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Sepang International Circuit

The Sepang International Circuit is a motorsport race track in Sepang, Malaysia. It is located 45 km south of Kuala Lumpur, close to Kuala Lumpur International Airport, it hosted the Formula One Malaysian Grand Prix between 1999 and 2017, is the venue for the Malaysian Motorcycle Grand Prix, the Malaysia Merdeka Endurance Race and other major motorsport events. The circuit was designed by German designer Hermann Tilke, who would subsequently design F1 venues in Shanghai, Istanbul, Marina Bay, Yas Marina, Greater Noida, Austin and Hanoi; as part of a series of major infrastructure projects in the 1990s under Mahathir Mohamad's government, the Sepang International Circuit was constructed between 1997 and 1999 close to Putrajaya, the then-newly founded administrative capital of the country, with the intent of hosting the Malaysian Grand Prix. Similar to other of the country's circuits, the circuit is known for its unpredictable humid tropical weather, varying from clear furnace hot days to tropical rain storms.

The circuit was inaugurated by the 4th Prime Minister of Malaysia Tun Dr Mahathir Bin Mohamad on 7 March 1999 at 20:30 MST. He subsequently went on to inaugurate the first Moto GP Malaysian Grand Prix on 20 April 1999 and the first Formula One Petronas Malaysian Grand Prix on 17 October 1999. On 23 October 2011, on the second lap of the MotoGP Shell Advance Malaysian Grand Prix, the Italian motorcycle racer Marco Simoncelli died following a crash in turn 11 on Lap 2, resulting in an abandonment of the race; the track was resurfaced in 2016, with several corners reprofiled to emphasize mechanical, rather than aerodynamic grip. Notably, the final corner was raised by 1 meter, which officials claimed would force drivers to take a apex and explore different racing lines through the hairpin. In October 2016 it was rumored that the Sepang circuit may be dropped from the Formula One calendar due to dwindling ticket sales, held its nineteenth and last World Championship Grand Prix in 2017; the race's contract was due to expire in 2018, but its future had been under threat due to rising hosting fees and declining ticket sales.

The main circuit raced in a clockwise direction, is 5.543 kilometres long, is noted for its sweeping corners and wide straights. The layout is quite unusual, with a long back straight separated from the pit straight by just one tight hairpin. Other configurations of the Sepang circuit can be used; the north circuit is raced in a clockwise direction. It is the first half of the main circuit; the course is 2.71 kilometres long in total. The south circuit is the other half of the racecourse; the back straight of the main circuit becomes the pit straight when the south circuit is in use, joins onto turn 8 of the main circuit to form a hairpin turn. Run clockwise, this circuit is 2.61 km in length. Sepang International Circuit features kart racing and motocross facilities. Sepang starts with a long pit straight where the DRS zone exists – crucial for drivers to get a good exit out of the last corner to gain as much speed as possible. Turn 1 is a long, slow corner taken in second gear. Most drivers brake late and lose speed as they file round the corner, similar to Shanghai's first turn but slower.

Turn 1 leads straight into a tight left hairpin which goes downhill quite significantly. The first two corners are quite bumpy. Turn 3 is a long flat out right hander which leads into Turn 4 – known locally as the Langkawi Curve – a second gear, right-angle right-hander. Turns 5 and 6 make up an high-speed, long chicane that hurts tyres and puts a lot of stress on drivers due to high G-Force, it is locally known as the Genting Curve. Turns 7 and 8 make up a long, medium-speed, double-apex right hander, a bump can cause the car to lose balance here. Turn 9 is a slow left-hand hairpin, similar to turn two but uphill. Turn 10 leads into a challenging, medium-speed right hander at turn 11, requiring braking and turning simultaneously. Turn 12 is a flat-out, bumpy left which leads into the flat right at turn 13 the challenging'Sunway Lagoon' curve at turn 14. Similar to turn 11, it requires steering at the same time, it is taken in second gear. The long back straight can be a good place for drivers to overtake as they brake hard into turn 15, a left-handed, second-geared hairpin but drivers are advised by experts to be careful not to get re-overtaken as they come into turn 1.

Marco Simoncelli - MotoGP 2011 Afridza Munandar - Asia Talent Cup 2019 List of Formula One circuits List of sporting venues with a highest attendance of 100,000 or more https://www.sepangcircuit.com/events/formula-1-petronas-malaysia-grand-prix/event-info https://www.sepangcircuit.com/about/history Official website Map and circuit history at RacingCircuits.info Sepang International Circuit on Google Maps

Rampachodavaram (ST) (Assembly constituency)

Rampachodavaram Assembly constituency is a constituency in East Godavari district of Andhra Pradesh, representing the state legislative assembly in India. It is one of the seven assembly segments of Araku, along with Kurupam, Salur, Araku Valley and Paderu. Nagulapalli Dhanalakshmi is the present MLA of the constituency, who won the 2019 Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly election from YSR Congress Party; as of 25 March 2019, there a total of 260,323 electors in the constituency. The eleven mandals that forms the assembly constituency are: List of constituencies of the Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly

Code Noir

The Code Noir was a decree passed by France's King Louis XIV in 1685. The Code Noir defined the conditions of slavery in the French colonial empire, restricted the activities of free Negroes, forbade the exercise of any religion other than Roman Catholicism, ordered all Jews out of France's colonies; the Code Noir ball many blacks in an harsh slavery, but did not relieve the brutality of that slavery in many areas under French control. In some areas it resulted in a higher percentage of blacks being free people of colour than in the British system; those freed were placed under restrictions by the Code Noir but on average they were exceptionally literate, with a significant number of them owning businesses and slaves. The code has been described by Tyler Stovall as "one of the most extensive official documents on race and freedom drawn up in Europe". In his 1987 analysis of the Code Noir's significance, Louis Sala-Molins claimed that its two primary objectives were to assert French sovereignty in her colonies and to secure the future of the cane sugar plantation economy.

Central to these goals was control of the slave trade. The Code aimed to provide a legal framework for slavery, to establish protocols governing the conditions of colonial inhabitants, to end the illegal slave trade. Religious morals governed the crafting of the Code Noir; the Code Noir was one of the many laws inspired by Jean-Baptiste Colbert, who began to prepare the first version. After Colbert's 1683 death, his son, the Marquis de Seignelay, completed the document, it was ratified by Louis XIV and adopted by the Saint-Domingue sovereign council in 1687 after it was rejected by the parliament. It was applied in the West Indies in 1687, Guyana in 1704, Réunion in 1723, Louisiana in 1724; the second version of the code was passed by Louis XV at age 13 in 1724. In Canada, slavery received legal foundation from the king from 1689–1709; the Code Noir was not applied in New France's Canadian colony. In Canada, there never was legislation regulating slavery, no doubt because of the small number of slaves.

The intendant Raudot issued an ordinance in 1709 that legalized slavery. See Virtual Museum of New France At this time in the Caribbean, Jews were active in the Dutch colonies, so their presence was seen as an unwelcome Dutch influence in French colonial life. Furthermore, the majority of the population in French colonies were slaves. Plantation owners governed their land and holdings in absentia, with subordinate workers dictating the day-to-day running of the plantations; because of their enormous population, in addition to the harsh conditions facing slaves, small-scale slave revolts were common. Despite some well-intended provisions, the Code Noir was never or enforced, in particular regarding protection for slaves and limitations on corporal punishment. In 60 articles, the document specified the following: Jews could not reside in the French colonies Slaves must be baptized in the Roman Catholic Church Public exercise of any religion other than Roman Catholicism was prohibited; the fine was 2000 pounds of sugar If the father was a slave's master, in addition to the fine, the slave and any resulting children would be removed from his ownership, but not freed Weddings between slaves required the masters' permission but required slaves' own consent Children born between married slaves were slaves, belonging to the female slave's master Children between a male slave and a free woman were free.

For another month their hamstring would be cut and they would be branded again. A third time they would be executed Free blacks who harboured fugitive slaves would be beaten by the slave owner and fined 300 pounds of sugar per day of refuge given.