing in the inner ear; when the sense of balance is interrupted it causes dizziness and nausea.

Balance can be upset by Ménière's disease, superior canal dehiscence syndrome, an inner ear infection, by a bad common cold affecting the head or a number of other medical conditions including but not limited to vertigo. It can be temporarily disturbed by quick or prolonged acceleration, for example riding on a merry-go-round. Blows can affect equilibrioreception those to the side of the head or directly to the ear. Most astronauts find that their sense of balance is impaired when in orbit because they are in a constant state of weightlessness; this causes. This overview explains acceleration as its processes are interconnected with balance. There are five sensory organs innervated by the vestibular nerve; each semicircular canal is a thin tube that doubles in thickness at a point called osseous ampullae. At their center-base each contains an ampullary cupula; the cupula is a gelatin bulb connected to the stereocilia of hair cells, affected by the relative movement of the endolymph it is bathed in.

Since the cupula is part of the bony labyrinth, it rotates along with actual head movement, by itself without the endolymph, it cannot be stimulated and therefore, could not detect movement. Endolymph follows the rotation of the canal, due to inertia its movement lags behind that of the bony labyrinth; the delayed movement of the endolymph activates the cupula. When the cupula bends, the connected stereocillia bend along with it, activating chemical reactions in the hair cells surrounding crista ampullaris and create action potentials carried by the vestibular nerve signalling to the body that it has moved in space. After any extended rotation the endolymph catches up to the canal and the cupula returns to its upright position and resets; when extended rotation ceases, endolymph continues, which bends and activates the cupula once again to signal a change in movement. Pilots doing long banked turns begin to feel upright; the HSCC handles head rotations about a vertical axis, SSCC handles head movement about a lateral axis, PSCC handles head rotation about a rostral-caudal axis.

E.g. HSCC: looking side to side. SCC sends adaptive signals, unlike the two otolith organs, the saccule and utricle, whose signals do not adapt over time. A shift in the otolithic membrane that stimulates the cilia is considered the state of the body until the cilia are once again stimulated. E.g. lying down stimulates cilia and standing up stimulates cilia, for the time spent lying the signal that you are lying remains active though the membrane resets. Otolithic organs have a thick, heavy gelatin membrane that, due to inertia, lags behind and continues ahead past the macula it overlays and activating the contained cilia. Utricle responds to linear accelerations and head-tilts in the horizontal plane, whereas saccule responds to linear accelerations and head-tilts in the vertical plane. Otolithic organs update the brain on the head-location. Kinocilium are positioned at the end of the bundle. If stereocilia go towards kinocilium depolarization occurs causing more neurotransmitter, more vestibular nerve firings as compared to when stereocilia tilt away from kinocilium.

First order vestibular nuclei project to IVN, MVN, SVN. The inferior cerebellar peduncle is the largest center, it is the area of integration between proprioceptive, vestibular inputs to aid in unconscious maintenance of balance and posture. Inferior olive nucleus aids in complex motor tasks by encoding coordinating timing sensory info. Cerebellar vermis has three main parts: vestibulocerebellum, spinocerebellum [integrates visual, auditory and balance info to act out body and limb movements. Trigeminal and dorsal column (of spin

Paul Motian

Stephen Paul Motian was an American jazz drummer and composer. Motian played an important role in freeing jazz drummers from strict time-keeping duties, he first came to prominence in the late 1950s in the piano trio of Bill Evans, was a regular in pianist Keith Jarrett's band for about a decade. Motian began his career as a bandleader in the early 1970s, his two most notable groups were a longstanding trio of guitarist Bill Frisell and saxophonist Joe Lovano, the Electric Bebop Band which featured the drummer working with younger musicians doing interpretations of bebop standards. Motian was born in Philadelphia and raised in Providence, Rhode Island, he is of Armenian descent. After playing guitar in his childhood, Motian began playing the drums at age 12 touring New England in a swing band. During the Korean War he joined the Navy. Motian became a professional musician in 1954, played with pianist Thelonious Monk, he became well known as the drummer in pianist Bill Evans's trio alongside bassist Scott LaFaro and with Chuck Israels.

Subsequently, he played with pianists Paul Keith Jarrett. Other musicians with whom Motian performed and/or recorded in the early period of his career included Lennie Tristano, Warne Marsh, Lee Konitz, Joe Castro, Arlo Guthrie, Carla Bley, Charlie Haden, Don Cherry. Motian subsequently worked with musicians such as Marilyn Crispell, Bill Frisell, Leni Stern, Joe Lovano, Gonzalo Rubalcaba, Alan Pasqua, Bill McHenry, Stéphan Oliva, Frank Kimbrough, Eric Watson and many more. In his career, Motian became an important composer and group leader, recording for ECM Records in the 1970s and early 1980s and for Soul Note, JMT, Winter & Winter before returning to ECM in 2005. From the early 1980s he led a trio featuring guitarist Bill Frisell and saxophonist Joe Lovano joined by bassists Ed Schuller, Charlie Haden, or Marc Johnson, other musicians, including Jim Pepper, Lee Konitz, Dewey Redman and Geri Allen. In addition to playing Motian's compositions, the group recorded tributes to Thelonious Monk and Bill Evans, a series of Paul Motian on Broadway albums, featuring original interpretations of jazz standards.

Despite his important associations with pianists, Motian's work as a leader since the 1970s included a pianist in his ensembles and relied on guitarists. Motian's first instrument was the guitar, he retained an affinity for the instrument: in addition to his groups with Frisell, his first two solo albums on ECM featured Sam Brown, his Electric Bebop Band featured two and three electric guitars; the group was founded in the early 1990s, featured a variety of young guitar and saxophone players, in addition to electric bass and Motian's drums, including saxophonists Joshua Redman, Chris Potter, Chris Cheek, Tony Malaby, guitarists Kurt Rosenwinkel, Brad Shepik, Wolfgang Muthspiel, Steve Cardenas, Ben Monder, Jakob Bro. In 2011 Motian featured on a number of new recordings, including Live at Birdland, Samuel Blaser's Consort in Motion, No Comment by Augusto Pirodda, Further Explorations with Chick Corea and Eddie Gómez. Bill McHenry's Ghosts of the Sun was released - by coincidence - on the day of Motian's death.

Motian's final album as bandleader was The Windmills of Your Mind, featuring Bill Frisell, Thomas Morgan and Petra Haden. Motian died on November 22, 2011 at New York's Mount Sinai Hospital of complications from myelodysplastic syndrome. CAM Jazz released a box set titled Paul Motian in September 2010; this release compiles a number of albums which were issued by the Soul Note label: The Story of Maryam, Jack of Clubs, Notes, One Time Out and Flux and Change. In November 2012, Winter & Winter released Paul Motian on Broadway Vol. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 which collects the five volumes of On Broadway into a single set. ECM Records released a box set titled Paul Motian in April 2013, as part of the label's continuing Old & New Masters Edition series; this set compiles the six albums that Motian recorded for ECM between 1972 and 1984. The first posthumous release to feature Motian was Sunrise by the Masabumi Kikuchi Trio, released in March 2012 by ECM; this was followed in July 2012 by Owls Talk by Alexandra Grimal, released by Harmonia Mundi.

Two live recordings, led by pianist Enrico Pieranunzi, have been released by CAM Jazz. CAM Jazz reissued One Time Out in 180g vinyl format. A compact disc edition is supplied with it. One Time Out was issued on CD as part of the CAM Jazz Paul Motian boxset. Motian Sickness – The Music of Paul Motian was released in September 2011, featuring Jeff Cosgrove, John Hebert, Mat Maneri and Jamie Masefield. November 2011 saw the release of Joel Harrison's String Choir: The Music of Paul Motian. Harrison arranged Motian's music for a string quartet, plus two guitars. Russ Lossing's Drum Music: Music of Paul Motian was released in July 2012 by Sunnyside Records. Lossing recorded the al

James Parsons Burkitt

James Parsons Burkitt was an Irish civil engineer. Burkitt was a keen amateur ornithologist and studied European robins in the garden of his home near Enniskillen, County Fermanagh, Northern Ireland, he started ringing the birds in October 1922, his research, published in the journal British Birds between 1924 and 1926, was one of the first studies of bird behaviour and territory to use rings that enabled individual birds to be identified in the field. At Laragh, County Fermanagh, Burkitt proved the longevity of one female robin, he had ringed this bird on 18 December 1927 and trapped her again on 14 July 1938—this robin was at least 11 years old, "the oldest living robin in the world". Burkitt's work was admired by David Lack, who carried out further research on robins in the 1930s and 1940s. Burkitt's elder son was the surgeon Denis Parsons Burkitt FRS. James Burkitt was born on 20 August 1870, at Co.. Donegal, third son of Thomas Henry Burkitt, Presbyterian minister, his wife Emma Eliza, née Parsons.

James Burkitt was educated at Galway Grammar School, at Queen's College, obtaining the degrees of BA in mathematics and BE with first-class honours. He became an assistant to James Perry in Galway, during which period he superintended the underpinning of a large bridge and the erection of a pier and swing bridge over and estuary of the sea. In May 1893 he became assistant engineer to - Fisher on the Westport & Mulranny extension of the Midland Great Western railway, in February 1894 to the partnership of Fisher & Le Fanu in the construction of the Collooney & Claremorris railway. On the completion of the latter, he continued to work for Fisher & Le Fanu on the Belfast waterworks. In 1897 he was employed on the Downpatrick waterworks under Peter Chalmers Cowan, he appears to have moved to Co. Donegal before being appointed county surveyor for Co. Fermanagh at the end of 1898 in succession to Frederick Richard Thomas Willson, he held the Co. Fermanagh surveyorship for over forty years. Responsible for extensive road improvements in the county and for the introduction of tarmacadam road surfaces in 1904, he built several bridges during the 1920s and 1930s.

He retired in April 1940. It was a few years after he had settled in Fermanagh, when he was thirty-seven, that Burkitt started to develop an interest in birds. Through his work on the methodology of plotting bird distribution, he became one of Ireland's most influential ornithologists. Burkitt died on 30 March 1959 at Co.. Fermanagh, was buried in Trory churchyard, he was married to a daughter of William Henry Hill of Cork. Inst. CE: elected associate member, 1 March 1898. Incorporated Association of Municipal and County Engineers: elected member 21 April 1900. Addresses: Work: Courthouse, Downpatrick, Co. Down 1897. Donegal, 1898. Home: Lawnakilla, near Enniskillen, Co. Fermanagh. References All information in this entry not otherwise accounted for is from the entry on Burkitt by Helen Andrews in Dictionary of Irish Biography, ed. by James McGuire and James Quinn, 9 vols. II, 78–9, from the archives of the Institution of Civil Engineers, kindly supplied by Mrs Carol Morgan; the fullest account of Burkitt's life and career as county surveyor is in Brendan O'Donoghue, The Irish County Surveyors 1834-1944, 119–121.

IB 81, 29 Apr 1939, 351. Davis Coakley, Irish Masters of Medicine, 333. Burkitt, J. P. A study of robins by means of marked birds. British Birds 17: 294–303. Nelson, E. C. & Haffer, J. The ornithological observations of James Parsons Burkitt in County Fermanagh, Northern Ireland. Archives of Natural History 36: 107–128 Nelson, E. C. 2010. James Parsons Burkitt: activities and natural history of a renowned Irish amateur ornithologist. Ir. Nat. J. 31: 10 - 17

Saeed Ahmad Akbarabadi

Saeed Ahmad Akbarabadi was an Indian Islamic scholar of the Deobandi school of Islamic thought. He was former dean of Sunni Theology department of the Aligarh Muslim University, he was a notable writer of Urdu. Maulana Saeed Akbarabadi was born in Agra in 1908, he studied his primary classes at home he studied in Madrasa Shahi, he graduated from the Darul Uloom Deoband. In Darul Uloom Deoband, Akbarabadi studied under the scholars like Anwar Shah Kashmiri, Shabbir Ahmad Usmani and Maulana Ibrahim Balyawi. After graduation, Akbarabadi did Fazil courses from Oriental College, Lahore. During the period, Akbarabadi was appointed as a teacher of oriental languages in Madrasa-e-Aaliya, Fatehpuri. A in Arabic from St. Stephen's College, Delhi. After completing studies from Oriental College, Maulana Akbarabadi served Jamia Islamia Talimuddin, Dabhel as a teacher. Thereafter, he was appointed as a teacher of oriental languages in Fatehpuri. After the completion of his M. A from St. Stephen's College, Delhi, he was appointed as lecturer in the same college.

In the meantime Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq got the chance to study under Maulana Akbarabadi. In 1949, he was appointed as Principal in Calcutta. In 1958, Maulana Akbarabadi was selected as the Dean of The Faculty of Theology in the Aligarh Muslim University. Before him, the department was not good. Akabarabadi’s efforts introduced the department to postgraduate classes, PhD in The Faculty of Theology, is the result of his efforts. Dr. Rizwanullah did his PhD on Anwar Shah Kashmiri under Maulana Akbarabadi, it was first PhD thesis Akbarabadi had supervised in AMU, it was published by Aligarh Muslim University in 1974. During 1962-1963, Akbarabadi worked in McGill University of Canada as Visiting Professor in the Institute of Islamic Studies. After his retirement from AMU in 1972, Akbarabadi joined an Islamic institute of Hamdard in Tughlaqabad for about 4 years. After that, he was appointed as Visiting Professor in University of Calicut and Aligarh Muslim University one after the other. In the meantime, Darul Uloom Deoband had started its research department Shaikhul Hind Academy and Maulana Akbarabadi was appointed as its director.

From 25 December 1982, until his demise on 24 May 1985, Akbarabadi served the Academy as director. Maulana Saeed Ahmad Akbarabadi held the following positions during his lifetime: Dean, Department of Theology, Aligarh Muslim University Principal, Madrasa-e-Aliyah, Calcutta Director, Shaikhul Hind Academy, Darul Uloom Deoband Visiting Professor, University of Calicut Visiting Professor, Aligarh Muslim University Visiting Professor, McGill University, Canada Lecturer of Oriental Languages, Madrassa-e-Aalia, Fatehpuri Lecturer, St. Stephen's College, Delhi Editor, Burhan. Fehm-e-Quran Ghulaman-e-Islam Siddiq-e-Akbar Wahi Ilahi Al-riq fi al-Islam Uthman Zinnurayn Musalmano Ka Urooj-o-Zawal. Maulana Ubaidullah Sindhi aur unke Naaqid Following research works have been done on Maulana Akbarabadi: Maulana Saeed Ahmad Akbarabadi: Ahwaal-Aasaar by Dr Masood Alam Qasmi Maulana Saeed Ahmad Akbarabadi: Hayat-o-Khidmat by Dr Qaiser Habeeb Hashmi Maulana Saeed Ahmad Akbarabadi aur unki Adbi Khidmat by Miss Jahan Ara.

Maulana Saeed Ahmad Akbarabadi died on 24 May 1985. Syed Mehboob Rizwi

Treefort Music Fest

The Treefort Music Fest is a five-day, indie rock festival, held at numerous venues throughout downtown Boise, Idaho in late March. The inaugural 2012 festival took place March 20–23 with the featured acts Built to Spill, The Joy Formidable, Poliça. Treefort has been called "the west’s best SXSW alternative" and "Boise's preeminent artistic and musical happening" which has "morphed from quirky music festival to consuming community event." It has been characterized as having become a "nationally renowned gathering just by maintaining its personable close-knit vibe" and a "music lover's joyous mayhem" which showcases and amplifies the soul of Boise. Given its track record, by its seventh year Treefort was being hailed as "the greatest music festival in the country" and "an absolute gem of a festival." Although the idea of a multi-day, multi-venue music festival has been bruited since the mid-'80s, Treefort itself had its roots in tragedy when producer Lori Shandro's husband died in a private plane crash in 2009.

The head of an independent health insurance agency, Shandro took up interests divergent from her married life, formed The Duck Club, which brings musical acts to Boise throughout the year and now produces the Treefort Music Fest. Logistically, Treefort was inspired in part by the touring schedules of bands headed home to the Northwest from SXSW in Austin, Texas, as well as late March being the beginning of spring break for many Idaho schools. A week before the festival itself, the Boise-based bands TEENS, Hillfolk Noir, Le Fleur, The Brett Netson Band, Finn Riggins, Youth Lagoon, Built to Spill had themselves played at SXSW. Producer Lori Shandro reflected on Treefort's genesis a year at a Scenius town hall-style meeting on artistic endeavours and economic growth that "There were just a certain number of people who were all in the same place regarding.... This sort of synergy happened to make the project come together rather easily... With scenius, there's the thought of trying to put the right people in the same place at the same time, things will happen.

That's how Treefort happened. Everybody had the same vision that the Boise music scene is ready to develop and be a force on its own two feet." The festival has six year-round staff, 100 contract employees during the festival itself, nearly a thousand volunteers. Grass roots, DIY and free of corporate sponsorship, with an emphasis on emerging music, the indie-centric inaugural Treefort festival took place on March 22–25, 2012 and featured more than 137 bands from throughout the Northwest and as far afield as New Zealand and Australia, as well as performance art, art installations, disabled and modern dance, seminars on the music business and social media, local beers. There were eight stages extant, ten hours of music scheduled daily on Treefort's initial Saturday and Sunday. Critically, the first day of festival was described as being "full of transcending bands," and overall the festival was characterised as having "the look and feel of a developing SxSW," and "a smashing success," and as well as having "put Boise on the map" in terms of Boise having established a music festival due to the high quality of the musicians.

The proceeds from Treefort benefit community radio station Radio Boise, KRBX 89.9 FM. Months before any bands had been announced for the Second Annual Treefort Music Fest, scheduled for March 21–24, 2013, the initial batch of early-bird priced wristbands had sold out in October 2012 in 17 minutes, and succeeding ticket sales continued to be faster than those at the same time last year. Treefort 2013 signed up more than 250 bands and features a lost yarn-bombed 560 lbs. monster with a stone head as its mascot. The Coachella Festival has been compared to the Treefort Music Fest by Buzzfeed; the second annual Treefort Music Fest aimed at the fence "carefully," featuring a more diverse set of acts, but more than 100 Idaho bands, one of which, Boise-based Youth Lagoon, was one of Rolling Stone's "Twenty Must-See Acts" at SXSW. The headline act was Sharon Jones and the Dap-Kings, fifteen bands came from the San Francisco Bay Area. Three times as many passes were sold as in 2012. Festival organizers estimated that they had come within 100 passes of selling out completely.

Sold-out shows, as with Foxygen on opening night, led to people seeing, being surprised by, bands they had not planned to see, a phenomenon which festival organizer Eric Gilbert described as a "win-win situation."Overall the four days of the music festival was acclaimed as turning Boise itself into the sociological third place as different artistic communities converged in a state and city where (the max

2018–19 Hartford Hawks men's basketball team

The 2018–19 Hartford Hawks men's basketball team represented the University of Hartford in the 2018–19 NCAA Division I men's basketball season. They played their home games at the Chase Arena at Reich Family Pavilion in West Hartford and were led by 9th-year head coach John Gallagher, they were members of the America East Conference. They finished the season 10 -- 6 in America East play to finish in fourth place, they defeated UMass Lowell in the quarterfinals of the America East Tournament before losing in the semifinals to UMBC. The Hawks finished the 2017–18 season 19–14, 11–5 in America East Conference play to finish in third place. In the America East Tournament, they defeated New Hampshire in the quarterfinals, before losing in the semifinals to UMBC, they were invited to the CollegeInsider.com Tournament, where they lost in the first round to San Diego. Source