SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Separation of church and state

The separation of church and state is a philosophic and jurisprudential concept for defining political distance in the relationship between religious organizations and the nation state. Conceptually, the term refers to the creation of a secular state and to disestablishment, the changing of an existing, formal relationship between the church and the state. In a society, the degree of political separation between the church and the civil state is determined by the legal structures and prevalent legal views that define the proper relationship between organized religion and the state; the arm's length principle proposes a relationship wherein the two political entities interact as organizations each independent of the authority of the other. The strict application of the secular principle of laïcité is used in France, while secular societies, such as Denmark and the United Kingdom, maintain a form of constitutional recognition of an official state religion; the philosophy of the separation of the church from the civil state parallels the philosophies of secularism, disestablishmentarianism, religious liberty, religious pluralism, by way of which the European states assumed some of the social roles of the church, the welfare state, a social shift that produced a culturally secular population and public sphere.

In practice, church–state separation varies from total separation, mandated by the country's political constitution, as in India and Singapore, to a state religion, as in the Maldives. An important contributor to the discussion concerning the proper relationship between Church and state was St. Augustine, who in The City of God, Book XIX, Chapter 17, examined the ideal relationship between the "earthly city" and the "city of God". In this work, Augustine posited that major points of overlap were to be found between the "earthly city" and the "city of God" as people need to live together and get along on earth. Thus, Augustine held that it was the work of the "temporal city" to make it possible for a "heavenly city" to be established on earth. For centuries, monarchs ruled by the idea of divine right. Sometimes this began to be used by a monarch to support the notion that the king ruled both his own kingdom and Church within its boundaries, a theory known as caesaropapism. On the other side was the Catholic doctrine that the Pope, as the Vicar of Christ on earth, should have the ultimate authority over the Church, indirectly over the state.

Moreover, throughout the Middle Ages the Pope claimed the right to depose the Catholic kings of Western Europe and tried to exercise it, sometimes sometimes not, such as was the case with Henry VIII of England and Henry III of Navarre. In the West the issue of the separation of church and state during the medieval period centered on monarchs who ruled in the secular sphere but encroached on the Church's rule of the spiritual sphere; this unresolved contradiction in ultimate control of the Church led to power struggles and crises of leadership, notably in the Investiture Controversy, resolved in the Concordat of Worms in 1122. By this concordat, the Emperor renounced the right to invest ecclesiastics with ring and crosier, the symbols of their spiritual power, guaranteed election by the canons of cathedral or abbey and free consecration. At the beginning of the Protestant Reformation, Martin Luther articulated a doctrine of the two kingdoms. According to James Madison one of the most important modern proponents of the separation of church and state, Luther's doctrine of the two kingdoms marked the beginning of the modern conception of separation of church and state.

Those of the Radical Reformation took Luther's ideas in new direction, most notably in the writings of Michael Sattler, who agreed with Luther that there were two kingdoms, but differed in arguing that these two kingdoms should be separate, hence baptized believers should not vote, serve in public office or participate in any other way with the "kingdom of the world". While there was a diversity of views in the early days of the Radical Reformation, in time Sattler's perspective became the normative position for most Anabaptists in the coming centuries. Anabaptists came to teach that religion should never be compelled by state power, approaching the issue of church-state relations from the position of protecting the church from the state. In the 1530s, Henry VIII, angered by the Pope Clement VII's refusal to annul his marriage to Catherine of Aragon, decided to break with the Church and set himself as ruler of the Church of England; the monarchs of Great Britain have retained ecclesiastical authority in the Church of England since Henry VIII, having the current title, Supreme Governor of the Church of England.

England's ecclesiastical intermixing did not spread however, due to the extensive persecution of Catholics that resulted from Henry's power grab. This led to Nonconformism, English Dissenters, the anti-Catholicism of Oliver Cromwell, the Commonwealth of England, the Penal Laws against Catholics and others who did not adhere to the Church of England. One of the results of the persecution in England was that some people fled Great Britain to be able to worship as they wished – but they did not seek religious freedom, early North American colonies were as intolerant of religious dissent as England; some of these people voluntarily sailed to the American Colonies for this purpose. After the American Colonies famously revolted against George III of the United Kingdom, the Constitution of United States was amended to ban the establi

Major M. Hillard

Major McKinley Hillard was a Virginia politician and judge from Chesapeake, Virginia. Hillard was born in Morgan County, Tennessee on October 23, 1896, his family moved to the Deep Creek borough of Norfolk County, Virginia in 1907. Hillard served in the U. S. Army in World War I, after which he attended the College of William and Mary and the T. C. Williams Law School at the University of Richmond, he practiced law in Portsmouth, Virginia beginning in 1926. He married Mary Frances "Merle" Cherry in about 1921, they had a daughter. Hillard and was elected to the Virginia House of Delegates as a Democrat in 1927, representing Norfolk County and the City of South Norfolk and he was reelected in 1929. In 1931, he was elected to the Virginia Senate representing the 3rd District which he held until he resigned in 1954 upon being appointed Circuit Court Clerk for Norfolk County. Hillard was appointed a Circuit Court judge in 1961, he used his political savvy and was instrumental in the merger of Norfolk County with South Norfolk to form the city of Chesapeake in 1963.

He retired from the bench in 1971, but continued serving the community in a variety of ways, such as at Deep Creek Baptist Church and the Deep Creek Ruritan Club. The Major Hillard library is a public library in the City of Chesapeake, named in Hillard's honor. Hillard died in June 1977 in Virginia. Major M. Hillard at The Virginia Elections and State Elected Officials Database Project, 1776-2007 Major M. Hillard at Find a Grave

Sawyers Bar Catholic Church

Sawyers Bar Catholic Church is a historic church building in the Klamath National Forest in Sawyers Bar, within the Roman Catholic Diocese of Sacramento. The church was built in 1855 under the direction of Father Florian Schwenninger, a Benedictine monk, who had come to the area of the Salmon River to serve the needs of the Catholic population among the local miners; the first Mass was celebrated in 1857. The site contains a graveyard with graves dating to as early as 1850; the Church was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1978. Today, the church is considered a mission church of Sacred Heart Parish in Fort Jones, CA