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September 11 attacks

The September 11 attacks were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001. The attacks resulted in 2,977 victim fatalities, over 25,000 injuries, caused at least $10 billion in infrastructure and property damage. Additional people have died of 9/11-related cancer and respiratory diseases in the months and years following the attacks. Four passenger airliners operated by two major U. S. passenger air carriers —all of which departed from airports in the northeastern United States bound for San Francisco and Los Angeles—were hijacked by 19 al-Qaeda terrorists. Two of the planes, American Airlines Flight 11 and United Airlines Flight 175, were crashed into the North and South towers of the World Trade Center complex in Lower Manhattan. Within an hour and 42 minutes, both 110-story towers collapsed. Debris and the resulting fires caused a partial or complete collapse of all other buildings in the World Trade Center complex, including the 47-story 7 World Trade Center tower, as well as significant damage to ten other large surrounding structures.

A third plane, American Airlines Flight 77, was crashed into the Pentagon in Arlington County, which led to a partial collapse of the building's west side. The fourth plane, United Airlines Flight 93, was flown toward Washington, D. C. but crashed into a field in Stonycreek Township near Shanksville, after its passengers thwarted the hijackers. 9/11 is the single deadliest terrorist attack in human history and the single deadliest incident for firefighters and law enforcement officers in the history of the United States, with 343 and 72 killed, respectively. Suspicion fell on al-Qaeda; the United States responded by launching the War on Terror and invading Afghanistan to depose the Taliban, which had failed to comply with U. S. demands to extradite Osama bin expel al-Qaeda from Afghanistan. Many countries strengthened their anti-terrorism legislation and expanded the powers of law enforcement and intelligence agencies to prevent terrorist attacks. Although Osama bin Laden, al-Qaeda's leader denied any involvement, in 2004 he claimed responsibility for the attacks.

Al-Qaeda and bin Laden cited U. S. support of Israel, the presence of U. S. troops in Saudi Arabia, sanctions against Iraq as motives. After evading capture for a decade, bin Laden was located in Pakistan and killed by SEAL Team Six of the U. S. Navy in May 2011, during the Obama administration; the destruction of the World Trade Center and nearby infrastructure harmed the economy of New York City and had a significant effect on global markets, which resulted in the closing of Wall Street until September 17 and the civilian airspace in the U. S. and Canada until September 13. Many closings and cancellations followed, out of respect or fear of further attacks. Cleanup of the World Trade Center site was completed in May 2002, the Pentagon was repaired within a year. On November 18, 2006, construction of One World Trade Center began at the World Trade Center site; the building opened on November 3, 2014. Numerous memorials have been constructed, including the National September 11 Memorial & Museum in New York City, the Pentagon Memorial in Arlington County and the Flight 93 National Memorial in a field in Stonycreek Township near Shanksville, Pennsylvania.

There are allegations of Saudi Arabian government involvement in the attacks. The primary evidence is the content of the 28 redacted pages of the 2002 Joint Inquiry into Intelligence Community Activities before and after the Terrorist Attacks of September 11, 2001, conducted by the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence and the House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence; these 28 pages contain information regarding the material and financial assistance given to the hijackers and their affiliates leading up to the attacks by the Saudi Arabian government. As a consequence of the attacks, the United States has been in a state of national emergency since 2001; the origins of al-Qaeda can be traced to 1979. Osama bin Laden helped organize Arab mujahideen to resist the Soviets. Under the guidance of Ayman al-Zawahiri, bin Laden became more radical. In 1996, bin Laden issued his first fatwā. In a second fatwā in 1998, bin Laden outlined his objections to American foreign policy with respect to Israel, as well as the continued presence of American troops in Saudi Arabia after the Gulf War.

Bin Laden used Islamic texts to exhort Muslims to attack Americans until the stated grievances were reversed. Muslim legal scholars "have throughout Islamic history unanimously agreed that the jihad is an individual duty if the enemy destroys the Muslim countries", according to bin Laden. Bin Laden orchestrated the attacks and denied involvement but recanted his false statements. Al Jazeera broadcast a statement by bin Laden on September 16, 2001, stating, "I stress that I have not carried out this act, which appears to have been carried out by individuals with their own motivation." In November 2001, U. S. forces recovered a videotape from a destroyed house in Afghanistan. In the video, bin Laden admits foreknowledge of the attacks. On December 27, 2001, a second bin Laden video was released. In the video, he said: It has become clear that the West in general and America in particular have an unspeakable hatred for Islam.... It is the hatred of crusaders. Terrorism against America deserves to be praised because it w

Mushfiqur Rahim

Mushfiqur Rahim is a Bangladeshi cricketer and the former captain of the Bangladesh national cricket team. Between August 2009 and December 2010 Rahim served across all formats, he was ranked as one of the world's most famous athletes by ESPN "WORLD FAME 100" in 2019. At domestic level he represents captains Sylhet Super Stars. According to Jamie Siddons in 2010, the former coach of Bangladesh, Rahim's batting is so versatile that he can bat anywhere in the top order, from one to six. In November 2018, during the second Test against Zimbabwe, he became the first wicket-keeper to score two double centuries in Tests, he finished his innings on 219 not out, the highest individual score by a Bangladesh batsman in Test cricket. He faced 421 balls and spent 589 minutes at the crease during the innings, a record for a Bangladesh batsman in a Test innings; the same month, against the West Indies, he became the second batsman for Bangladesh to score 4,000 runs in Tests. Mushfiqur Rahim was born on 9 June 1987 in Bangladesh.

His parents are Rahima Khatun. He finished his secondary schooling at Bogra Zilla School. In between playing cricket, he studied history at the Jahangirnagar University, he sat his master's degree examinations in 2012. Rahim is a fan of Spanish football team FC Barcelona. Before playing for the national team, Rahim played for Bangladesh Under-19s, he represented them in three Youth Tests and 18 Youth One Day Internationals between 2004 and 2006, averaging 31.75 and 36.00 with the bat in the respective formats. Rahim trained at the Bangladesh Institute of Sports. During the 2006 U-19 Cricket World Cup, hosted by Sri Lanka in February, Rahim captained the Bangladesh side which included future international players Shakib Al Hasan and Tamim Iqbal among others. Rahim was one of two players at the tournament with Test-match experience. Under his guidance Bangladesh reached the quarter finals of the tournament; that month Rahim was recalled to the senior Test squad for the first time since the England tour in 2005.

He was selected as a specialist batsmen, with Khaled Mashud chosen as the wicket-keeper for the series against Sri Lanka. In December 2010, Rahim recorded his best score in a one-day match. Playing for Rajshahi in the National Cricket League, he scored 114 from 120 deliveries as his team lost by 8 runs; the Bangladesh Cricket Board founded the six-team Bangladesh Premier League in 2012, a twenty20 tournament to be held in February that year. The BCB made Mushfiq the'icon player' for Duronto Rajshahi. Under his leadership Duronto overcame a weak start to progress to the semi-finals where they lost to Barisal Burners. In September 2018, he was named in Nangarhar's squad in the first edition of the Afghanistan Premier League tournament. In October 2018, he was named in the squad for the Chittagong Vikings team, following the draft for the 2018–19 Bangladesh Premier League, he was the leading run-scorer for the team in the tournament, with 426 runs in thirteen matches. In November 2019, he was selected to play for the Khulna Tigers in the 2019–20 Bangladesh Premier League.

Rahim was selected for Bangladesh's tour of England in 2005. It was Bangladesh's first tour of England, where they faced unfamiliar conditions and the batsmen struggled against seam bowling and uneven bounce throughout the series. Mushfiqur adapted his batting style in the warm up matches, "consistently playing late and straight" according to Wisden, managed to score 63 against Sussex and scored 115 not out against Northamptonshire in the warm up matches. Although named in the squad as a part-time wicket-keeper, his performances in the warm up matches led to his selection for the first Test at Lord's as a specialist batsman as well; the 17-year-old Rahim scored 19 in the first innings and was one of just three batsman to reach double figures as Bangladesh were dismissed for 108. After twisting his ankle, he did not play any further in the tour. Rahim was included in Bangladesh's squad to tour Zimbabwe for five ODIs in 2006, he was one of three uncapped ODI players included in the squad alongside all-rounders Farhad Reza and Shakib Al Hasan.

He scored his maiden half-century at Harare against Zimbabwe. His good performances led him to picked as the first-choice wicket-keeper ahead of Khaled Mashud for the World Cup in the West Indies. Rahim was recalled for the second Test against Sri Lanka in July 2007. Although Bangladesh lost by an innings and 90 runs, Rahim combined with Mohammad Ashraful – the new captain – to score a record 191 for Bangladesh's sixth-wicket partnership. In December 2007, the Bangladesh Cricket Board granted Rahim a one-year grade B contract, one of 22 central contracts with the Board at the time. Following the 2007 ICC Cricket World Cup, Rahim endured a series of poor scores, including five innings in which he amassed four runs altogether; as a result, when South Africa toured in March for three ODIs and Bangladesh went to Pakistan for five ODIs the next month, Rahim was dropped in favour of Dhiman Ghosh. Rahim was recalled to the squad for a tri-series with the 2008 Asia Cup; when 17 contracts were announced in April 2009, Rahim's was renewed, marking Rahim as Bangladesh's first choice'keeper.

Rahim was appointed vice-captain for Bangladesh's tour of Zimbabwe in August 2009. The position was vacated as the previous holder, Shakib Al Hasan, was filling-in as captain for the injured Mashrafe Mortaza. Bangladesh won the five match ODI series 4–1. In the final ODI, Rahim scored 98, beating his previous highest score in list A matches of 58, to help his team to victory. With 169 runs in the series at an average of 56.33, Rahim finishes the tour a

Fenwick (department store)

Fenwick is an independent chain of department stores in the United Kingdom. It was founded in 1882 by John James Fenwick in Newcastle upon Tyne, today consists of nine branches; as of 2019, the chain is still owned by members of the Fenwick family. The company was chaired by Mark Fenwick until 2017. In 2012, the company was reported to be valued at £452million; the store's founder, John James Fenwick, was born in Richmond, North Yorkshire in 1846. The original store opened in Newcastle upon Tyne in 1882 and sold only mantles, silk goods, dresses and trimmings and did not broaden into a department store until John's eldest son Fred Fenwick joined the business in 1890. Fred had trained in retail in Paris and is said to have been inspired by Le Bon Marché, regarded as one of the first department stores. Fenwick has since expanded its operations. In 1888, it opened a store in Sunderland. In 1891, it opened a branch in London; this store was doubled in size in 1980. The company bought the Joseph Johnson store in Leicester in 1962, subsequently rebranded as Fenwick.

Fenwick was an anchor department store for the 1976 opening of Brent Cross Shopping Centre in London, the first large out-of-town shopping centre in the UK. A further store was opened in Oxford on the site of the F Cape & Co department store in 1978. Outlets in Windsor and York followed in 1980 and 1984 with a limited range of departments, specialising in clothing, fashion accessories and cosmetics; the Ricemans store in Canterbury was acquired in 1986, rebranded Fenwick in 2003. The Tunbridge Wells store opened in 1992 as part of the Royal Victoria Place development. In 2001, Fenwick acquired the Bentalls group of department stores for £70.8 million, with stores in Kingston upon Thames, Ealing, Bracknell and Lakeside. The Lakeside store was closed, three branches were subsequently sold to J E Beale, with Fenwick retaining only the stores in Kingston upon Thames and Bracknell. In 2007, Fenwick purchased an independent department store in Colchester, Essex. On 5 January 2017, Mark Fenwick announced.

The store closed in June 2017. In April 2017, Fenwick announced plans to close their Windsor store; the store closed in August 2017. Bentalls in Bracknell closed in 2017 with the opening of a new Fenwick store in the town. Fenwick has its headquarters at the original Fenwick department store in the centre of Newcastle upon Tyne; the company operates nine outlets across England. The original store in the group occupies a large site in the centre of Newcastle upon Tyne; the store has expanded many times since its foundation in 1882 and now consists of several interconnected buildings with entrances onto Northumberland Street, Eldon Square, Monument Metro Station and Blackett Street. Fenwick offers a wide range of services with a focus on premium and luxury products, it is one of few department stores in the UK to retain a food hall. This was refurbished in 2015; the store is known locally for its extravagant Christmas window displays, filled with detailed sets and sophisticated moving figures, which have appeared since 1971.

Affectionate and nostalgic portrayals of the Fenwick Newcastle store appear in three historical novels by the British writer Roger Harvey: Room for Love, Maiden Voyage and Room for Me. List of department stores of the United Kingdom Media related to Fenwick at Wikimedia Commons Fenwick official website Bentalls official website Williams & Griffin official website

Pike River Mine

The Pike River Mine is a coal mine operated by Pike River Coal 46 km north-northeast of Greymouth in the West Coast Region of New Zealand's South Island. The mine and assets are owned by Solid Energy, it was to begin production in early 2008, was expected to produce around one million tonnes of coal per year for around 20 years, making the mine the second-largest coal export mine in the country, as well as the largest underground coal mine of the country. The estimate for production was reduced to between 320,000 and 360,000 tonnes for 2011; the coal of the mine is described as "New Zealand's largest known deposit of high fluidity and quality hard coking coal", was expected to earn around NZ$170 million in export income annually. Various setbacks occurred during early 2008 delaying the start of coal production. While mine operators were confident that production would still start in 2008, in mid-2009 the mine was still not producing at expected levels, with the target of the first 60,000 tons of coal to be shipped having slipped to early 2010.

The mine operators noted that technical difficulties with several mining machines were to blame for the delays, which forced the company to ask for an extension from its financiers. In February 2010, the first export shipment of 20,000 tons of coal was delivered to India for use in steel production. An explosion on Friday 19 November 2010 trapped 29 workers inside the mine. Rescuers delayed entering the mine, due to the risk of another explosion. On 24 November, a second explosion occurred and it was subsequently presumed that the workers could not have survived. A third explosion occurred at 3:39 pm 26 November. A fourth explosion occurred on 28 November at 1:55 pm; as of January 2011 the mine has been ordered sealed and the recovery attempt abandoned for the time being. The mine has a development and consenting history going back to the 1970s, with the first geologists and surveyors having explored the area in the 1940s; the mine is located halfway between Greymouth and Reefton, close to the Pike Stream, a tributary of the Big River in a region that has a long history of coal- and gold-mining activity.

It is located on Crown land administered by the Department of Conservation, adjacent to the Paparoa National Park. Because of the status of the land, Pike River Coal Ltd had to obtain the Minister of Conservation's agreement to an access arrangement for mining under Section 61 of the Crown Minerals Act 2001. On 12 March 2004, Minister of Conservation Chris Carter approved the access arrangement for Pike River Coal Ltd; the arrangement included four 1.5-metre -wide emergency escape shafts within the boundaries of Paparoa National Park and a requirement for Pike River Coal Ltd to spend NZ$70,000 annually on conservation projects. Carter stated that the "safeguards and compensation" outweighed the inconsistencies with objectives of the Conservation Act 1987 and the relevant management plans. Due to the location, the conditions of the access arrangement included special considerations for the environment, such as minimising tree felling and a requirement to reinstate all above-ground areas after the cessation of mining.

Opponents of the mine criticised the approval of the access agreement, noting that the coal is not intended for domestic use but a commercial operation, thus should not have been allowed to go forward in a sensitive location. Forest & Bird criticised the fact that the Minister of Conservation chose to ignore the report from the Department of Conservation stating that the mine would be damaging to the local environment. Greenpeace Aotearoa New Zealand criticised the project for furthering the use of fossil fuels instead of developing sustainable alternatives. In October 2008, coal production started and in November 2008, Gerry Brownlee, the Minister of Energy and Resources and Minister for Economic Development, formally opened the mine. However, production was slow and took until 2009/2010 to reach significant levels; the coal is mined 200 m underground, at 800 m above sea level, quarrying coal from the Brunner coal seam. The coal is taken from the mine via a'drift', a sloping 5-degree tunnel 2.3 km long.

This tunnel has taken large amounts of dynamite to create, as the rock is described as being up to four times harder than concrete. Since the coal face will be located higher than the tunnel entrance, removal of material to a processing plant 10.6 km away will be via a slurry pipeline. Another major feature of the underground works is a 110-metre -deep ventilation shaft. After local ground conditions were found to be worse than expected, it was excavated with a raise-bore system excavating the 4.25 m ventilation shaft from a 0.35 m pilot drill shaft. Access to the top of the ventilation shaft is by helicopter only during construction, as conservation restrictions do not allow roads to be built to reach this point; this shaft collapsed in 2008 causing further production delays. The mine includes underground excavation for the coal slurry handling facility and mine water storage and pumping equipment, with several large galleries of up to 5.5 m width and 11 m height to be excavated. As of 2010, the mine has three main "drives".

Once at the processing plant, coal was to be trucked to Greymouth for reshipment at the local port. On 27 November 2007, it was announced that the coal from the mine would be transported to Lyttelton for export rather than the proposed ship

Keith Brennan

Keith Gabriel Brennan was an Australian diplomat and public servant. Born on 25 March 1915 in Hawthorn, Brennan was the youngest of five children, he was schooled at St Patrick's College, East Melbourne, before studying part time for a Bachelor of Laws at the University of Melbourne. He joined the Commonwealth Public Service in the Department of the Army in 1940. Brennan transferred to the Department of External Affairs in 1947, his early overseas postings were to the United States and Japan. In 1972 he relocated to Dublin to serve as Australian Ambassador to Ireland, his time in Ireland was cut short when in 1974 Gough Whitlam decided to send Vince Gair to the post for domestic political reasons. Brennan and his wife were moved to Switzerland and he took on the role of Australian Ambassador to Switzerland. Brennan spent seven years living in Berne, representing Australia at several important international law conventions, including the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. While he was resident in Berne, Brennan's wife, whom he had married on 3 April 1945, died on 25 October 1977.

In 1983 Brennan was accepted as a candidate for priesthood by Archbishop of Adelaide James Gleeson. Brennan died in Adelaide on 16 January 1985. Brennan was made an Officer of the Order of Australia in the Queen's Birthday 1979 Honours for his public service as a diplomat

Allan Nixon

Allan Hobbs Nixon was an American actor and novelist. Nixon was born in Boston, Massachusetts in 1915, he left college to play football professionally. He was only played in the exhibition season. After a stint with a farm team in Norfolk, Virginia, he wrestled professionally, went to New York to become a reporter. Instead, 6'6 and attractive Nixon ended up modeling and was scouted by MGM, he was drafted during World War II, but his wife, Marie Wilson, saw to it that he was assigned guard duty. Nixon starred in the sex hygiene film Three Cadets made by the First Motion Picture Unit. Republic Pictures had been interested in putting him in westerns, but this interest had faded by the end of the war. RKO considered Nixon for the role of Tarzan following the retirement of Johnny Weissmuller, but the role went to Lex Barker, he is most known for his leading role in the independent film Prehistoric Women. He appeared in the Carleton Holmes play Free for All in Los Angeles in 1947, with a review stating that he had played his role with "effective sincerity."

He appeared in the play Kitty Doone by Aben Kandel in 1949. He was on stage in Miranda, You Only Twinkle Once, School for Scandal, Three Out of Four, Anna Lucasta. Shortly after being signed by Columbia and performing in the successful Hugo Haas film Pickup, Nixon began refusing the small roles in B pictures offered to him, he was blacklisted by Harry Cohn and months asked to be released from his contract. He claimed. Nixon, by divorced from Wilson, worked in construction for several years. Producer Ron Ormond cast him in such films as Outlaw Women and Mesa of Lost Women and as the lead in Gulliver and the Little People, a modern take on Gulliver's Travels, but the series was not picked up. Nixon appeared on various television shows in early 1960s. Nixon was an informant for Confidential Magazine. Nixon became a writer in the early 1960s, publishing novels with such titles as The Sex Symbol and The Bitch Goddess, he wrote under his own name and the pseudonyms Nick Allen as well as several Shaft novels under the pen name Don Romano, finding more success as a writer than as an actor.

He reflected on his career as an actor, "Things went wrong, just put it that way. I'm not bitter. I enjoyed it. I enjoyed the people I met and the fun I had." Nixon met actress Marie Wilson. Wilson was still engaged to director Nick Grinde when she and Nixon eloped in 1942. After two separations and reconciliations, they divorced in 1950 following years of stress due to Nixon's underemployment, public embarrassments due to Nixon's tendency to get into violent altercations and drive under the influence of alcohol. Nixon married three more times, his second marriage, to Alma Hammond, was annulled shortly after it took place in 1954. He and his third wife, Velda May Paulsen, got into a violent altercation that made headlines in early 1958. Paulsen went to visit Burt Lancaster, in the hospital. Nixon, displeased that his wife went to see Lancaster struck Paulsen, Paulsen attacked him with kitchen knives Nixon had given her for Christmas; the fight resulted in Paulsen being arrested for attempted murder, but Nixon refused to press charges and the two reconciled.

She died of burns suffered in an explosion that year. Nixon's fourth wife was Maria Magda, he was a longtime friend of Arthur Kennedy and John Lund, the latter of whom had played Wilson's boyfriend in the My Friend Irma films. Nixon died of emphysema in 1995. Three Cadets Rookies on Parade Linda, Be Good Siren of Atlantis Prehistoric Women Pickup Outlaw Women Road to Bali Mesa of Lost Women Untamed Mistress Apache Warrior Wall of Noise Blessed Are the Damned. New York: Paperback Library. 1963. OCLC 1007773647. Nobody Hides Forever. New York: Paperback Library. 1964. OCLC 1017134361. Titled The Star; the Last of Vicky. New York: Paperback Library. 1966. OCLC 1007773138. Malibu Pickup. North Hollywood, California: Brandon House. 1966. OCLC 646179292. Get Garrity. North Hollywood, California: Brandon House. 1966. OCLC 646156932; the Actor. New York: Paperback Library. 1968. OCLC 9679097. Shadow of a Man. New York: Avon Books. 1969. ISBN 0380460602. OCLC 655840881; the Sex Symbol. London: New English Library. 1969. OCLC 877766330.

The Starlet. London: New English Library. 1969. OCLC 877218998; the Bitch Goddess: A Novel of Hollywood on the Make. Paperback Library. 1969. OCLC 30269330. Garrity. London: New English Library. 1970. OCLC 877160953. Go for Garrity. New York: Avon Books. 1970. OCLC 54061390; the Gold and Glory Guy. New York: Avon. 1970. The Scavengers. London: New English Library. 1970. OCLC 441031808. Good night Garrity. London: New English Library. 1971. OCLC 877161043. Power Man. New York: Avon. 1972. OCLC 18437417. Nikki. Playboy Press. 1977. ISBN 9780872163836; the Meal Ticket. North Hollywood, California: Brandon House. 1966. OCLC 646185047. Dynasty of Decadence. North Hollywood, California: Brandon House. 1966. OCLC 475671848. Operation Porno. New York: Pyramid Books. 1973. ISBN 0515031704. OCLC 30535919. Operation Cocaine. New York: Pyramid Books. 1973. OCLC 1030954. Operation Hit Man. New York: Pyramid Books. 1974. ISBN 0515034444. OCLC 9766751. Allan Nixon on IMDb