Sunjong of Korea
Sunjong, the Emperor Yunghui, was the second and the last Emperor of Korea, of the Yi dynasty, ruling from 1907 until 1910. Sunjong was the second son of Empress Myeongseong; when he was two years old, Sunjong was proclaimed the crown prince. In 1882, he married a daughter of the Min clan, who became Empress Sunmyeonghyo; the Korean Empire was established in 1897, Sunjong became the imperial crown prince. In July 1907, Gojong was deposed as a result of Japanese coercion, Sunjong was made emperor of Korea, he was proclaimed heir to the throne of Prince Imperial Yeong, the younger brother of Sunjong, moved from Deoksugung Palace to the imperial residence at Changdeokgung Palace. Sunjong's reign was limited by the increasing armed intervention of the Japanese government in Korea. In July 1907, he was proclaimed emperor of Korea but was forced to enter into the Japan–Korea Treaty of 1907; this treaty allowed the Japanese government to supervise and intervene in the administration and governance of Korea, which allowed for the appointment of Japanese ministers within the government.
While under Japanese supervision, the Korean army was dismissed on the pretext of lack of public finance regulations. In 1909, Japan implemented the Japan–Korea Protocol which removed Korea's judicial power. Meanwhile, Japan dispatched Itō Hirobumi, Japanese Resident-General of Korea, to negotiate with Russia over problems involving Korea and Manchuria. However, Itō was assassinated by Ahn Jung-geun at Harbin, which led to the Japanese occupation of Korea. Pro-Japanese politicians, such as Song Byung-jun and Lee Wan-yong, merging Korea with Japan by fabricating Korea's willingness and establishing the Japan–Korea Annexation Treaty on August 29, 1910. Although still existent on paper, the intervention by the Japanese government ended Sunjong's reign over the Korean Empire and he became powerless within three years of ruling. Japan, in effect, abolished the Korean Empire on August 29 1910, ending 519 years of the Joseon dynasty. After the annexation treaty, the former Emperor Sunjong and his wife, Empress Sunjeong, lived the rest of their lives imprisoned in Changdeokgung Palace in Seoul.
Sunjong could not exercise any power as emperor because there were only pro-Japanese politicians in government. After the Korean Empire collapsed, Sunjong was demoted from emperor to king. Japan allowed him the title of King Yi of Changdeok Palace and allowed for the title to be inherited. Sunjong died on April 24, 1926, in Changdeokgung and is buried with his two wives at the imperial tomb of Yureung in the city of Namyangju, his state funeral on June 10, 1926, was a catalyst for the June 10th Movement against Japanese rule. He had no children. Father: Emperor Gojong Mother: Empress Myeongseong of the Yeoheung Min clan Consorts:Empress Sunmyeong of the Yeoheung Min clan – born to Min Tae-ho, leader of the Yeoheung Min clan, she died. Empress Sunjeong of the Haepyeong Yun clan – daughter of Marquis Yun Taek-yeong, his Imperial Majesty Emperor Sunjong Munon Muryeong Donin Seonggyeong of Korea 대한제국순종문온무령돈인성경황제폐하 大韓帝國純宗文溫武寧敦仁誠敬皇帝陛下 Daehan Jeguk Sunjong Munon Muryeong Donin Seonggyeong Hwangje Pyeha Korea: Founder of the Order of the Auspicious Phoenix Japan: Collar of the Order of the Chrysanthemum Belgium: Grand Cordon of the Royal Order of Leopold Portrayed by Ahn Sang-woo in the 2016 film The Last Princess.
List of Korea-related topics History of Korea Korean Empire Rulers of Korea House of Yi
Sejong the Great
Sejong the Great was the fourth king of the Joseon dynasty of Korea. He was the third son of Queen consort Min, he was designated as heir-apparent, Crown Prince, after his older brother Prince Yangnyeong was stripped of his title. He ascended to the throne in 1418. During the first four years of his reign, Taejong governed as regent, after which his father-in-law, Sim On, his close associates were executed. Sejong reinforced Confucian policies and executed major "legal amendments", he personally created and promulgated the Korean alphabet Hangul, encouraged advancements of scientific technology, instituted many other efforts to stabilize and improve prosperity. He dispatched military campaigns to the north and instituted the Samin policy to attract new settlers to the region. To the south, he captured Tsushima Island. During his reign from 1418 to 1450, he governed along with his father, the King Emeritus Taejong from 1418 to 1422 governing as the sole monarch from 1422 to 1450. Since 1442, the king was ill so his son Crown Prince Munjong acted as regent for him.
Although the appellation "the Great" / "" was given posthumously to every ruler of Goryeo and Joseon, this title is associated with Gwanggaeto and Sejong. Sejong was born on 7 May 1397, the third son of King Taejong; when he was twelve, he became Grand Prince Chungnyeong. As a young prince, Sejong excelled in various studies and was favored by King Taejong over his two older brothers; as the third son of Taejong, Sejong's ascension to the throne was unique. Taejong's eldest son, was named heir apparent in 1404. However, Yangnyeong's free spirited nature as well as his preference for hunting and leisure activities resulted in his removal from the position of heir apparent in June 1418. Though it is said that Yangnyeong abdicated in favor of his younger brother, there are no definitive records regarding Yangnyeong's removal. Taejong's second son Grand Prince Hyoryeong became a monk upon the elevation of his younger brother Sejong. Following the removal of Yangnyeong as heir apparent, Taejong moved to secure his youngest son's position as heir apparent.
The government was purged of officials. In August 1418, Taejong abdicated in favour of Sejong; however in retirement Taejong continued to influence government policy. Sejong's surprising political skill and creativity did not become apparent until after Taejong's death in 1422. King Sejong revolutionized the Korean government by appointing people from different social classes as civil servants. Furthermore, he performed official government events according to Confucianism, he encouraged people to behave according to the teachings of Confucianism; as a result, Confucianism became the social norm of Korea at the time. He published books about Confucianism. At first, he suppressed Buddhism by banning all Buddhist monks from Seoul, drastically reducing the power and wealth of the Buddhist hierarchy, but he alleviated his action by building temples and accepting Buddhism by making a test to become a monk. In 1427, Sejong ordered a decree against the Huihui community that had had special status and stipends since the Yuan dynasty.
The Huihui were forced to abandon their headgear, to close down their "ceremonial hall" and worship like everyone else. No further mention of Muslims exist during the era of the Joseon. In relationship with the Chinese Ming, he made some successful agreements. In relationship with Jurchen people, he installed 10 military posts, 4 counties and 6 garrisons, in the northern part of the Korean Peninsula, he maintained good relations with Japan by allowing trade with them. But he suppressed Tsukishima island with military forces in order to stop pirating in the South Sea since Tsushima island was a base for Japanese pirates. King Sejong was an effective military planner, he created various military regulations to strengthen the safety of his kingdom, supported the advancement of Korean military technology, including cannon development. Different kinds of mortars and fire arrows were tested as well as the use of gunpowder. In May 1419, King Sejong, under the advice and guidance of his father Taejong, embarked upon the Gihae Eastern Expedition, the ultimate goal of this military expedition to remove the nuisance of Japanese pirates, operating out of Tsushima Island.
During the expedition, 245 Japanese were killed, another 110 were captured in combat, while 180 Korean soldiers were killed. 146 Chinese and 8 Korean kidnapped were liberated by this expedition. In September 1419 a truce was made and the Korean army returned to Korea, but the Treaty of Gyehae was signed in 1443, in which the Daimyo of Tsushima promised to pay tribute to the King of Joseon. In 1433, Sejong sent a prominent general, north to destroy the Jurchens. Kim's military campaign captured several castles, pushed north, expanded Korean territory, to the Songhua River. 4 counties and 6 garrisons were established to safeguard the people from the Jurchens. Sejong is credited with great advances in science during his reign, he wanted to help farmers. The book—the Nongsa jikseol —contained information about the different farming techniques that he tol
Gwanghaegun of Joseon
Gwanghae-gun or Prince Gwanghae was the fifteenth king of the Joseon dynasty. His personal name was Yi Hon; as he was deposed in a coup d'état official historians did not give him a temple name like Taejo or Sejong. Gwanghaegun was the second son of King Seonjo, born to Lady Kim, a concubine; when Japan invaded Korea to attack the Ming Empire, he was installed as Crown Prince. When the king fled north to the border of Ming, he set up a branch court and fought defensive battles. During and after the Seven Year War, he acted as the de facto ruler of the Joseon Dynasty, commanding battles and taking care of the reconstruction of the nation after the devastating wars, in the place of old and weak King Seonjo. Although it brought prestige to him, his position was still unstable, he had an elder but incompetent brother Prince Imhae and a younger but legitimate brother Grand Prince Yeong-chang, supported by the Lesser Northerners faction. For Gwang-hae, King Seonjo's abrupt death made it impossible for his most favorite son Yeong-chang Daegun to succeed to the throne.
Before King Seonjo died, he named Prince Gwang-hae as his official successor to the throne, ordered his advisers to make a royal document. However, Lyu Young-gyong of Lesser Northerners faction hid the document and plotted to install Prince Yeong-chang as king, only to be found out by the head of the Great Northerners faction, Chung In-hong. Lyu was executed and Prince Yeong-chang was arrested and died the next year. After the incident, Gwang-hae tried to bring officials from various political and regional background to his court, but his plan was interrupted by Greater Northerners including Lee Icheom and Chung In-hong. Greater Northerners began to take members of other political factions out of the government Lesser Northerners. At last in 1613 Greater Northerners put their hand on Prince Yeong-chang. At the same time Greater Northerners suppressed the Lesser Northerners. However, Gwang-hae had no power to stop this though he was the official head of the government. Despite his infamous reputation in times, he was a talented and realistic politician.
He sponsored restoration of documents. As a part of reconstruction, he redistributed land to the people, he was responsible for the reintroduction of the hopae identification system after a long period of disuse. In foreign affairs he sought a balance between the Ming Empire and the Manchus. Since he realized Joseon was unable to compete with Manchu military power, he tried to keep friendly relationship with the Manchus while the kingdom was still under the suzerainty of Ming, which angered the Ming and dogmatic Confucian Koreans; the critically worsened Manchu-Ming relationship forced him to send ten thousand soldiers to aid Ming in 1619. However, the Battle of Sarhū ended in Manchu's overwhelming victory; the Korean General Gang Hong-rip surrendered to Nurhaci. Gwanghaegun managed to avoid another war, he restored diplomatic relationship with Japan in 1609 when he reopened trade with Japan through Treaty of Giyu, sent his ambassadors to Japan in 1617. During his reign, Gwanghaegun encouraged publishing in order to accelerate reconstruction and to restore the kingdom's former prosperity.
Many books came out during his reign, including the famous medical book Donguibogam, several historical records were rewritten in this period. For his job in public affair, he implemented the Daedong law, which let the subjects to pay the taxes more easily. However, this law was activated only in Gyeonggi Province, the largest granary zone at that time, it took a century for the law to be extended across the whole kingdom. In 1616, tobacco soon popularized by many aristocratic noblemen. In April 6, 1623 Gwanghaegun was deposed in a coup by the Westerners faction; the coup directed by Kim Yu took place at night, Gwanghaegun was captured later. He was confined first on Ganghwa Island and on Jeju Island, where he died in 1641, he does not have a royal mausoleum like the other Joseon rulers. His and Lady Ryu's remains were buried at a comparatively humble site in Namyangju in Gyeonggi Province; the Westerners faction installed Neungyanggun as the sixteenth king Injo who promulgated pro-Ming and anti-Manchu policies, which resulted in two subsequent Manchu invasions.
Although Gwanghaegun is one of only two deposed kings who were not restored and given the temple name, many people consider him a victim of feuds between political factions. However he did a better job of caring for his country than his predecessor King Seonjo, or his successor King Injo, they both contributed to invasions -- the Japanese invasions of the Seven Year War. In modern South Korea, Gwanghaegun is considered one of the wiser kings rather than a despot. Father: King Seonjo of Joseon Grandfather: Yi Cho, Grand Prince Deokheung Grandmother: Grand Princess Consort Hadong of the Hadong Jeong clan Mother: Royal Noble Consort Gong of the Gimhae Kim clan Grandfat
The Korean alphabet, known as Hangul, has been used to write the Korean language since its creation in the 15th century by King Sejong the Great. It may be written as Hangeul following the standard Romanization, it is the official writing system of Korea, both North. It is a co-official writing system in the Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture and Changbai Korean Autonomous County in Jilin Province, China, it is sometimes used to write the Cia-Cia language spoken near the town of Indonesia. The Hangul alphabet consisted of 28 letters with 17 consonant letters and 11 vowel letters when it was created; as four became obsolete, the modern Hangul consists of total 24 letters with 14 consonant letters and 10 vowel letters. In North Korea the total is counted 40, it consists of 19 consonant letters and 21 vowel letters as it additionally includes 5 tense consonants and 20. The Korean letters are written in syllabic blocks with each alphabetic letter placed vertically and horizontally into a square dimension.
For example, the Korean word for "honeybee" is written 꿀벌, not ㄲㅜㄹㅂㅓㄹ. As it combines the features of alphabetic and syllabic writing systems, it has been described as an "alphabetic syllabary" by some linguists; as in traditional Chinese writing, Korean texts were traditionally written top to bottom, right to left, are still written this way for stylistic purposes. Today, it is written from left to right with spaces between words and western-style punctuation; some linguists consider it among the most phonologically faithful writing systems in use today. One interesting feature of Hangul is that the shapes of its consonants mimic the shapes of the speaker's mouth when pronouncing each consonant; the Korean alphabet was called Hunminjeong'eum, after the document that introduced the script to the Korean people in 1446. The Korean alphabet is called hangeul, a name coined by Korean linguist Ju Si-gyeong in 1912; the name combines the ancient Korean word han, meaning "great", geul, meaning "script".
The word han is used to refer to Korea in general, so the name means "Korean script". It has been romanized in multiple ways: Hangeul or han-geul in the Revised Romanization of Korean, which the South Korean government uses in English publications and encourages for all purposes. Han'gŭl in the McCune–Reischauer system, is capitalized and rendered without the diacritics when used as an English word, Hangul, as it appears in many English dictionaries. Hānkul in the Yale romanization, a system recommended for technical linguistic studies. In North Korea it is called Chosŏn'gŭl after Chosŏn, the North Korean name for Korea after the old name of Korea; the McCune–Reischauer system is used there. Until the mid-20th century, the Korean elite preferred to write using Chinese characters called Hanja, they referred to Hanja as jinseo or "true letters". Some accounts say the elite referred to the Korean alphabet derisively as'amkeul meaning "women's script", and'ahaetgeul meaning "children's script", though there is no written evidence of this.
Supporters of the Korean alphabet referred to it as jeong'eum meaning "correct pronunciation", gukmun meaning "national script", eonmun meaning "vernacular script". Before the creation of the new Korean alphabet, Koreans wrote using Classical Chinese alongside native phonetic writing systems that predate the modern Korean alphabet by hundreds of years, including Idu script, Hyangchal and Gakpil. However, due to fundamental differences between the Korean and Chinese languages, the large number of characters, many lower class Koreans were illiterate. To promote literacy among the common people, the fourth king of the Joseon dynasty, Sejong the Great created and promulgated a new alphabet; the Korean alphabet was designed so that people with little education could learn to write. A popular saying about the alphabet is, "A wise man can acquaint himself with them before the morning is over; the project was completed in late December 1443 or January 1444, described in 1446 in a document titled Hunminjeong'eum, after which the alphabet itself was named.
The publication date of the Hunminjeongeum, October 9, became Hangul Day in South Korea. Its North Korean equivalent, Chosŏn'gŭl Day, is on January 15. Another document published in 1446 and titled Hunminjeong'eum Haerye was discovered in 1940; this document explains that the design of the consonant letters is based on articulatory phonetics and the design of the vowel letters are based on the principles of yin and yang and vowel harmony. The Korean alphabet faced opposition in the 1440s by the literary elite, including politician Choe Manri and other Korean Confucian scholars, they believed. They saw the circulation of the Korean alphabet as a threat to their status. However, the Korean alphabet entered popular culture as King Sejong had intended, used by women and writers of popular fiction. King Yeonsangun banned the study and publication of the Korean alphabet in 1504, after a document criticizing the king entered the public. King Jungjong abolished the Ministry of Eonmun, a governmental institution related to Hangul research, in 1506.
The late 16th century, saw a revival of the Korean alphabet as gasa and sijo poetry flourished. In the 17th century, the Korean alphabet novels became a major genre. However, the use of the Korea
Sejo of Joseon
Sejo of Joseon was the seventh king of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea. He was the brother of Munjong of Joseon and uncle of Danjong of Joseon, against whom he led a coup d'état to became king himself in 1455. Born in 1417 as Yi Yu, King Sejong the Great's second son, he showed great ability at archery and martial arts, he was a brilliant military commander, though he never went to the battlefront himself. He became Grand Prince Suyang in the name by which he was better known. Following King Sejong's death, Suyang's ill brother, took the throne but soon died; the crown passed to Danjong. The new king was too young to rule the nation, all political processes were controlled by then-premier Hwangbo In and General Kim Jongseo, vice-premier; as Kim Jongseo and his faction used the chance to extend the power of court officials against many royal family members, the tension between Kim and Suyang increased. Suyang surrounded himself with trusted allies, including Han Myung-hoi. Han advised Suyang to take over the government in a coup, on 10 November 1453, he killed Kim Jongseo and his faction, thereby taking the reins of power into his own hands.
After the coup he arrested his own brother, first sending him into exile putting him to death. In 1455 he forced his powerless young nephew, Danjong, to abdicate, declaring himself seventh king of the Joseon dynasty, he demoted Danjong to prince and ordered him to be poisoned after his younger brother, Grand Prince Geumsung, six scholars including Seong Sam-mun, Pak Paeng-nyeon, Yi Gae plotted to remove the Suyang from power in an attempt to put Danjong back on the throne. Despite having snatched the throne from his young nephew, killing many people in the process, he proved himself one of the most able rulers and administrators in Korean history. First, he strengthened the monarchy established by King Taejong, by weakening the power of the prime minister and bringing staff directly under the king's control, he strengthened the administrative system, introduced by Taejong, enabling the government to determine exact population numbers and to mobilize troops effectively. Just like Taejong, he was a hardliner with regards to foreign policy, attacking Jurchens on the northern front in 1460 and 1467.
He revised the land ordinance to improve the national economy. He executed scholars from King Sejong's era for plotting against him, but encouraged publication of history, economics and religious books. Most he compiled the Grand Code for State Administration, which became the cornerstone of dynastic administration and provided the first form of constitutional law in a written form in Korea, he died in 1468, the throne passed to his weak son, Yejong. Father: King Sejong of Joseon Grandfather: King Taejong of Joseon Grandmother: Queen Wongyeong of the Yeoheung Min clan Mother: Queen Soheon of the Cheongsong Shim clan Grandfather: Shim On Grandmother: Lady Ahn of the Sunheung Ahn clan Consorts and their Respective Issue:Queen Jeonghui of the Papyeong Yun clan Yi Jang, Crown Prince Uigyeong Princess Uisuk Yi Hwang, Grand Prince Haeyang Yi Se-Hui or Princess Uiryeong or Princess Uihwa Royal Noble Consort Geun of the Seonsan Park clan Yi Seo, Prince Deokwon Yi Seong, Prince Changwon Deposed Consort So-yong of the Park clan Unnamed son Consort Suk-won of the Goryeong Shin clan Sejo of Joseon compiled a number of books based on his interests.
One includes a biography of Gautama Buddha. He created two other books: Wolin sukbo Yukdae byungyo King Sejo Hyejang Sungcheon Chedo Yeolmun Yeongmu Jideok Yunggong Seongsin Myeongye Heumsuk Inhyo the Great of Korea 세조혜장승천체도열문영무지덕융공성신명예흠숙인효대왕 世祖惠莊承天體道烈文英武至德隆功聖神明睿欽肅仁孝大王 Portrayed by Nam Sung-woo in 1984-1985 MBC TV series 500 Years of Joseon: The Ume Tree in the Midst of the Snow. Portrayed by Seo In-seok in 1994 KBS2 TV series Han Myung-hoi. Portrayed by Im Dong-jin in 1998-2000 KBS1 TV series The King and the Queen. Portrayed by Choi Bong-sik in 2007 KBS2 TV series Sayuksin. Portrayed by Kim Byung-se in 2007-2008 SBS TV series The King and I. Portrayed by Kim Yeong-cheol in 2011 KBS2 TV series The Princess' Man Portrayed by Kim Young-ho in 2011 JTBC TV series Insu, The Queen Mother. Portrayed by Lee Jung-jae in 2013 film The Face Reader. Portrayed by Go Young-bin in the 2016 KBS1 TV series Jang Yeong-sil. List of Korean monarchs#Joseon Korean-Jurchen border conflicts
Cheoljong of Joseon
Cheoljong of Joseon was the 25th king of the Korean Joseon Dynasty. He was a distant relative of King Yeongjo, he was born the illegitimate son of Yi Gwang, Prince Jeongye of the Joseon dynasty and his concubine Lady Yeom of Yongseong, in Ganghwa. His first name was Yi Won-beom. Though some years he was changed his name to Yi Byeon. In August 1841, Min Jin-yong and Lee Won-deok were plotting a coup d'etat to crown Yi Won-gyeong as king and legitimate child of Jeongye Daewongun. Yi Won-gyeong was the second cousin of King Heonjong of Joseon and the great-great grandson of 21st King Yeongjo of Joseon. However, Min Jin-yong and Lee Won-deok's coup d'etat was detected and they were executed along with Yi Won-gyeong, his only descendants the and sole survivors were two Illegitimate sons, Yi Kyung-eung and Yi Won-beom, who were deported to Ganghwa-do. He was part of the royal family of the Joseon dynasty but he was illegitimate. During his childhood times, all the legitimate children of the Joseon dynasty died.
At the beginning of the 19th century, the Andong Kim clan, who had provided the Joseon state with several queens, had seized power everywhere in Korea. The social stagnation that resulted was a breeding ground for unrest. Corruption and embezzlement from the treasury and its inevitable exploitation were taken to extreme levels, reached staggering proportions. One rebellion after another was accompanied by natural disasters. Indeed, it was one of the most gloomy periods in the country’s history; the only aim of the Andong Kim clan was the preservation of their influence. Their fierce campaign to dominate the royal house had led to a situation in which all of the representatives of the royal family fled from Seoul; when the royal family produced intelligent and appropriate candidates for the accession, they were either accused of treason and executed or sent into exile, so when Heonjong died, leaving no son, no acceptable candidate could be found to succeed to the throne. Cheoljong ascended to the throne in 1849 at the age of 19.
As a distant relative of King Yeongjo, the 21st king of Joseon, Cheoljong was selected for adoption by the Dowager Queen at the time and to allow him to ascend to the throne. The future Cheoljong was found on Ganghwa Island; when the envoys arrived on Ganghwa Island, they found the remaining clan of the Yi's surviving in wretched poverty. In 1849, at the age of 18, Yi Byeon/Seong, the 3rd son of Prince Jeon-gye, was proclaimed King, amidst obvious degradation and poverty. Though from the start of the Joseon Dynasty Korean kings had given top priority to the education of their sons, Cheoljong could not read a single word on the notice delivering congratulations to him on his elevation to the royal throne. For the Andong Kims, Cheoljong was an excellent choice, his illiteracy made him vulnerable to their control. Proof of this was that though Cheoljong ruled the country for 13 years, until his last days he had not yet learned how to move with dignity or how to wear royal clothes, so that in the most luxurious of robes he still looked like a fisherman.
As part of the Andong Kim's manipulation of Cheoljong, in 1851, the clan married Cheoljong to Kim Mun-geun, daughter of a member of the clan, known posthumously as Queen Cheorin. Cheoljong died at the age of 32 in January 1864, without a male heir qualified for the throne, as his only son was born to a lower ranked consort, not to Queen Cheolin. Once again, it became necessary to search far back in the Yi lineage to find a candidate for the throne. Father: Yi Gwang, Grand Internal Prince Jeongye Grandfather: Yi In, Prince Euneon Grandmother: Princess Consort Jeonsan of the Jeonju Yi clan Mother: Grand Internal Princess Consort Yongseong of the Yongdam Yeom clan Grandfather: Yeom Seong-Hwa Grandmother: Lady Ji of the Sangju Ji clan Consorts and their Respective Issue:Queen Cheorin of the Andong Kim clan Unnamed son Royal Consort Gwi-in of the Miryang Park clan Unnamed son Royal Consort Gwi-in of the Pyeongyang Jo clan Unnamed son Unnamed son Royal Lady Na-in of the Lee clan Unnamed son Unnamed daughter Royal Consort Suk-ui of the Onyang Bang clan Unnamed daughter Unnamed daughter Royal Consort Suk-ui of the Geumseong Beom clan Princess Yeonghye Royal Consort Suk-ui of the Gimhae Kim clan Unnamed daughter Lord Wonbeom, the 3rd Son of Prince Jeongye (great-grandson His Royal Highness the Prince Deogwan of Korea, the heir presumptive to the throne.
His Majesty the King of Korea King Cheoljong Huiyun Jeonggeuk Sudeok Sunseong Heummyung Gwangdo Donwon Changhwa Munhyeon Museong Heonin Yeonghyo the Great of Korea 철종희윤정극수덕순성흠명광도돈원창화문현무성헌인영효대왕 哲宗熙倫正極粹德純聖欽命光道敦元彰化文顯武成獻仁英孝大王 List of Rulers of Korea Joseon Dynasty History of Korea List of Korea-related topics Jeongye Daewongun Byeon Tae-seop. 韓國史通論, 4th ed. ISBN 89-445-9101-6. Cummings, Bruce.. Korea's Place in the Sun: A Modern History. New York. ISBN 0-393-04011-9
Heonjong of Joseon
Heonjong of Joseon was the 24th king of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea. He was the grandson of Sunjo, his father was Crown Prince Hyomyeong, who died at the age of 20 before becoming king and his mother was Queen Sinjeong of the Pungyang Jo clan. Heonjong was born three-years before Hyomyeong's death. Heonjong ascended to the throne in 1834 at the age of 7 after King Sunjo, died. Like King Sunjo, Heonjong took the throne at a young age and his grandmother, Queen Sunwon served as regent. Although King Heonjong ascended to the throne, he had no political control over Joseon; when Heonjong reached adulthood, Queen Sunwon refused to give up control. In 1840, the control over the kingdom was handed down to the Andong Kims, the family of his grandmother Queen Sunwon, following the anti-Catholic Gihae persecution of 1839. King Heonjong died after reigning for 15 years in 1849 at the age of 21, he was buried at the Gyeongneung tomb within the Donggureung Tomb Cluster in Seoul, where several kings and queens of the Joseon Dynasty were buried.
As King Heonjong died without an heir, the throne passed to a distant descendant of King Yeongjo, King Cheoljong. As was customary with the Annals of the Joseon Dynasty, the chronicle of Heonjong's reign was compiled after his death, in 1851; the compilation of the 16-volume chronicle was supervised by Jo In-yeong. Father: King Munjo of Joseon Grandfather: King Sunjo of Joseon Grandmother: Queen Sunwon of the Andong Kim clan Mother: Queen Sinjeong of the Pungyang Jo clan Grandfather: Jo Man-Yeong Grandmother: Lady Song of the Eunjin Song clan Consorts and their Respective Issue:Queen Hyohyeon of the Andong Kim clan Queen Hyojeong of the Namyang Hong clan Royal Noble Consort Gyeong of the Gwangsan Kim clan Royal Noble Consort Jeong of the Yun clan Royal Consort Suk-ui of the Gimhae Kim clan Unnamed daughter King Heonjong Jangsuk Chegeon Gyegeuk Jungjeong Gwangdae Jiseong Gwangdeok Hongun Janghwa Gyungmun Wimu Myeongin Cheolhyo the Great of Korea 헌종장숙체건계극중정광대지성광덕홍운장화경문위무명인철효대왕 獻宗莊肅體健繼極中正光大至聖廣德弘運章化經文緯武明仁哲孝大王 List of Rulers of Korea Joseon Dynasty History of Korea List of Korea-related topics