Oklahoma's 2nd congressional district
Oklahoma's Second Congressional District is one of five United States Congressional districts in Oklahoma and covers one-fourth of the state in the east. The district borders Arkansas, Kansas and Texas and includes a total of 24 counties; the district has supported conservative Democrats, was reckoned as a classic Yellow Dog Democrat district. However, the growing Republican trend in the state has overtaken the district since the start of the 21st century. In the last two elections, the Republican presidential candidate has carried it by the largest margin in the state. Urban voters represent a third of the district; the district is represented by Republican Markwayne Mullin, becoming only the second Republican after Tom Coburn to hold the seat since 1921. The district borders Kansas to the north and Arkansas to the east, Texas to the south, it covers all or part of 26 counties. It includes the remainder of Rogers County, not included in the 1st District, also, all of the following counties: Adair, Craig, Mayes, Cherokee, Muskogee, Okfuskee, McIntosh, Haskell, LeFlore, Pittsburg, Coal, Pushmataha, McCurtain, Bryan and Johnston.
Some of the principal cities in the district include Miami, Muskogee, Okmulgee, McAlester, Durant. The northern half of the district includes most of the area of Oklahoma referred to as Green Country, while the southern half of the district includes a part of Oklahoma referred to as Little Dixie. According to the 2000 U. S. Census, the district is 35.51 percent urban, 23.95 percent non-white, has a population, 2.40 percent Latino and 1.36 percent foreign-born. The district has a higher percentage of Native Americans than any other congressional district in Oklahoma, its representative, Markwayne Mullin, is one of two Native Americans serving in Congress. Presidential races Source: 2004 Election Results, via OK.gov Source: 2006 Election Results, via OK.gov Source: 2008 Election Results, via OK.gov Source: 2010 Election Results, via OK.gov The district favored conservative Democratic candidates, with only three Republicans taking the district. The district shifted Republican most notably in electing Tom Coburn, who vacated the seat due to a self-imposed term limit pledge.
It has since been held by Dan Boren. In 2012 the 2nd has again elected a Republican to the House and current Rep is Markwayne Mullin and a Pentecostal; the district's Democratic leanings stem from historic migration patterns into the state. The Little Dixie region of the district imported the people and culture of southern states such as Mississippi after Reconstruction. Voter registration in Little Dixie runs as high as 90 percent Democratic. Additionally, Native Americans in the region tend to vote for Democratic candidates and they have helped Democratic candidates win statewide elections; this is where Democratic presidential candidates perform best in the state. Bill Clinton carried the district in 1992 and 1996. However, the district has been swept up in the growing Republican trend in Oklahoma. George W. Bush received 59 percent of the vote in this district in 2004. John McCain received 66 percent of the vote in this district in 2008. Muskogee has produced more than any other city in the district.
Tahlequah has produced the second most of any city in the district. Oklahoma's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present
Interstate 40 is a major east-west Interstate Highway running through the south-central portion of the United States north of I-10, I-20 and I-30 but south of I-70. The western end is at I-15 in California. S. Route 117 and North Carolina Highway 132 in Wilmington, North Carolina, it is the third-longest Interstate Highway in the United States, behind I-80 and I-90. Much of the western part of I-40, from Oklahoma City to Barstow parallels or overlays the historic US 66, east of Oklahoma City the route parallels US 64 and US 70. I-40 runs through many major cities including New Mexico. Though I-40 is a cross-country east-west interstate, it does not nearly touch both oceans or coasts like I-10, I-80 and I-90 does; the eastern terminus touches near the Atlantic Ocean, but the western terminus doesn't touch the Pacific Ocean. Interstate 40 is a major east–west route of the Interstate Highway System, its western end is in California. Known as the Needles Freeway, it heads east from Barstow across the Mojave Desert in San Bernardino County to Needles, before it crosses into Arizona southwest of Kingman.
I-40 covers 155 miles in California. A sign in California showing the distance to Wilmington, North Carolina has been stolen several times. Interstate 40 is a main route to the South Rim of the Grand Canyon, with the exits leading into Grand Canyon National Park in Williams and Flagstaff. I-40 covers 359 mi in Arizona. Just west of exit 190, west of Flagstaff, is its highest elevation along I-40 in the U. S. as the road crosses just over 7,320 ft. I-40 passes through the Navajo Nation, the largest Indian reservation in the U. S. I-40 covers 374 miles in New Mexico. Notable cities along I-40 include Gallup, Albuquerque, Santa Rosa, Tucumcari. I-40 travels through several different Indian reservations in the western half of the state, it reaches its highest point of 7,275 feet at the Continental Divide in western New Mexico between Gallup and Grants. Arizona, New Mexico, Texas are the only three states where I-40 has a speed limit of 75 mph instead of 70 mph which happens in California, Arkansas and North Carolina.
In the west Texas panhandle area, there are several ranch roads connected directly to the interstate. One of the marked at-grade crossings is shown to the right; the only major city in Texas, directly served by I-40 is Amarillo, which connects with Interstate 27 that runs south toward Lubbock. I-40 has only one welcome center in the state, located in Amarillo at the exit for Rick Husband Amarillo International Airport, serving both sides of the interstate. Interstate 40 goes through the heart of the state, passing through many Oklahoma cities and towns, including Erick, Elk City, Weatherford, El Reno, Oklahoma City, Del City, Midwest City, Okemah, Checotah and Roland. I-40 covers 331 miles in Oklahoma. In Downtown Oklahoma City, Interstate 40 was rerouted a mile south of its former alignment and a 10–lane facility replaced the former I-40 Crosstown Bridge. Interstate 40 runs for 284 miles in Arkansas; the route passes through Van Buren, where it intersects the southbound Interstate 540/US 71 to Fort Smith.
The route continues east to Alma to intersect Interstate 49 north to Arkansas. Running through the Ozark Mountains, I-40 serves Ozark, Russellville and Conway; the route turns south after Conway and enters North Little Rock, which brings high volume interchanges with Interstate 430, I-30/US 65/US 67/US 167, I-440/AR 440. The interstate continues east through Lonoke and West Memphis on the eastern side. Interstate 40 overlaps Interstate 55 in West Memphis before it crosses the Mississippi River on the Hernando de Soto Bridge and enters Memphis, Tennessee. More of Interstate 40 passes through 455 miles, than any other state; the interstate goes through all of the three Grand Divisions of Tennessee and its three largest cities, Memphis and Knoxville. Jackson, Cookeville and Newport are other notable cities and/or towns through which I-40 passes. Before leaving the state, I-40 enters the Great Smoky Mountains towards North Carolina; the section of Interstate 40 which runs between Memphis and Nashville is referred to as the Music Highway.
During reconstruction, a long section of I-40 through downtown Knoxville near the central Malfunction Junction was closed to traffic from May 1, 2008 and not reopened until June 12, 2009 with all traffic redirected via Interstate 640, the northern bypass route. The redesigned section now has additional lanes in each direction, is less congested, has fewer accidents. In North Carolina, I-40 travels 421 miles, it enters the state as a winding mountain freeway through the Great Smoky Mountains which closes due to landslides and weather conditions. It enters the state on a north-south alignment, turning to a more east-west alignment upon merging with U. S. Route 74 at the eastern terminus of the Great Smoky Mountains Expressway. From there the highway passes through Asheville and Statesville before reaching the Piedmont Triad. Just east of the Triad city of Greensboro, North Carolina it merges with I-85 and the two roads split again
1930 United States Census
The Fifteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from April 1, 1930, determined the resident population of the United States to be 122,775,046, an increase of 13.7 percent over the 106,021,537 persons enumerated during the 1920 Census. The 1930 Census collected the following information: address name relationship to head of family home owned or rented if owned, value of home if rented, monthly rent whether owned a radio set whether on a farm sex race age marital status and, if married, age at first marriage school attendance literacy birthplace of person, their parents if foreign born: language spoken at home before coming to the U. S. year of immigration whether naturalized ability to speak English occupation and class of worker whether at work previous day veteran status if Indian: whether of full or mixed blood tribal affiliationFull documentation for the 1930 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.
The original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in 1949. The microfilmed census is located on 2,667 rolls of microfilm, available from the National Archives and Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, digital indices. Microdata from the 1930 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1930 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com 1931 U. S Census Report Contains 1930 Census results Historic US Census data 1930Census.com: 1930 United States Census for Genealogy & Family History Research 1930 Interactive US Census Find stories and more attached to names on the 1930 US census
Muskogee County, Oklahoma
Muskogee County is a county located in the U. S. state of Oklahoma. As of the 2010 census, the population was 70,990; the county seat is Muskogee. The county and city were named for the Muscogee Nation; the official spelling of the name was changed to Muskogee by the post office in 1900. Muskogee County is part of the Muskogee, OK Micropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Tulsa-Muskogee-Bartlesville Combined Statistical Area. According to archaeological studies, prehistoric people lived in this area as long ago as the Paleo-Indian period. However, archaeologists have made more extensive studies of those people known as the Mound Builders who lived here during the Caddoan Stage. One of the first Europeans to come to this area was Jean Baptiste Bénard de la Harpe, he was a French explorer and trader who discovered a Wichita village in 1719. By the end of the 18th century the Wichita had been driven away by the more warlike Osage, who used this as their hunting ground. Auguste Pierre Chouteau and other fur traders had established a settlement at the Three Forks.
Early in the 19th Century and Choctaw hunting parties made incursions that caused frequent conflict with the Osage. In 1824, the U. S. Army established Fort Gibson on the Grand River to dampen the conflict; the town of Fort Gibson that grew up just outside the fort claims to be the oldest town in Oklahoma. At the start of the U. S. Civil War, Confederate troops of the Cherokee and Creek Home Guards built Fort Davis, across the Arkansas River from Fort Gibson. Federal troops attacked and destroyed Fort Davis in 1862, driving the Confederates from this area, although a few skirmishes occurred in the war at Bayou Menard Skirmish, several at Webbers Falls, the Creek Agency Skirmish; the county was formed at statehood with land from the Muskogee District of the Creek Nation and the Canadian and Illinois Districts of the Cherokee Nation. A post office named Muscogee had been established January 17, 1872; the official spelling of the name was changed to Muskogee on July 19, 1900. After the Civil War, the Five Civilized Tribes, which included the Creeks, agreed to new treaties with the federal government.
Among other provisions, they ceded their western lands back to the government and allowed rights of way to railroads. The Missouri and Texas Railway built a line into Indian Territory, near the Three Forks. Although railroad officials intended to build a depot at the site of Fort Davis, the terrain proved unsuitable, so they relocated the depot, which they named Muscogee, farther south, they began the town of Oktaha 11 miles farther south, in the same year. Other railroads followed, such as the Kansas and Arkansas Valley Railway, the Midland Valley Railroad, the Ozark and Cherokee Central Railway, the Shawnee and Missouri Coal and Railway, the Muskogee Union Railway, the MOG. In 1874, the federal government consolidated all of the Five Civilized Tribes agencies into one Union Agency, located just west of Muscogee. In 1889, a federal district court was created in Muscogee. In 1894, the Dawes Commission established its headquarters there. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 840 square miles, of which 810 square miles is land and 29 square miles is water.
The western part of the county is prairie grassland, while the eastern part rises into the Cookson Hills, on the western edge of the Ozark Mountains. The Arkansas and Grand rivers all converge in the county, causing that area to be called "Three Forks." Webbers Falls Lake on the Arkansas River covers part of the county. Wagoner County Cherokee County Sequoyah County Haskell County McIntosh County Okmulgee County Sequoyah National Wildlife Refuge The county seat of the County is Muskogee, Oklahoma. All elected; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 70,990 people residing in the county. 59.8% were White, 17.5% Native American, 11.3% Black or African American, 0.6% Asian, 2.6% of some other race and 8.2% of two or more races. 5.2% were Hispanic or Latino. 16.7 % were of 8.2 % German and 7.3 % Irish ancestry. As of the census of 2000, there were 69,451 people, 26,458 households, 18,467 families residing in the county; the population density was 33/km². There were 29,575 housing units at an average density of 14/km².
The racial makeup of the county was 63.73% White, 13.16% Black or African American, 14.88% Native American, 0.58% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 1.19% other races, 6.43% from two or more races. 2.67% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 26,458 households, of which 31.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.80% were married couples living together, 13.30% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.20% were non-families. 26.70% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.51, the average family size was 3.03. The age distribution of the population was 25.90% under the age of 18, 9.50% from 18 to 24, 26.70% from 25 to 44, 22.60% from 45 to 64, 15.30% 65 or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 93.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.90 males. The median income of households in the
Sequoyah, was an American and Cherokee silversmith. In 1821 he completed his independent creation of a Cherokee syllabary, making reading and writing in Cherokee possible; this was one of the few times in recorded history that a member of a pre-literate people created an original, effective writing system. After seeing its worth, the people of the Cherokee Nation began to use his syllabary and adopted it in 1825, their literacy rate surpassed that of surrounding European-American settlers. Sequoyah's heroic status has led to several competing accounts of his life that are speculative, contradictory, or fabricated; as noted by John B. Davis, there were few primary documents describing facts of Sequoyah's life; some anecdotes were passed down orally, but these conflict or are vague about times and places. Sequoyah was born in the Cherokee town of Tuskegee circa 1770. James Mooney, a prominent anthropologist and historian of the Cherokee people, quoted a cousin as saying that as a little boy, he spent his early years with his mother.
Estimates of his birth year ranged from 1760 to 1776. His name is believed to come from the Cherokee word siqua meaning'hog'. However, Davis says the name may have been derived from sikwa and vi meaning a place or an enclosure; this is a reference either to a childhood deformity or to a injury that left Sequoyah disabled. His mother, Wut-teh, was known to be Cherokee. Mooney stated. McKinney and Hall noted that she was a niece of chiefs who have been identified as the brothers Old Tassel and Doublehead. Since John Watts was a nephew of the two chiefs, it is that Wut-teh and John Watts were cousins. Sources differ as to the identity of Sequoyah's father. Davis cites Emmet Starr's book, Early History of the Cherokees, as the source for saying that Sequoyah's father was a peddler from Swabia named Guyst, Guist, or Gist. According to Goodpasture, some believe the father was an unlicensed German peddler named George Gist, who came into the Cherokee Nation in 1768, where he married and fathered a child.
Grant Foreman identified him as Nathaniel Gist, son of a Christopher Gist, who became a commissioned officer with the Continental Army associated with George Washington. Mooney and others suggested that he was a fur trader, who would have been a man of some social status and financial backing. Josiah C. Nott claimed he was the "son of a Scotchman". An article in the Cherokee Phoenix, published in 1828, stated that Sequoyah's father was a half-blood and his grandfather a white man; the New Georgia Encyclopedia presents another version of Sequoyah's origins, from the 1971 book, Tell Them They Lie: The Sequoyah Myth, by Traveller Bird, who claims to be a Sequoyah descendant. Bird says that Sequoyah was a full-blood Cherokee who always opposed the submission and assimilation of his people into the white man's culture; the encyclopedia noted that Bird presented no documentary evidence, but has gained some credibility in academic circles. In any case the father was absent. Various explanations have been proposed.
Wuteh did not remarry afterward. There were no siblings, Sequoyah was raised by his mother alone. According to Davis, Sequoyah never learned English, he and Wuteh spoke only Cherokee. As a youth, he spent much of his time tending cattle and working in their garden, while his mother ran a trading post. Sequoyah became lame early in life, though why and where are not known; some reports indicate. Davis wrote that an early issue of the Cherokee Advocate said that "...he was the victim of a hydrarthritic trouble of the knee joint called'white swelling'." One doctor speculated. In any case, lameness prevented him from being a successful warrior. Despite his lack of schooling, Sequoyah displayed a good deal of natural intelligence; as a child, he had devised and built milk troughs and skimmers for the dairy house that he had constructed. As he grew older and came in contact with more white men, he learned, he became a noted silversmith, creating various items from the silver coins that trappers and traders carried.
He never signed his pieces, so there are none that can be positively identified as his work. Sequoyah may have taken over his mother's trading post after her death, which Davis claimed occurred about the end of the 18th Century, his store became an informal meeting place for Cherokee men to socialize and drink whiskey. Sequoyah soon spent much of his time drunk. After a few months he was seen sober, neglecting his farm and trading business and spending his money buying liquor by the keg, he realized that he was ruining his life, took up new interests. He began to draw, he took up blacksmithing, so he could repair the iron farm implements, introduced to the area. Self-taught as usual, he made his own tools and bellows, he was soon doing a good business either selling items he had created himself. His spurs and bridle bits were in great demand. Although he maintained his store, he not only stopped selling alcohol, it is unclear. Some sources claim he went with his mother, t
Illinois River (Oklahoma)
The Illinois River is a 145-mile-long tributary of the Arkansas River in the U. S. states of Oklahoma. The Osage Indians named it Ne-eng-wah-kon-dah, which translates as "Medicine Stone River." The state of Oklahoma has designated its portion as a Scenic River. The Illinois River is a significant location in the 1961 Wilson Rawls novel, Where the Red Fern Grows. An unidentified French explorer called this body of water "river des Illinois" after the Illinois Indians who were not, however present in this area. Rather, the earliest known inhabitants were descendants of Caddoans who built the Spiro Mounds at Spiro, Oklahoma. In the 18th century, the Illinois River country was a hunting ground for the Osage Indians. Cherokee began to migrate into the area about 1800. U. S. Army Major James Wilkinson reported passing the mouth of this river in 1806. In 1828, the river was designated as a main waterway for the CherokeesThe Illinois Confederation included the Peoria, Miami and Kaskaskia tribes; these tribes were all classified as Algonquin.
The Miami word Ilaniawaki, meaning "original ones," became the French term Illinois. Lake Tenkiller, created by damming the Illinois River beginning in 1947 with completion in 1953, has attracted tourists and fishermen to this once sparsely settled area. Seventy miles of the river between Lake Tenkiller and the Arkansas border, flowing through the Cookson Hills, have been supervised by the Oklahoma Scenic Rivers Commission headed by Ed Fite since 1970; the spring-fed river rises in the Ozark Mountains in the northwest corner of Arkansas, in Washington County southwest of Fayetteville, near the communities of Hogeye and Onda. The stream flows north parallel to Arkansas Highway 265 turns northwest passing under U. S. Route 62 northeast of Prairie Grove, it continues north-northwest passing under Arkansas Highway 16 west of Savoy and forming a portion of the east boundary of the Ozark–St. Francis National Forest; the stream enters Benton County. Near Robinson the stream flows under U. S. Route turns to the west paralleling that route.
It passes north of Pedro under Route 412 again and turns to the southwest. It passes under Arkansas 16 again and Arkansas Highway 59 to the southeast of Siloam Springs; the stream leaves Arkansas at the southwest corner of Benton County and enters Lake Frances in Oklahoma. It flows west into northeast Oklahoma southwest and south through the mountains of eastern Oklahoma, past Scraper and Tahlequah. South of Tahlequah, it passes through the reservoir Tenkiller Ferry Lake, it joins the Arkansas River downstream of Gore and upstream of Robert S. Kerr Reservoir 20 miles southeast of Muskogee. Together with its tributary streams, it has a drainage area of 900 square miles; the town of Tahlequah on its banks was the western terminus of the Trail of Tears. The river is a major source of tourism in the area. In 1999, it was estimated to have brought in 500,000 tourists and $9 million to the Oklahoma section of the river; the upper section and its tributaries, Flint Creek and the Baron Fork, became a designated Scenic River under the Oklahoma Scenic Rivers Act in 1977. and home to many native species of bass with spring runs of white bass.
It is a popular summertime destination for floaters. The lower section, below Tenkiller Dam, is a designated year-round trout stream, stocked with Rainbow and Brown Trout; the state record rainbow trout was caught in the cold tailwater of the dam. The river has been the source of a long-running controversy between the two states, with Oklahoma blaming Arkansas for pollution in the river, most notoriously phosphorus contamination by sewage and poultry farm runoff. In 1987, wastewater discharge by the city of Fayetteville, Arkansas was identified as the source of a heavy load of phosphorus. Oklahoma sued Arkansas to stop this discharge; the suit went to the U. S. Supreme Court in 1992, which ruled that the upstream state must enforce the water quality rules of the downstream state. In 2002, Oklahoma became the first state to use a numerical water quality standard for phosphorus; the standard for scenic rivers was set at 0.037 mg/L In December 2003, an agreement was reached between the two states, with Arkansas agreeing to reduce phosphorus output from its waste water treatment plants by 75% over the next ten years, although it does not address poultry-farm runoff.
In 1996, a report demonstrated that nutrient-fed algae was endangering Lake Tenkiller, located on the lower Illinois. The report stated that phosphorus content in the river should be reduced by 40 percent to prevent lake water quality from declining further and by 80 percent to return the quality to its original condition; the situation appears to have improved. The Oklahoma Water Resources Board reported in 2015, that phosphorus levels have been declining in the Illinois River and its tributaries on the Oklahoma side of the state line. On October 1, 2015, the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency issued for public comment the water quality model for the Illinois River; the J. T. Nickel Family Nature and Wildlife Preserve is the largest nature preserve near the river, it is located near the east bank of the Illinois River near Oklahoma. Elk were reintroduced into the preserve in 2005; this species had been missing from the Cookson Hills area for at least 150 years. List of rivers in Arkansas List of rivers in Oklahoma Illinois River information and video on TravelOK.com Official travel and tourism website for the State of Oklahoma State of Oklahoma: Illinois Basin Water Quality Report USGS National Water Information System: - current water levels Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History an
Crawford County, Arkansas
Crawford County is a county located in the Ozarks region of the U. S. state of Arkansas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 61,948, making it the 12th-most populous of Arkansas's 75 counties; the county seat and largest city is Van Buren. Crawford County was formed on October 18, 1820 from the former Lovely County and Indian Territory, was named for William H. Crawford, the United States Secretary of War in 1815. Located within the Ozarks, the southern border of the county is the Arkansas River, placing the extreme southern edge of the county in the Arkansas River Valley; the frontier county became an early crossroads, beginning with a California Gold Rush and developing into the Butterfield Overland Mail, Civil War trails and railroads such as the St. Louis and San Francisco Railway, the Little Rock and Fort Smith Railroad, the St. Louis, Iron Mountain and Southern Railway. Today the county is home to the intersection of two major interstate highways, Interstate 40 and I-49. Crawford County is part of the Fort Smith metropolitan area.
As a dry county, alcohol sales are prohibited, though recent changes to county law provide for exemptions. Crawford County is located in the northwest region of Arkansas. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 604 square miles, of which 593 square miles is land and 11 square miles is water. Crawford County is included in an area designated for a planned extension of I-49 into Arkansas; the final project will connect New Orleans, Louisiana, to Kansas City, Missouri, a large trucking corridor, not served by an Interstate highway. The proposed highway would utilize portions of I-49 which runs north from Van Buren toward the Missouri state line passing through Benton County, home of Walmart; the corridor was listed as the number-one high-priority corridor by transportation officials in the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act. Washington County Madison County Franklin County Sebastian County Le Flore County, Oklahoma Sequoyah County, Oklahoma Adair County, Oklahoma Ozark National Forest As of the 2000 census, there were 53,247 people, 19,702 households, 15,150 families residing in the county.
The population density was 35/km². There were 21,315 housing units at an average density of 14/km²; the racial makeup of the county was 92.19% White, 0.87% Black or African American, 2.01% Native American, 1.19% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 1.48% from other races, 2.24% from two or more races. 3.27% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 19,702 households out of which 37.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.20% were married couples living together, 10.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 23.10% were non-families. 20.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.68 and the average family size was 3.07. In the county, the population was spread out with 28.20% under the age of 18, 8.40% from 18 to 24, 29.30% from 25 to 44, 22.80% from 45 to 64, 11.30% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.70 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $32,871, the median income for a family was $36,741. Males had a median income of $29,581 versus $20,352 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,015. About 10.90% of families and 14.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.30% of those under age 18 and 13.70% of those age 65 or over. Thousands of self-claimed "Western Band of Cherokee" fought for state and federal recognition as a political entity of Native Americans. Crawford County was part of the Cherokee Nation, which lost its tribal sovereignty status as a result of the U. S. Civil war in the 1860s; the Cherokee Nation was subsequently relocated to the west in the present-day state of Oklahoma. Alma Cedarville Dyer Kibler Mountainburg Mulberry Van Buren Chester Rudy Dora Townships in Arkansas are the divisions of a county; each township includes unincorporated areas. Arkansas townships have limited purposes in modern times.
However, the United States Census does list Arkansas population based on townships. Townships are of value for historical purposes in terms of genealogical research; each town or city is within one or more townships in an Arkansas county based on census maps and publications. The townships of Crawford County are listed below. List of lakes in Crawford County, Arkansas National Register of Historic Places listings in Crawford County, Arkansas Crawford County government's website Crawford County Sheriff's Office