Spea hammondii known as the western spadefoot, western spadefoot toad, Hammond's spadefoot, or Hammond's spadefoot toad, is a species of amphibian in the family Scaphiopodidae. It is found in northwestern Baja California; the specific name hammondii is in honor of naturalist William Alexander Hammond. It is a smooth-skinned species of American spadefoot toad, its eyes are pale gold with vertical pupils. It has a green or grey dorsum with skin tubercles tipped in orange, it is a whitish color on the ventrum, it has a wedge-shaped black spade on each hind foot. Adult toads are between 7.5 cm long. Juveniles have more distinct spotting. Populations of Spea hammondii are widespread, it ranges throughout the central valley of California as well as the coast south of San Jose and some parts of the desert. The western spadefoot prefers grassland and chaparral locally but can occur in oak woodlands, it is nocturnal, activity is limited to the wet season, summer storms, or during evenings with elevated substrate moisture levels.
It is handled, with less skin secretions than similar toad species. Their secretions may cause sneezing; the western spadefoot is experiencing some habitat loss, but is still common in its range and the population declines are minor though it is listed as "near threatened" in some counties of CA. Tadpoles feed on plants and planktonic organisms, ants, small invertebrates and dead aquatic larvae of amphibians, they may become cannibalistic. Adult toads feed on insects and other invertebrates including; the average life span for Spea hammondii is about 12 years. They reach sexual maturity in their third year; the female spadefoot toad will lay up to 2,000 eggs. The cordon of eggs attaches to objects in the water or puddles or ditches and the male deposits sperm on them. Tadpoles emerge in as little as 15 hours. After hatching, the tadpole's only chance for survival is to develop into a toad before the puddle dries up, which takes 12 to 13 days; this is the fastest metamorphosis known for any toad. Reproduction: the breeding of laying eggs occur from late winter to the end of March.
Males will be heard during this period. Females lay numerous irregular clusters that will contain from 10 up to 42 eggs, they may lay more than 500 eggs in one season. Eggs hatching happens within two weeks. A male toad finds the female and jumps on her back, a process called amplexus; as the female lays eggs in a long chain, the male fertilizes them. The group of eggs is called spawn. [The yolk within the egg splits into two sections. This continues splitting. After this the embryo begins to develop, it starts looking like a tadpole. You can see. Tadpole Stage. Eggs will hatch in 6–21 days; the tadpole floats around in the plants. It breathes through external gills. Four weeks into the process, the skin grows over the gills and they become internal gills. Six to nine weeks after hatching, the tadpole keeps its tail; the tadpole adulthood between weeks 9 -- 12, the tail shortens. Front legs begin to grow and the lungs develop. At week 12 the toad looks like other toads, only much smaller, it does not leave the water 16 weeks after hatching.
It will return again to mate and fertilize more eggs. Until it lives away from water, eating insects and other bugs; this article is based on a description from "A Field Guide to the Reptiles and Amphibians of Coastal Southern California", Robert N. Fisher and Ted J. Case, USGS, http://www.werc.usgs.gov/fieldguide/scha.htm
The rainbow trout is a trout and species of salmonid native to cold-water tributaries of the Pacific Ocean in Asia and North America. The steelhead is an anadromous form of the coastal rainbow trout or Columbia River redband trout that returns to fresh water to spawn after living two to three years in the ocean. Freshwater forms that have been introduced into the Great Lakes and migrate into tributaries to spawn are called steelhead. Adult freshwater stream rainbow trout average between 1 and 5 lb, while lake-dwelling and anadromous forms may reach 20 lb. Coloration varies based on subspecies and habitat. Adult fish are distinguished by a broad reddish stripe along the lateral line, from gills to the tail, most vivid in breeding males. Wild-caught and hatchery-reared forms of this species have been transplanted and introduced for food or sport in at least 45 countries and every continent except Antarctica. Introductions to locations outside their native range in the United States, Southern Europe, New Zealand and South America have damaged native fish species.
Introduced populations may affect native species by preying on them, out-competing them, transmitting contagious diseases, or hybridizing with related species and subspecies, thus reducing genetic purity. The rainbow trout is included in the list of the top 100 globally invasive species. Nonetheless, other introductions into waters devoid of any fish species or with depleted stocks of native fish have created sport fisheries such as the Great Lakes and Wyoming's Firehole River; some local populations of specific subspecies, or in the case of steelhead, distinct population segments, are listed as either threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act. The steelhead is the official state fish of Washington; the scientific name of the rainbow trout is Oncorhynchus mykiss. The species was named by German naturalist and taxonomist Johann Julius Walbaum in 1792 based on type specimens from the Kamchatka Peninsula in Siberia. Walbaum's original species name, was derived from the local Kamchatkan name used for the fish, mykizha.
The name of the genus is from the Greek onkos and rynchos, in reference to the hooked jaws of males in the mating season. Sir John Richardson, a Scottish naturalist, named a specimen of this species Salmo gairdneri in 1836 to honor Meredith Gairdner, a Hudson's Bay Company surgeon at Fort Vancouver on the Columbia River who provided Richardson with specimens. In 1855, William P. Gibbons, the curator of Geology and Mineralogy at the California Academy of Sciences, found a population and named it Salmo iridia corrected to Salmo irideus; these names faded once it was determined that Walbaum's description of type specimens was conspecific and therefore had precedence. In 1989, morphological and genetic studies indicated that trout of the Pacific basin were genetically closer to Pacific salmon than to the Salmos – brown trout or Atlantic salmon of the Atlantic basin. Thus, in 1989, taxonomic authorities moved the rainbow and other Pacific basin trout into the genus Oncorhynchus. Walbaum's name had precedence, so the species name Oncorhynchus mykiss became the scientific name of the rainbow trout.
The previous species names irideus and gairdneri were adopted as subspecies names for the coastal rainbow and Columbia River redband trout, respectively. Anadromous forms of the coastal rainbow trout or redband trout are known as steelhead. Subspecies of Oncorhynchus mykiss are listed below as described by fisheries biologist Robert J. Behnke. Resident freshwater rainbow trout adults average between 1 and 5 lb in riverine environments, while lake-dwelling and anadromous forms may reach 20 lb. Coloration varies between regions and subspecies. Adult freshwater forms are blue-green or olive green with heavy black spotting over the length of the body. Adult fish have a broad reddish stripe along the lateral line, from gills to the tail, most pronounced in breeding males; the caudal fin is only mildly forked. Lake-dwelling and anadromous forms are more silvery in color with the reddish stripe completely gone. Juvenile rainbow trout display parr marks typical of most salmonid juveniles. In some redband and golden trout forms parr marks are retained into adulthood.
Some coastal rainbow trout and Columbia River redband trout populations and cutbow hybrids may display reddish or pink throat markings similar to cutthroat trout. In many regions, hatchery-bred trout can be distinguished from native trout via fin clips. Fin clipping the adipose fin is a management tool used to identify hatchery-reared fish. Rainbow trout, including steelhead forms spawn in early to late spring when water temperatures reach at least 42 to 44 °F; the maximum recorded lifespan for a rainbow trout is 11 years. Freshwater resident rainbow trout inhabit and spawn in small to moderately large, well oxygenated, shallow rivers with gravel bottoms, they are native to the alluvial or freestone streams that are typical tributaries of the Pacific basin, but introduced rainbow trout have established wild, self-sustaining populations in other river types such as bedrock and spring creeks. Lake resident rainbow trout are found in moderately deep, cool lakes with
John Noble is an Australian actor and theatre director of more than 80 plays. He is best known for his roles as Dr. Walter Bishop in the US Fox science fiction television series Fringe, Henry Parrish in the Fox action-horror series Sleepy Hollow, his most high-profile film role was as Denethor in Peter Jackson's The Lord of the Rings trilogy. He provided the voice of the DC Comics supervillain Scarecrow in the 2015 video game Batman: Arkham Knight, where his character served as the main antagonist. In 2015, he joined the main cast of the television series Elementary as Sherlock Holmes's father, he was cast as a doctor in the Australian TV series All Saints. In 2012, Noble was diagnosed with osteoporosis, his charity, Noble Bones, helps to raise awareness for the disease. Noble starred as scientist Walter Bishop in the television series Fringe, he made occasional appearances on the television series All Saints. He is internationally known for his performance as Denethor in The Lord of the Rings trilogy.
He played Russian Consul Anatoly Markov in the sixth season of the US television series 24. In 2011, he appeared as Real Estate tycoon Leland Monroe in Rockstar's video game L. A. Noire, he is the voice of Unicron for the television show Transformers: Prime and its conclusion TV film. John Noble worked in Legends of Tomorrow where he voiced the time demon Mallus. In its episode "Guest Starring John Noble," he portrayed himself when Atom visited him on set of The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King and had him record a fake rewrite which would be used to fool Nora Darhk. Artistic Director of Stage Company of South Australia 1977–1987 Head of Drama, Brent St. School of Arts 1997–2000 Noble lives in the US with his wife Penny Noble, they have three children: Jess Noble and actress Samantha Noble. In 2011, John Noble's hobbies were reported to be "music and narration", he studies theoretical physics, requested that the writers of Fringe always keep things grounded in what could be scientifically feasible.
John Noble on IMDb
Man and the Biosphere Programme
Man and the Biosphere Programme is an intergovernmental scientific programme, launched in 1971 by UNESCO, that aims to establish a scientific basis for the improvement of relationships between people and their environments. MAB's work engages with the international development agenda—specially with the Sustainable Development Goals and the Post 2015 Development Agenda—and addresses challenges linked to scientific, environmental and development issues in diverse ecosystems. MAB combines the natural and social sciences and education to improve human livelihoods and the equitable sharing of benefits, to safeguard natural and managed ecosystems, thus promoting innovative approaches to economic development that are and culturally appropriate, environmentally sustainable; the MAB programme provides a unique platform for cooperation on research and development, capacity-building and networking to share information and experience on three interlinked issues: biodiversity loss, climate change and sustainable development.
It contributes not only to better understanding of the environment, but promotes greater involvement of science and scientists in policy development concerning the wise use of biological diversity. As of December 2018, 686 biosphere reserves in 122 countries, including 20 transboundary sites, have been included in the World Network of Biosphere Reserves. Biosphere reserves are areas comprising terrestrial and coastal ecosystems; each reserve promotes solutions reconciling the conservation of biodiversity with its sustainable use. Biosphere reserves are nominated by national governments and remain under the sovereign jurisdiction of the states where they are located, their status is internationally recognized. Biosphere reserves are ‘Science for Sustainability support sites’ – special places for testing interdisciplinary approaches to understanding and managing changes and interactions between social and ecological systems, including conflict prevention and management of biodiversity. Biosphere reserves have three interrelated zones that aim to fulfill three complementary and mutually reinforcing functions: The core area comprises a protected ecosystem that contributes to the conservation of landscapes, ecosystems and genetic variation.
The buffer zone surrounds or adjoins the core areas, is used for activities compatible with sound ecological practices that can reinforce scientific research, monitoring and education. The transition area is the part of the reserve where the greatest activity is allowed, fostering economic and human development, socioculturally and ecologically sustainable. UNESCO’s intergovernmental structure provides MAB with a framework to help national governments support the planning and implementation of research and training programmes with technical assistance and scientific advice. Participating countries establish MAB National Committees that ensure maximum national participation in the international programme and implementing each country’s activities. MAB operates through 158 National Committees established among the 195 Members States and nine Associate Members States of UNESCO; the agenda of the MAB Programme is defined by its main governing body, the International Coordinating Council. The MAB Council consists of 34 member states elected by UNESCO’s General Conference.
The council elects a chair and five vice-chairpersons from each of UNESCO’s geopolitical regions, one of which functions as a rapporteur. These constitute the MAB Bureau; the MAB Secretariat is based at UNESCO’s Division of Ecological and Earth Sciences, at UNESCO's headquarter in Paris, works with the different field offices around the world to coordinate the work of the MAB Programme at national and regional levels. Its staff members draw on expertise in varied disciplines. MAB is funded through the regular budget of UNESCO and mobilizes funds in-trust granted by Member States and multilateral sources, extra-budgetary funds provided by countries, the private sector and private institutions. MAB-related activities are nationally financed; the programme can grant seed funding to assist countries in developing projects and/or to secure appropriate partnership contributions. The latest World Congress of Biosphere Reserves took place in Lima, from 14 to 17 March 2016; this will be the 4th World Congress of Biosphere Reserves and it shall develop a new vision for the decade 2016–2025.
The World Network of Biosphere Reserves is supported by different regional, sub-regional or thematic networks. These are as follows: The African Biosphere Reserves Network was created in 1996 and comprises 33 African countries; the ArabMAB Network was launched in 1997 and represents 18 Arab countries. The East Asian Biosphere Reserve Network was launched in 1994. Today, it consists of China, the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Kazakhstan, the Republic of Korea and the Russian Federation. EuroMAB is the network of biosphere reserves in North America. Created in 1987, it is the largest MAB Regional Network with 53 countries; the Ibero-American MAB Network was created in 1992. It comprises 22 countries from Latin American and the Caribbean and Portugal; the Pacific Man and the Biosphere Network was created in 2006 and comprises the Federated States of Micronesia, Palau, Papua New Guinea and Tonga. The South and Central Asia MAB Network was created in 2002 and comprises Afghanistan, Bhutan, Iran, Maldives, Nepal and Sri Lanka.
The Southeast Asian Biosphere Reserve Network (SeaBRne
John Muir known as "John of the Mountains" and "Father of the National Parks", was an influential Scottish-American naturalist, environmental philosopher and early advocate for the preservation of wilderness in the United States of America. His letters and books describing his adventures in nature in the Sierra Nevada, have been read by millions, his activism has helped to preserve the Yosemite Valley, Sequoia National Park and many other wilderness areas. The Sierra Club, which he co-founded, is a prominent American conservation organization. In his life, Muir devoted most of his time to the preservation of the Western forests; as part of the campaign to make Yosemite a national park, Muir published two landmark articles on wilderness preservation in The Century Magazine, "The Treasures of the Yosemite" and "Features of the Proposed Yosemite National Park". S. Congress to pass a bill in 1890 establishing Yosemite National Park; the spiritual quality and enthusiasm toward nature expressed in his writings has inspired readers, including presidents and congressmen, to take action to help preserve large nature areas.
John Muir has been considered "an inspiration to both Scots and Americans". Muir's biographer, Steven J. Holmes, believes that Muir has become "one of the patron saints of twentieth-century American environmental activity," both political and recreational; as a result, his writings are discussed in books and journals, he is quoted by nature photographers such as Ansel Adams. "Muir has profoundly shaped the categories through which Americans understand and envision their relationships with the natural world," writes Holmes. Muir was noted for being an ecological thinker, political spokesman, religious prophet, whose writings became a personal guide into nature for countless individuals, making his name "almost ubiquitous" in the modern environmental consciousness. According to author William Anderson, Muir exemplified "the archetype of our oneness with the earth", while biographer Donald Worster says he believed his mission was "saving the American soul from total surrender to materialism." On April 21, 2013, the first John Muir Day was celebrated in Scotland, which marked the 175th anniversary of his birth, paying homage to the conservationist.
John Muir's Birthplace is a four-story stone house in East Lothian, Scotland. His parents were Ann Gilrye, he was the third of eight children: Margaret, David, Daniel and Mary, the American-born Joanna. His earliest recollections were of taking short walks with his grandfather. In his autobiography, he described his boyhood pursuits, which included fighting, either by re-enacting romantic battles from the Wars of Scottish Independence or just scrapping on the playground, hunting for birds' nests. Author Amy Marquis notes that he began his "love affair" with nature while young, implies that it may have been in reaction to his strict religious upbringing. "His father believed that anything that distracted from Bible studies was frivolous and punishable." But the young Muir was a "restless spirit" and "prone to lashings." As a young boy, Muir became fascinated with the East Lothian landscape, spent a lot of time wandering the local coastline and countryside. It was during this time that he became interested in natural history and the works of Scottish naturalist Alexander Wilson.
Although he spent the majority of his life in America, Muir never forgot his roots in Scotland. He held a strong connection with his birthplace and Scottish identity throughout his life and was heard talking about his childhood spent amid the East Lothian countryside, he admired the works of Thomas Carlyle and poetry of Robert Burns. He returned to Scotland on a trip in 1893, where he met one of his Dunbar schoolmates and visited the places of his youth that were etched in his memory, he never lost his strong Scottish accent despite having lived in America for many years. In 1849, Muir's family immigrated to the United States, starting a farm near Portage, called Fountain Lake Farm, it has been designated a National Historic Landmark. Stephen Fox recounts that Muir's father found the Church of Scotland insufficiently strict in faith and practice, leading to their immigration and joining a congregation of the Campbellite Restoration Movement, called the Disciples of Christ. By the age of 11, the young Muir had learned to recite "by heart and by sore flesh" all of the New Testament and most of the Old Testament.
In maturity, while remaining a spiritual man, Muir may have changed his orthodox beliefs. He wrote, "I never tried to abandon creeds or code of civilization. Elsewhere in his writings, he described the conventional image of a Creator, "as purely a manufactured article as any puppet of a half-penny theater." When he was 22 years old, Muir enrolled at the University of Wisconsin–Madison, paying his own way for several years. There, under a towering black locust tree beside North Hall, Muir took his first botany lesson. A fellow student plucked a flower from the tree and used it to explain how the grand locust is a member of the pea family, related to the straggling pea plant. Fifty years the naturalist Muir described the day in his autobiography. "This fine lesson charmed me and sent me flying to the woods and meadows in wild enthusiasm." As a freshman, Muir studied chemistry with Profes
Geographic coordinate system
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position. A common choice of coordinates is latitude and elevation. To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection; the invention of a geographic coordinate system is credited to Eratosthenes of Cyrene, who composed his now-lost Geography at the Library of Alexandria in the 3rd century BC. A century Hipparchus of Nicaea improved on this system by determining latitude from stellar measurements rather than solar altitude and determining longitude by timings of lunar eclipses, rather than dead reckoning. In the 1st or 2nd century, Marinus of Tyre compiled an extensive gazetteer and mathematically-plotted world map using coordinates measured east from a prime meridian at the westernmost known land, designated the Fortunate Isles, off the coast of western Africa around the Canary or Cape Verde Islands, measured north or south of the island of Rhodes off Asia Minor.
Ptolemy credited him with the full adoption of longitude and latitude, rather than measuring latitude in terms of the length of the midsummer day. Ptolemy's 2nd-century Geography used the same prime meridian but measured latitude from the Equator instead. After their work was translated into Arabic in the 9th century, Al-Khwārizmī's Book of the Description of the Earth corrected Marinus' and Ptolemy's errors regarding the length of the Mediterranean Sea, causing medieval Arabic cartography to use a prime meridian around 10° east of Ptolemy's line. Mathematical cartography resumed in Europe following Maximus Planudes' recovery of Ptolemy's text a little before 1300. In 1884, the United States hosted the International Meridian Conference, attended by representatives from twenty-five nations. Twenty-two of them agreed to adopt the longitude of the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, England as the zero-reference line; the Dominican Republic voted against the motion, while Brazil abstained. France adopted Greenwich Mean Time in place of local determinations by the Paris Observatory in 1911.
In order to be unambiguous about the direction of "vertical" and the "horizontal" surface above which they are measuring, map-makers choose a reference ellipsoid with a given origin and orientation that best fits their need for the area they are mapping. They choose the most appropriate mapping of the spherical coordinate system onto that ellipsoid, called a terrestrial reference system or geodetic datum. Datums may be global, meaning that they represent the whole Earth, or they may be local, meaning that they represent an ellipsoid best-fit to only a portion of the Earth. Points on the Earth's surface move relative to each other due to continental plate motion and diurnal Earth tidal movement caused by the Moon and the Sun; this daily movement can be as much as a metre. Continental movement can be up to 10 m in a century. A weather system high-pressure area can cause a sinking of 5 mm. Scandinavia is rising by 1 cm a year as a result of the melting of the ice sheets of the last ice age, but neighbouring Scotland is rising by only 0.2 cm.
These changes are insignificant if a local datum is used, but are statistically significant if a global datum is used. Examples of global datums include World Geodetic System, the default datum used for the Global Positioning System, the International Terrestrial Reference Frame, used for estimating continental drift and crustal deformation; the distance to Earth's center can be used both for deep positions and for positions in space. Local datums chosen by a national cartographical organisation include the North American Datum, the European ED50, the British OSGB36. Given a location, the datum provides the latitude ϕ and longitude λ. In the United Kingdom there are three common latitude and height systems in use. WGS 84 differs at Greenwich from the one used on published maps OSGB36 by 112 m; the military system ED50, used by NATO, differs from about 120 m to 180 m. The latitude and longitude on a map made against a local datum may not be the same as one obtained from a GPS receiver. Coordinates from the mapping system can sometimes be changed into another datum using a simple translation.
For example, to convert from ETRF89 to the Irish Grid add 49 metres to the east, subtract 23.4 metres from the north. More one datum is changed into any other datum using a process called Helmert transformations; this involves converting the spherical coordinates into Cartesian coordinates and applying a seven parameter transformation, converting back. In popular GIS software, data projected in latitude/longitude is represented as a Geographic Coordinate System. For example, data in latitude/longitude if the datum is the North American Datum of 1983 is denoted by'GCS North American 1983'; the "latitude" of a point on Earth's surface is the angle between the equatorial plane and the straight line that passes through that point and through the center of the Earth. Lines joining points of the same latitude trace circles on the surface of Earth called parallels, as they are parallel to the Equator and to each other; the North Pole is 90° N. The 0° parallel of latitude is designated the Equator, the fun