Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd. is a South Korean multinational electronics company headquartered in Suwon, South Korea. Due to some circular ownership, it is the flagship company of the Samsung chaebol, accounting for 70% of the group's revenue in 2012. Samsung Electronics has assembly plants and sales networks in 80 countries and employs around 308,745 people, it is the world's largest manufacturer of consumer semiconductors by revenue. As of June 2018, Samsung Electronics' market cap stood at US$325.9 billion. Samsung is a major manufacturer of electronic components such as lithium-ion batteries, chips, flash memory and hard drive devices for clients such as Apple, Sony, HTC and Nokia, it is the world's largest manufacturer of Mobile phones and Smartphones, started with the original Samsung Solstice and the popularity of its Samsung Galaxy line of devices. The company is a major vendor of tablet computers its Android-powered Samsung Galaxy Tab collection, regarded for developing the phablet market through the Samsung Galaxy Note family of devices.
It has developed 5G capable smartphones and foldable phones. Samsung has been the world's largest television manufacturer since 2006, the world's largest manufacturer of mobile phones since 2011, it is the world's largest memory chips manufacturer. In July 2017, Samsung Electronics overtook Intel as the largest semiconductor chip maker in the world. Samsung has been criticized for low dividend payouts and other governance practices that favor controlling shareholders at the expense of ordinary investors. In 2012, Kwon Oh-hyun was appointed the company's CEO but announced in October 2017 that he would resign in March 2018, citing an "unprecedented crisis". Samsung Electric Industries was established as an industry part of Samsung Group in 1969 in Suwon, South Korea. While the group didn't have enough technology nor resources because it stepped into the industry even than the competitors within the country, although it attracted considerable amount of criticism from them for cooperating with the Japanese firms, Samsung Electric managed to establish a joint venture named Saumsung-Sanyo Electric with Sanyo and Sumitomo Corporation of Japan in the same year it entered into business.
Its early products were electronic and electrical appliances including televisions, Refrigerators, air conditioners and washing machines. In 1970, Samsung Group established another subsidiary, Samsung-NEC, jointly with Japan's NEC Corporation and Sumitomo Corporation to manufacture home appliances and audiovisual devices. In 1974, the group expanded into the semiconductor business by acquiring Korea Semiconductor, one of the first chip-making facilities in the country at the time; the acquisition of Korea Telecommunications, an electronic switching system producer, was completed at the start of the next decade in 1980. By 1981, Samsung Electric Industries had manufactured over 10 million black-and-white televisions. In February 1983, Samsung's founder, Lee Byung-chull, along with the board of the Samsung industry and corporation agreement and help by sponsoring the event, made an announcement dubbed the "Tokyo declaration", in which he declared that Samsung intended to become a dynamic random-access memory vendor.
One year Samsung announced that it developed a 64 kb DRAM. In the process, Samsung used technologies imported from Micron Technology of the U. S for a development of DRAM and Sharp of Japan for its SRAM and ROM. In 1988, Samsung Electric Industries merged with Samsung Semiconductor & Communications to form Samsung Electronics, as before that, they had not been one company and had not been a leading corporation together, but they were not rivals, as they had been in talks for a time, until they merged. Samsung Electronics launched its first mobile phone in the South Korean market. Sales were poor and by the early 1990s, Motorola held a market share of over 60 percent in the country's mobile phone market compared to just 10 percent for Samsung. Samsung's mobile phone division struggled with poor quality and inferior products until the mid-1990s and exit from the sector was a frequent topic of discussion within the company. Lee Kun-Hee decided; the company shelved the production of many under-selling product lines and instead pursued a process of designing and manufacturing components and investing in new technologies for other companies.
In addition, Samsung outlined a 10-year plan to shrug off its image as a "budget brand" and to challenge Sony as the world's largest consumer electronics manufacturer. It was hoped in this way Samsung would gain an understanding of how products are made and give a technological lead sometime in the future; this patient vertical integration strategy of manufacturing components has borne fruit for Samsung in the late-2000s. As Samsung shifted away from consumer markets, the company devised a plan to sponsor major sporting events. One such sponsorship was for the 1998 Winter Olympics held in Japan; as a chaebol, Samsung Group wielded wealth that allowed the company to invest and develop new technology rather than build products at a level which would not have a detrimental impact on Samsung's finances. Samsung had a number of technological breakthroughs in the field of memory which are commonplace in most electrical products today; this includes the world's first 64MB DRAM in 1992, 256 MB DRAM in 1994, 1GB DRAM in 1996.
In 2004, Samsung developed the world's first 8GB NAND flash memory chip and a manufacturing deal was struck with Apple in 2005. A deal to supply Apple with memory chips was sealed in 2005 and, as of October 2013, Sams
Seoul Subway Line 2
Seoul Subway Line 2 known as the Circle Line, is a circular line of the Seoul Metropolitan Subway. The line running clockwise is called the "inner circle line" and the counter-clockwise line is called the "outer circle line"; this is Seoul's most used line, consists of the main loop, the Seongsu Branch and the Sinjeong Branch for a total line length of 60.2 km. The Line 2 loop is the second longest subway loop in the world after Beijing Subway Line 10. Headways on the line vary from 2 minutes 18 seconds on peak periods and 5–6 minutes off-peak periods; the line connects the city centre to Teheran Valley and the COEX/KWTC complex. Line 2 was built in 1978–84 together with the Seongsu Branch. Dangsan bridge was closed for reconstruction in 1996 and reopened November 22, 1999; the old steel girder bridge was replaced by a 1.3-kilometre long concrete bridge between Dangsan on the southern side of the river and Hapjeong on the northern bank. Yongdu station on the Seongsu Branch is the first station in the Seoul Subway system with operating platform screen doors.
As of 2008 platform screen doors are operating at all stations along Line 2. New rolling stock has progressively came on line, replacing older vehicles. October 31, 1980: Sinseol-dong – Sports Complex section opened December 23, 1982: Sports Complex – Seoul Nat'l Univ. of Education section opened September 16, 1983: Euljiro 1-ga – Seongsu section opened. It averaged 2.56 times more than the other 14 subway lines fitted with WiFi service zones. In 2011, retailer Home plus opened the world's first virtual supermarket at Seolleung station, where smartphone users can photograph the bar code of life-size pictures, on the walls and platform screen doors, of 500 items of food, electronics etc. for delivery within the same day. There is a possible extension in the conception stage to extend the Sinjeong Branch to 3.7 km to Gayang Station on Line 9. The path would include a new station named Gangseo-gu Office in between Gayang. Subways in South Korea List of Korea-related topics Seoul Metropolitan Subway Seoul Metro Map and route finder
National Library of Korea
The National Library of Korea is located in Seoul, South Korea and was established in 1945. It houses over 10 million volumes, including over 1,134,000 foreign books and some of the National Treasures of South Korea, it was relocated within Seoul, from Sogong-dong, Jung-gu to Namsan-dong in 1974, again to the present location at Banpo-dong, Seocho-gu, in 1988. It was transferred from the Ministry of Education to the Ministry of Culture in 1991; the library is served by Seoul Subway Lines 3, 7 and 9 which all connect at Express Bus terminal Station. National Digital Library of Korea National Library for Children and Young Adults Information Center on North Korea The National Library for the Disabled National Assembly Library of Korea List of national and state libraries Official website
Yangjaecheon is a stream that flows through the city of Seoul, South Korea. It runs through Gangnam, part of the southern half of the city. Yangjaecheon is a greenway stretching five and a half kilometres from Gwanaksan in Gyeonggi into Seoul through Seocho District, Gangnam District, Songpa District until it runs into the Tancheon; the stream is recessed with major and minor roads crossing above it on bridges and multiple parallel bike and pedestrian trails flanking it on tiered ledges. Public exercise equipment is provided along a variety of flowers. 3.75km of the stream was appointed as Seoul Future heritage. The stream flows from Gyeonggi Province into Seoul through different districts, it is total 15.6km. The course is shown below. Gwacheon. Seoul Seocho District. Yangjae-dong Gangnam District. Dogok-dong Daechi 3-dong Irwon 2-dong Songpa District Jamsil-dongTancheon There are 174 species of plants, 42 species of birds, 20 species of fish, 6 species of mammals, 6 kinds of amphibians and reptiles in the Yangjaecheon flowing in the center of the city.
Yangjae Stream revived the naturalness of the river by applying the natural method with the goal of restoring Yangjaecheon ecosystem. Yangjaecheon Ecological Park has restored the riverside slope to create walking space. Concrete revetments were removed and new revetments were constructed using megaliths, trees and natural materials; these vegetation revetments are safe for floods, they control the water temperature by creating shade in the riverside. Yanghaecheon provide algae habitats to help maintain the food chain of aquatic ecosystems, it precipitates and absorbs water and pollutants, easing eutrophication of the material. Yangjaecheon has a tale related to Guryongsan. Guryongsan has nine valleys, nine peaks, nine wells; the name of ‘Guryong’ is based on nine dragons. The highest peak of nine peaks of Guryong Mountain is called Guksoobong, which means ‘a mountain peak that protects the country.’ There is a story related to Guryongsan. According to the tale, the mountain had ten valleys, each dragon in one valley.
They had to ascend to the sky, but one was late to ascend and was seen by a person, couldn’t ascend. By the means of good conduct for people, he had to be a stream for people to farm; the stream made people wealthier and happier, why this stream was named ‘Yangjaecheon.’'Yangjae' is a word written in Chinese characters, translated as'a group of talented people.' The Yangjaecheon was the first tributary of the Han River, flowed directly in the Han River. However, it was an artificially created river and watershed flow in Tancheon which made because of the development of Han River and its vicinity. In the 1970s, the land consolidation project in the Gaepo-dong area polluted Yangjaecheon by the intensification. After that, the pollution became much worse with the rapid increase of the population. In order to improve the ecological environment of Yangjaecheon, natural river system was applied for the first time in urban river. From 1995 to 2000, it was restored to water quality of more than 2 grade by removing concrete from both shore for and constructing vegetation shore, water purification facility, bicycle road and eco experience center.
It was restored as a natural ecological river. As a result of these efforts, it was selected by the Ministry of Environment in 2005 as an excellent ecological restoration river. Yangjaecheon starts from Gwanaksan in Gwacheon, it joins with Makgyecheon. In Seocho District, it joins with Yeouicheon. Makgyecheon and Yeouicheon is a small stream, it flows through Gangnam District and runs into Tancheon. The total length of Yangjaecheon is 15.6km. Gwacheon manages 8.4km, Seocho District manages 3.7km, Gangnam District manages 3.5km. The average width of Yangjaecheon is 6~13m. Bridges: Gwan-agg Bridge. While agricultural off-season, it is used as ice sled field. Swimming pool: There are two swimming pools. Water purification facility: It is located between Yeongdong Bridge 2 and 3, it uses Gravel contact oxidation to maintain the BOD 1~3ppm. It can purify 32,000m2 per days. Rivers of Korea Description from a Korean Tourism website Visit Seochogoo Seoul future heritage-Yangjaecheon
Samsung is a South Korean multinational conglomerate headquartered in Samsung Town, Seoul. It comprises numerous affiliated businesses, most of them united under the Samsung brand, is the largest South Korean chaebol. Samsung was founded by Lee Byung-chul in 1938 as a trading company. Over the next three decades, the group diversified into areas including food processing, insurance and retail. Samsung entered the electronics industry in the late 1960s and the construction and shipbuilding industries in the mid-1970s. Following Lee's death in 1987, Samsung was separated into four business groups – Samsung Group, Shinsegae Group, CJ Group and Hansol Group. Since 1990, Samsung has globalised its activities and electronics; as of 2017, Samsung has the 6th highest global brand value. Notable Samsung industrial affiliates include Samsung Electronics, Samsung Heavy Industries, Samsung Engineering and Samsung C&T. Other notable subsidiaries include Samsung Everland and Cheil Worldwide. Samsung has a powerful influence on South Korea's economic development, politics and culture and has been a major driving force behind the "Miracle on the Han River".
Its affiliate companies produce around a fifth of South Korea's total exports. Samsung's revenue was equal to 17% of South Korea's $1,082 billion GDP. According to Samsung's founder, the meaning of the Korean hanja word Samsung is "tri-star" or "three stars"; the word "three" represents something "big and powerful". In 1938, Lee Byung-chul of a large landowning family in the Uiryeong county moved to nearby Daegu city and founded Samsung Sanghoe. Samsung started out as a small trading company with forty employees located in Su-dong, it dealt in locally-grown groceries and noodles. The company prospered and Lee moved its head office to Seoul in 1947; when the Korean War broke out, he was forced to leave Seoul. He started a sugar refinery in Busan named Cheil Jedang. In 1954, Lee built the plant in Chimsan-dong, Daegu, it was the largest woollen mill in the country. Samsung diversified into many different areas. Lee sought to establish Samsung as leader in a wide range of industries. Samsung moved into lines of business such as insurance and retail.
In 1947, Cho Hong-jai, the Hyosung group's founder, jointly invested in a new company called Samsung Mulsan Gongsa, or the Samsung Trading Corporation, with the Samsung's founder Lee Byung-chull. The trading firm grew to become the present-day Samsung C&T Corporation. After a few years and Lee separated due to differences in management style. Cho wanted a 30 equity share. Samsung Group was separated into Hyosung Group, Hankook Tire and other businesses. In the late 1960s, Samsung Group entered the electronics industry, it formed several electronics-related divisions, such as Samsung Electronics Devices, Samsung Electro-Mechanics, Samsung Corning and Samsung Semiconductor & Telecommunications, made the facility in Suwon. Its first product was a black-and-white television set. In 1980, Samsung acquired the Gumi-based Hanguk Jeonja Tongsin and entered telecommunications hardware, its early products were switchboards. The facility was developed into the telephone and fax manufacturing systems and became the center of Samsung's mobile phone manufacturing.
They have produced over 800 million mobile phones to date. The company grouped them together under Samsung Electronics in the 1980s. After Lee, the founder's death in 1987, Samsung Group was separated into four business groups—Samsung Group, Shinsegae Group, CJ Group and the Hansol Group. Shinsegae was part of Samsung Group, separated in the 1990s from the Samsung Group along with CJ Group, the Hansol Group. Today these separated groups are independent and they are not part of or connected to the Samsung Group. One Hansol Group representative said, "Only people ignorant of the laws governing the business world could believe something so absurd", adding, "When Hansol separated from the Samsung Group in 1991, it severed all payment guarantees and share-holding ties with Samsung affiliates." One Hansol Group source asserted, "Hansol, CJ have been under independent management since their respective separations from the Samsung Group". One Shinsegae department store executive director said, "Shinsegae has no payment guarantees associated with the Samsung Group".
In 1980s, Samsung Electronics began to invest in research and development, investments that were pivotal in pushing the company to the forefront of the global electronics industry. In 1982, it built a television assembly plant in Portugal; as of 2012, Samsung has invested more than US$13,000,000,000 in the Austin facility, which operates under the name Samsung Austin Semiconductor. This makes the Austin location the largest foreign investment in Texas and
Supreme Court of South Korea
The Supreme Court of Korea is the highest court in South Korea. It is located in Seoul. Articles 101–110 of the Constitution of the Republic of Korea establish the Supreme Court and enumerate its powers and responsibilities. Although the Supreme Court is the highest court for most legal issues, the Constitutional Court of Korea is the court of last resort for more specialized constitutional issues such as impeaching presidents or dissolving political parties; the Supreme Court of Korea is composed of the Chief Justice of the Republic of Korea, 13 other Supreme Court Justices, 12 of which have adjudicatory functions. The 13th justice of the Supreme Court is appointed by the Chief Justice as the Minister of Court Administration, does not participate in rendering judicial opinions; the Chief Justice of Korea is appointed to the court by the President with the consent of the National Assembly of South Korea, serves a non-renewable term of six years from the time of appointment. The Chief Justice acts as the head of the judicial branch of the Republic of Korea, has broad administrative powers under the Constitution, including the right to recommend other justices to the Supreme Court and the right to appoint judges of the inferior courts.
The current Chief Justice is Kim Myeong‐soo. The 13 other Justices are appointed to the court by the President on the recommendation of the Chief Justice and the consent of the National Assembly, serve renewable terms of six years. By law, to be eligible for appointment to the Supreme Court, a person must be over 40, have spent at least 15 years: as a judge, public prosecutor, or lawyer or engaged in legal affairs at the state organs, local governments, state-run or public enterprises, state-financed institutions while qualified as a lawyer or in an office higher than assistant professor in the field of jurisprudence at an authorized college or university while qualified as a lawyer. For the most part, Supreme Court Justices are appointed from the bench. Supreme Court Justices are required to retire at age 70; the Supreme Court employs a number of research judges, whose function is to assist the Justices in researching their opinions. These research judges may either be assigned to a particular justice, or else belong to a'pool' that provides assistance to any Justice.
The research judges are appointed from among the judges of the other courts presiding judges of the district courts or else associate judges of the high courts. As of September 2012, there are 106 research judges including 1 Chief research judge and 1 Senior research judge. In addition, there are 10 non-judge researchers; as the court of last resort for the Republic of Korea, the Supreme Court has appellate jurisdiction over cases in the South Korean legal system. Additionally, the Supreme Court has original jurisdiction over challenges to the validity of a presidential or parliamentary election and the power to review the constitutionality and legality of rules, orders and actions of administrative entities; the Supreme Court is organized into each consisting of four Justices. The Petty Benches hear cases from the lower courts, which they may overturn by consensus. Should the Petty Bench assigned to a case fail to reach a consensus, the case will be heard by the Grand Bench; the Grand Bench must be composed of more than two-thirds of the Justices and be presided over by the Chief Justice.
Unlike the Petty Benches, the Grand Bench can enter judgments by simple majority, rather than needing a consensus. If no majority can be reached amongst the Justices sitting on the Grand Bench, the judgment of the lower court is sustained by default. In addition to cases that fail to garner a consensus in one of the petty benches, the Grand Bench hears cases where it is deemed that any order, rule, or regulation is in violation of the laws or the Constitution, where a previous opinion of the Supreme Court needs modification, or in cases where adjudication by the Petty Benches would not be appropriate. In addition to its adjudicative functions, the Supreme Court is responsible for the administration of the South Korean court system; the Supreme Court Justices Council comprises the highest body of court administration in the Republic of Korea. This council is presided over by the Chief Justice, with all of the Justices of the Supreme Court sitting on the Council; the Council has the power to promulgate the rules of procedure for the Supreme Court and lower courts, select judicial precedents for publication, request the budget for the judicial branch, rule on other matters which are referred to it by the Chief Justice.
In addition, the Council is responsible for confirming the nominations of the Chief Justice of judges for the lower courts. To pass a resolution, the Justices Council requires a quorum of more than two-thirds of the Justices of the Supreme Court, a majority of which must approve of the proposed measure; the Chief Justice has a vote on the Council, is given the prerogative to cast the deciding vote in the event of a tie. The National Court Administration is headed by the Minister of the National Court Administration, handles much of the daily operation and general administrative duties of the judicial branch; the Minister and Vice Minister of the National Court Administration have the right to address the National Assembly and the State Council on issues related to court administration. The court and its administrative offices are housed in a 66,500 square meter building located at 967 Seocho-dong, Seocho-gu, Seoul; this has been the home of the Supreme Court of South Korea since December 1, 1995.
Before moving to its new building, the court was housed in a 10,300 square meter building built in 1928 as well as two annex buildings at 37 Seosomun-dong, Jung-gu, Seoul. List of
Jamwon-dong is a dong, neighbourhood of Seocho-gu in Seoul, South Korea. Until 1988, Jamwon-dong was under the jurisdiction of Gangnam-gu. Jamwon-dong is popular for its mulberry trees and silkworms, whose cocoon is used to make fabric for clothing; as a legal-status neighborhood, Jamwon-dong includes Banpo Jamwon-dong. Middle SchoolsShindong Middle School Kyongwon Middle SchoolElementary SchoolsSindong Elementary School Banwon Elementary School Jamwon Station of Sinsa Station of Banpo Station of Nonhyeon Station of Express Bus Terminal Station of Administrative divisions of South Korea Seocho-gu official website Seocho-gu map at the Seocho-gu official website The Jamwon-dong Resident office