A graphic novel is a book made up of comics content. Although the word "novel" refers to long fictional works, the term "graphic novel" is applied broadly and includes fiction, non-fiction, anthologized work, it is distinguished from the term "comic book", used for comics periodicals. Fan historian Richard Kyle coined the term "graphic novel" in an essay in the November 1964 issue of the comics fanzine Capa-Alpha; the term gained popularity in the comics community after the publication of Will Eisner's A Contract with God and the start of Marvel's Graphic Novel line and became familiar to the public in the late 1980s after the commercial successes of the first volume of Art Spiegelman's Maus in 1986 and the collected editions of Frank Miller's The Dark Knight Returns in 1986 and Alan Moore and Dave Gibbons' Watchmen in 1987. The Book Industry Study Group began using "graphic novel" as a category in book stores in 2001; the term is not defined, though Merriam-Webster's full dictionary definition is "a fictional story, presented in comic-strip format and published as a book", while its simplest definition is given as "cartoon drawings that tell a story and are published as a book".
In the publishing trade, the term extends to material that would not be considered a novel if produced in another medium. Collections of comic books that do not form a continuous story, anthologies or collections of loosely related pieces, non-fiction are stocked by libraries and bookstores as "graphic novels"; the term is sometimes used to distinguish between works created as standalone stories, in contrast to collections or compilations of a story arc from a comic book series published in book form. In continental Europe, both original book-length stories such as La rivolta dei racchi by Guido Buzzelli, collections of comics have been published in hardcover volumes called "albums", since the end of the 19th century; as the exact definition of the graphic novel is debated, the origins of the form are open to interpretation. The Adventures of Obadiah Oldbuck is the oldest recognized American example of comics used to this end, it originated as the 1828 publication Histoire de M. Vieux Bois by Swiss caricaturist Rodolphe Töpffer, was first published in English translation in 1841 by London's Tilt & Bogue, which used an 1833 Paris pirate edition.
The first American edition was published in 1842 by Wilson & Company in New York City using the original printing plates from the 1841 edition. Another early predecessor is Journey to the Gold Diggins by Jeremiah Saddlebags by brothers J. A. D. and D. F. Read, inspired by The Adventures of Obadiah Oldbuck. In 1894 Caran d'Ache broached the idea of a "drawn novel" in a letter to the newspaper Le Figaro and started work on a 360-page wordless book. In the United States there is a long tradition of reissuing published comic strips in book form. In 1897 the Hearst Syndicate published such a collection of The Yellow Kid by Richard Outcault and it became a best seller; the 1920s saw a revival of the medieval woodcut tradition, with Belgian Frans Masereel cited as "the undisputed king" of this revival. His works include Passionate Journey. American Lynd Ward worked in this tradition, publishing Gods' Man, in 1929 and going on to publish more during the 1930s. Other prototypical examples from this period include American Milt Gross's He Done Her Wrong, a wordless comic published as a hardcover book, Une semaine de bonté, a novel in sequential images composed of collage by the surrealist painter Max Ernst.
Charlotte Salomon's Life? or Theater? Combines images and captions; the 1940s saw the launching of Classics Illustrated, a comic-book series that adapted notable, public domain novels into standalone comic books for young readers. In 1947 Fawcett Comics published Comics Novel #1: "Anarcho, Dictator of Death", a 52-page comic dedicated to one story. In 1950, St. John Publications produced the digest-sized, adult-oriented "picture novel" It Rhymes with Lust, a film noir-influenced slice of steeltown life starring a scheming, manipulative redhead named Rust. Touted as "an original full-length novel" on its cover, the 128-page digest by pseudonymous writer "Drake Waller", penciler Matt Baker and inker Ray Osrin proved successful enough to lead to an unrelated second picture novel, The Case of the Winking Buddha by pulp novelist Manning Lee Stokes and illustrator Charles Raab. Presaging Will Eisner's multiple-story graphic novel A Contract with God, cartoonist Harvey Kurtzman wrote and drew the four-story mass-market paperback Harvey Kurtzman's Jungle Book, published in 1959.
By the late 1960s, American comic book creators were becoming more adventurous with the form. Gil Kane and Archie Goodwin self-published a 40-page, magazine-format comics novel, His Name Is... Savage in 1968—the same year Marvel Comics published two issues of The Spectacular Spider-Man in a similar format. Columnist and comic-book writer Steven Grant argues that Stan Lee and Steve Ditko's Doctor Strange story in Strange Tales #130–146, although published serially from 1965–1966, is "the first American graphic novel". Critic Jason Sacks referred to the 13-issue "Panther's Rage"—comics' first-known titled, self-contained, multi-issue story arc—that ran from 1973 to 1975 in the Black Panther series in Marvel's Jungle Action as "Marvel's first graphic novel". Meanwhile, in continental Europe, the tradition of collecting ser
An image is an artifact that depicts visual perception, such as a photograph or other two-dimensional picture, that resembles a subject—usually a physical object—and thus provides a depiction of it. In the context of signal processing, an image is a distributed amplitude of color. Images may be two-dimensional, such as a photograph or screen display, or three-dimensional, such as a statue or hologram, they may be captured by optical devices – such as cameras, lenses, microscopes, etc. and natural objects and phenomena, such as the human eye or water. The word'image' is used in the broader sense of any two-dimensional figure such as a map, a graph, a pie chart, a painting or a banner. In this wider sense, images can be rendered manually, such as by drawing, the art of painting, rendered automatically by printing or computer graphics technology, or developed by a combination of methods in a pseudo-photograph. A volatile image is one; this may be a reflection of an object by a mirror, a projection of a camera obscura, or a scene displayed on a cathode ray tube.
A fixed image called a hard copy, is one, recorded on a material object, such as paper or textile by photography or any other digital process. A mental image exists in an individual's mind, as something one imagines; the subject of an image need not be real. For example, Sigmund Freud claimed to have dreamed purely in aural-images of dialogs; the development of synthetic acoustic technologies and the creation of sound art have led to a consideration of the possibilities of a sound-image made up of irreducible phonic substance beyond linguistic or musicological analysis. There are Two Types of Images a. Still Image b. Moving Image A still image is a single static image; this phrase is used in photography, visual media and the computer industry to emphasize that one is not talking about movies, or in precise or pedantic technical writing such as a standard. A moving image is a movie or video, including digital video, it could be an animated display such as a zoetrope. A still frame is a still image derived from one frame of a moving one.
In contrast, a film still is a photograph taken on the set of a movie or television program during production, used for promotional purposes. In literature, imagery is a "mental picture", it can both be literal. Aniconism Avatar Cinematography Computer animation Computer-generated imagery Digital image Digital imaging Fine art photography Graphics Imago camera Image editing Pattern recognition Photograph Media related to Images at Wikimedia Commons Quotations related to Image at Wikiquote The dictionary definition of image at Wiktionary The B-Z Reaction: The Moving or the Still Image? Library of Congress – Format Descriptions for Still Images Image Processing – Online Open Research Group Legal Issues Regarding Images Image Copyright Case
Comics is a medium used to express ideas through images combined with text or other visual information. Comics takes the form of juxtaposed sequences of panels of images. Textual devices such as speech balloons and onomatopoeia indicate dialogue, sound effects, or other information; the size and arrangement of panels contribute to narrative pacing. Cartooning and similar forms of illustration are the most common image-making means in comics. Common forms include comic strips and gag cartoons, comic books. Since the late 20th century, bound volumes such as graphic novels, comic albums, tankōbon have become common, while online webcomics have proliferated in the 21st century with the advent of the internet; the history of comics has followed different paths in different cultures. Scholars have posited a pre-history as far back as the Lascaux cave paintings in France. By the mid-20th century, comics flourished in the United States, western Europe, Japan; the history of European comics is traced to Rodolphe Töpffer's cartoon strips of the 1830s, but the medium became popular in the 1930s following the success of strips and books such as The Adventures of Tintin.
American comics emerged as a mass medium in the early 20th century with the advent of newspaper comic strips. Histories of Japanese comics and cartooning propose origins as early as the 12th century. Modern comic strips emerged in Japan in the early 20th century, the output of comics magazines and books expanded in the post-World War II era with the popularity of cartoonists such as Osamu Tezuka. Comics has had a lowbrow reputation for much of its history, but towards the end of the 20th century began to find greater acceptance with the public and academics; the term comics is used as a singular noun when it refers to the medium, but becomes plural when referring to particular instances, such as individual strips or comic books. Though the term derives from the humorous work that predominated in early American newspaper comic strips, it has become standard for non-humorous works too. In English, it is common to refer to the comics of different cultures by the terms used in their original languages, such as manga for Japanese comics, or bandes dessinées for French-language comics.
There is no consensus amongst historians on a definition of comics. The increasing cross-pollination of concepts from different comics cultures and eras has only made definition more difficult. Examples of early comics The European and Japanese comics traditions have followed different paths. Europeans have seen their tradition as beginning with the Swiss Rodolphe Töpffer from as early as 1827 and Americans have seen the origin of theirs in Richard F. Outcault's 1890s newspaper strip The Yellow Kid, though many Americans have come to recognize Töpffer's precedence. Japan had a long prehistory of satirical comics leading up to the World War II era; the ukiyo-e artist Hokusai popularized the Japanese term for comics and cartooning, manga, in the early 19th century. In 1930s, Mr. Chester, an early founder of "the Golden Age of Comics", which make the comics flourished after World War II. In the post-war era modern Japanese comics began to flourish when Osamu Tezuka produced a prolific body of work.
Towards the close of the 20th century, these three traditions converged in a trend towards book-length comics: the comic album in Europe, the tankōbon in Japan, the graphic novel in the English-speaking countries. Outside of these genealogies, comics theorists and historians have seen precedents for comics in the Lascaux cave paintings in France, Egyptian hieroglyphs, Trajan's Column in Rome, the 11th-century Norman Bayeux Tapestry, the 1370 bois Protat woodcut, the 15th-century Ars moriendi and block books, Michelangelo's The Last Judgment in the Sistine Chapel, William Hogarth's 18th-century sequential engravings, amongst others. Illustrated humour periodicals were popular in 19th-century Britain, the earliest of, the short-lived The Glasgow Looking Glass in 1825; the most popular was Punch. On occasion the cartoons in these magazines appeared in sequences. American comics developed out of such magazines as Puck and Life; the success of illustrated humour supplements in the New York World and the New York American Outcault's The Yellow Kid, led to the development of newspaper comic strips.
Early Sunday strips were full-page and in colour. Between 1896 and 1901 cartoonists experimented with sequentiality and speech balloons. Shorter, black-and-white daily strips began to appear early in the 20th century, became established in newspapers after the success in 1907 of Bud Fisher's Mutt and Jeff. In Britain, the Amalgamated Press established a popular style of a sequence of images with text beneath them, including Illustrated Chips and Comic Cuts. Humour strips predominated at first, in the 1920s and 1930s strips with continuing stories in genres such as adventure and drama became popular. Thin periodicals called
Comics studies is an academic field that focuses on comics and sequential art. Although comics and graphic novels have been dismissed as less relevant pop culture texts, scholars in fields such as semiotics, composition studies and cultural studies are now re-considering comics and graphic novels as complex texts deserving of serious scholarly study. Not to be confused with the technical aspects of comics creation, comics studies exists only with the creation of comics theory—which approaches comics critically as an art—and the writing of comics historiography. Comics theory has significant overlap with the philosophy of comics, i.e. the study of the ontology and aesthetics of comics, the relationship between comics and other art forms, the relationship between text and image in comics. Comics studies is interrelated with comics criticism, the analysis and evaluation of comics and the comics medium. Although there has been the occasional investigation of comics as a valid art form in Gilbert Seldes' The 7 Lively Arts, Martin Sheridan's Classic Comics and Their Creators, David Kunzle's The Early Comic Strip: Narrative Strips and Picture Stories in the European Broadsheet from c. 1450 to 1825, contemporary Anglophone comics studies in North America can be said to have burst onto the academic scene with both Will Eisner's Comics and Sequential Art in 1985 and Scott McCloud's Understanding Comics in 1993.
Continental comics studies can trace its roots back to the work of semioticians such as Roland Barthes and Umberto Eco. More analysis of comics have begun to be undertaken by cognitive scientists, the most prominent being Neil Cohn, who has used tools from linguistics to detail the theoretical structure of comics' underlying "visual language", has used psychological experimentation from cognitive neuroscience to test these theories in actual comprehension; this work has suggested similarities between the way that the brain processes language and the way it processes sequential images. Cohn's theories are not universally accepted with other scholars like Thierry Groensteen, Hannah Miodrag, Barbara Postema offering alternative understandings. Similar to the problems of defining literature and film, no consensus has been reached on a definition of the comics medium, attempted definitions and descriptions have fallen prey to numerous exceptions. Theorists such as Töpffer, R. C. Harvey, Will Eisner, David Carrier, Alain Rey, Lawrence Grove emphasize the combination of text and images, though there are prominent examples of pantomime comics throughout its history.
Other critics, such as Thierry Groensteen and Scott McCloud, have emphasized the primacy of sequences of images. Towards the close of the 20th century, different cultures' discoveries of each other's comics traditions, the rediscovery of forgotten early comics forms, the rise of new forms made defining comics a more complicated task. In the field of composition studies, an interest in comics and graphic novels is growing due to the work of comics theorists but due to composition studies' growing focus on multimodality and visual rhetoric. Composition studies theorists are looking at comics as sophisticated texts, sites of complex literacy. Gunther Kress defines multimodality as "the use of several semiotic modes in the design of a semiotic product or event, together with the particular way in which these mode are combined" or, more as "any text whose meanings are realized through more than one semiotic code". Kristie S. Fleckenstein sees the relationship between image and text as "mutually constitutive, mutually infused"—a relationship she names "imageword".
Fleckenstein sees "imageword" as offering "a double vision of writing-reading based on fusion of image and word, a double vision of literacy". Dale Jacobs sees the reading of comics as a form of "multimodal literacy or multiliteracy, rather than as a debased form of print literacy". According to Jacobs, comics can help educators to move "toward attending to multimodal literacies" that "shift our focus from print only to multiple modalities", he encourages educators to embrace a pedagogy that will give students skills to negotiate these multiple modalities. Comics historiography studies the historical process through which comics became an autonomous art medium and an integral part of culture. An area of study is premodern sequential art. Another area of study is the 20th-century emergence of the subculture of comics readers and comicphilia; the first attempts at comics historiography began in the United States in the 1940s with the work of Thomas Craven, Martin Sheridan, Coulton Waugh. It wasn't until the mid-1960s, with the publication of Jules Feiffer's The Great Comic Book Heroes, that the field began to take root.
Historiography became an accepted practice in the 1970s with the work of Maurice Horn, Jim Steranko, Ron Goulart, Bill Blackbeard, Martin Williams. The late 1990s saw a wave of books celebrating American comics' centennial. Other notable writers on these topics include Will Jacobs, Gerard Jones, Rick Marschall, R. C. Harvey. Comics studies is becoming more common at academic institutions across the world; some notable examples include: University of Florida
Reinventing Comics: How Imagination and Technology Are Revolutionizing an Art Form is a book written by comic book writer and artist Scott McCloud. It was a thematic sequel to his critically acclaimed Understanding Comics, was followed by Making Comics. Reinventing Comics was released in 2000 in separate editions published by Paradox Press and William Morrow Paperbacks. Paradox Press an imprint of DC Comics, is now defunct. Reinventing Comics explains twelve "revolutions" which McCloud predicts are necessary for the comic book to survive as a medium, focusing on online comics; the book caused considerable controversy in the comics industry, McCloud famously noting that it had been described as "dangerous". As promised in the book, McCloud has offered annotations and his further-developing thoughts about the future of comics on his web site. In particular, he considers his web comic I Can't Stop Thinking to be a continuation of Reinventing Comics, though he has continued to write about the future of comics in many different forms, as he acknowledges Reinventing Comics is "a product of its time".
McCloud drew Reinventing Comics digitally. Because of the low power of the machine he was using, McCloud had a difficult time working on the book. In an interview with Joe Zabel, McCloud stated that he was so eager to get to the second half of the book that he rushed through the first portion. A revised version of Reinventing Comics was released in 2009. Here, McCloud cited various successful webcomics that pushed the envelope, such as Daniel Merlin Goodbrey's work with the "Tarquin Engine" and Drew Weing's Pup Contemplates the Heat Death of the Universe. Fantagraphics Books Inc. editor and publisher Gary Groth wrote an critique of Reinventing Comics in 2001. Comics studies
The Bayeux Tapestry is an embroidered cloth nearly 70 metres long and 50 centimetres tall, which depicts the events leading up to the Norman conquest of England concerning William, Duke of Normandy, Harold, Earl of Wessex King of England, culminating in the Battle of Hastings. It is thought to date within a few years after the battle, it tells the story from the point of view of the conquering Normans, but is now agreed to have been made in England. According to Sylvette Lemagnen, conservator of the tapestry, in her 2005 book La Tapisserie de Bayeux: The Bayeux tapestry is one of the supreme achievements of the Norman Romanesque.... Its survival intact over nine centuries is little short of miraculous... Its exceptional length, the harmony and freshness of its colours, its exquisite workmanship, the genius of its guiding spirit combine to make it endlessly fascinating; the cloth consists of some seventy scenes, many with Latin tituli, embroidered on linen with coloured woollen yarns. It is that it was commissioned by Bishop Odo, William's half-brother, made in England—not Bayeux—in the 1070s.
In 1729 the hanging was rediscovered by scholars at a time when it was being displayed annually in Bayeux Cathedral. The tapestry is now exhibited at the Musée de la Tapisserie de Bayeux in Bayeux, France; the designs on the Bayeux Tapestry are embroidered rather than woven, so that it is not technically a tapestry. It has always been referred to as a tapestry until recent years when the name "Bayeux Embroidery" has gained ground among certain art historians, it can be seen as a rare example of secular Romanesque art. Tapestries adorned both churches and wealthy houses in Medieval Western Europe, though at 0.5 by 68.38 metres the Bayeux Tapestry is exceptionally large. Only the figures and decoration are embroidered, on a background left plain, which shows the subject clearly and was necessary to cover large areas. On 18 January 2018, French President Emmanuel Macron announced that the Bayeux Tapestry would be loaned to Britain for public display, it is expected to be exhibited at the British Museum in London, but not before 2020.
It will be the first time. The earliest known written reference to the tapestry is a 1476 inventory of Bayeux Cathedral, but its origins have been the subject of much speculation and controversy. French legend maintained the tapestry was commissioned and created by Queen Matilda, William the Conqueror's wife, her ladies-in-waiting. Indeed, in France, it is known as "La Tapisserie de la Reine Mathilde". However, scholarly analysis in the 20th century concluded it was commissioned by William's half-brother, Bishop Odo, after the Conquest, became Earl of Kent and, when William was absent in Normandy, regent of England; the reasons for the Odo commission theory include: 1) three of the bishop's followers mentioned in the Domesday Book appear on the tapestry. Assuming Odo commissioned the tapestry, it was designed and constructed in England by Anglo-Saxon artists. Howard B. Clarke has proposed that the designer of the tapestry was Scolland, the abbot of St Augustine's Abbey in Canterbury, because of his previous position as head of the scriptorium at Mont Saint-Michel, his travels to Trajan's Column, his connections to Wadard and Vital, two individuals identified in the tapestry.
The actual physical work of stitching was most undertaken by female needleworkers. Anglo-Saxon needlework of the more detailed type known as Opus Anglicanum was famous across Europe, it was commissioned for display in the hall of his palace and bequeathed to the cathedral he built, following the pattern of the documented but lost hanging of Byrhtnoth. Alternative theories exist. Carola Hicks has suggested it could have been commissioned by Edith of Wessex, widow of Edward the Confessor and sister of Harold. Wolfgang Grape has challenged the consensus that the embroidery is Anglo-Saxon, distinguishing between Anglo-Saxon and other Northern European techniques. George Beech suggests the tapestry was executed at the Abbey of Saint-Florent de Saumur in the Loire Valley, says the detailed depiction of the Breton campaign argues for additional sources in France. Andrew Bridgeford has suggested that the tapestry was of English design and encoded with secret messages meant to undermine Norman rule. In common with other embroidered hangings of the early medieval period, this piece is conventionally referred to as a "tapestry", although it is not a true tapestry in which the design is woven into the cloth.
The Bayeux tapestry is embroidered in crewel on a tabby-woven linen ground 68.38 metres long and 0.5 metres wide and using two methods of stitching: outline or stem stitch for lettering and the
Hugo Eugenio Pratt was an Italian comic book creator, known for combining strong storytelling with extensive historical research on works such as Corto Maltese. He was inducted into the Will Eisner Award Hall of Fame in 2005. In 1946 Hugo Pratt became part of the so-called Group of Venice with Fernando Carcupino, Dino Battaglia and Damiano Damiani. Born in Rimini, Italy to Rolando Pratt and Evelina Genero, Hugo Pratt spent most of his childhood in Venice in a cosmopolitan family environment, his paternal grandfather Joseph was of English origin, his maternal grandfather was of Marrano descent, his grandmother was of Turkish origin. He was related to actor Boris Karloff. In 1937, Pratt moved with his mother to Abyssinia, joining his father, working there following the conquest of that country by Benito Mussolini's Italy. Pratt's father, a professional Italian soldier, was captured in 1941 by British troops and in late 1942, died from disease as a prisoner of war; the same year, Hugo Pratt and his mother were interned in a prison camp at Dirédaoua, where he would buy comics from guards, was sent back to Italy by the Red Cross.
After the war, Pratt moved to Venice. Pratt joined the'Venice Group' with other Italian cartoonists, including Alberto Ongaro and Mario Faustinelli, their magazine Asso di Picche, launched in 1945 as Albo Uragano, concentrated on adventure comics. The magazine scored some success and published works including Dino Battaglia, his character Asso di Picche was a success in Argentina, where Pratt was invited in 1949. In the late 1940s, he moved to Buenos Aires where he worked for Argentine publisher Editorial Abril and met Argentine comics artists like Alberto Breccia and Solano López; the passage to Editorial Frontera saw the publication of some of his most important early series. These included Sgt. Kirk and Ernie Pike, written by Héctor Germán Oesterheld. Pratt taught drawing in the Escuela Panamericana de Arte directed by Enrique Lipszyc, he travelled to South American destinations like the Amazon and Mato Grosso. During that period he produced his first comic book as a complete author, both writing and illustrating Anna della jungla, followed by the similar Capitan Cormorant and Wheeling.
The latter was completed after his return to Italy. From the summer of 1959 to the summer of 1960, Pratt lived in London where he drew a series of war comics for Fleetway Publications, with British scriptwriters, he returned to Argentina, despite the harsh economic times there. From there, he moved again to Italy in 1962 where he started a collaboration with the children's comic book magazine Il Corriere dei Piccoli, for which he adapted several classics of adventure literature, including Treasure Island and Kidnapped by Robert Louis Stevenson. In 1967, Pratt met Florenzo Ivaldi. In the first issue, Pratt's most famous story was published: Una ballata del mare salato, which introduced his best known character, Corto Maltese. Corto's series continued three years in the French magazine Pif gadget. Due to his rather mixed family ancestry, Pratt had learned snippets of things like kabbalism and lots of history. Many of his stories are placed in real historical eras and deal with real events: the 1755 war between French and British colonists in Ticonderoga, colonial wars in Africa and both World Wars, for example.
Pratt did exhaustive research for factual and visual details, some characters are real historical figures or loosely based on them, like Corto's main friend/enemy, Rasputin. Many of the minor characters cross over into other stories in a way that places all of Pratt’s stories into the same continuum. Pratt's main series in the second part of his career include Gli scorpioni del deserto and Jesuit Joe, he wrote stories for his friend and pupil Milo Manara for Tutto ricominciò con un'estate indiana and El Gaucho. From 1970 to 1984, Pratt lived in France where Corto Maltese, a psychologically complex character resulting from the travel experiences and the endless inventive capacity of his author, became the main character of a comics series. Published from 1970 to 1973 by the magazine Pif gadget, it brought him much popular and critical success. Published in album format, this series was translated into fifteen languages. From 1984 to 1995 Pratt lived in Switzerland where the international success that Corto Maltese sparked continued to grow.
In France, most of his pre-Corto Maltese works were published in several album editions by publishers such as Casterman and Humanoides Associés. A wanderer by nature, Hugo Pratt continued to travel from Canada to Patagonia, from Africa to the Pacific area, he died of bowel cancer on 20 August 1995. Pratt has cited authors like Robert Louis Stevenson, James Oliver Curwood, Zane Grey, Kenneth Roberts, Joseph Conrad, Fenimore Cooper, Herman Melville and Jack London as influences, along with cartoonists Lyman Young, Will Eisner, Milton Caniff. On Friday, July 15, 2005, at San Diego Comic-Con's 17th Annual Will Eisner Comic Industry Awards, he was one of four professionals that year inducted into the Comic Book Hall of Fame. One of the series created by Pratt, entitled "The Scorpions of the Desert" in English, has been continued after Pratt's death. In 2005 a sixth volume in this series was released, drawn by Pierre Wazeem and entitled "Le chemin de fièvre". A seventh album was scheduled by the French publishers Casterman for release in March 2