The Banda Islands are a volcanic group of ten small volcanic islands in the Banda Sea, about 140 km south of Seram Island and about 2,000 km east of Java, constitute an administrative district within the Central Maluku Regency in the Indonesian province of Maluku. The main town and administrative centre is Bandanaira, located on the island of the same name, they rise out of 4-to-6-kilometre deep ocean and have a total land area of 45.6 square kilometres. They had a population of 18,544 at the 2010 Census; until the mid-19th century the Banda Islands were the world's only source of the spices nutmeg and mace, produced from the nutmeg tree. The islands are popular destinations for scuba diving and snorkeling; the first documented human presence in the Banda Islands comes from a rockshelter site on Pulau Ay, in use at least 8,000 years ago. Before the arrival of Europeans, Banda had an oligarchic form of government led by orang kaya and the Bandanese had an active and independent role in trade throughout the archipelago.
Banda was the world's only source of nutmeg and mace, spices used as flavourings and preserving agents that were at the time valued in European markets. They were sold by Arab traders to the Venetians for exorbitant prices; the traders did not divulge the exact location of their source and no European was able to deduce their location. The first written accounts of Banda are in Suma Oriental, a book written by the Portuguese apothecary Tomé Pires, based in Malacca from 1512 to 1515 but visited Banda several times. On his first visit, he interviewed the Portuguese and the far more knowledgeable Malay sailors in Malacca, he estimated the early sixteenth century population to be 2500–3000. He reported the Bandanese as being part of an Indonesia-wide trading network and the only native Malukan long-range traders taking cargo to Malacca, although shipments from Banda were being made by Javanese traders. In addition to the production of nutmeg and mace, Banda maintained significant entrepôt trade. In exchange, Banda predominantly received cloth.
In 1603, an average quality sarong-sized cloth traded for eighteen kilograms of nutmeg. Some of these textiles were on-sold, ending up in Halmahera and New Guinea. Coarser ikat from the Lesser Sundas was traded for sago from the Kei Islands and Seram. In August 1511 on behalf of the king of Portugal, Afonso de Albuquerque conquered Malacca, which at the time was the hub of Asian trade. In November of that year, after having secured Malacca and learning of the Bandas' location, Albuquerque sent an expedition of three ships led by his good friend António de Abreu to find them. Malay pilots, either recruited or forcibly conscripted, guided them via Java, the Lesser Sundas and Ambon to Banda, arriving in early 1512; the first Europeans to reach the Bandas, the expedition remained in Banda for about one month and filling their ships with Banda's nutmeg and mace, with cloves in which Banda had a thriving entrepôt trade. D'Abreu sailed through Ambon and Seram while his second in command Francisco Serrão went ahead towards the Maluku islands, was shipwrecked and ended up in Ternate.
Distracted by hostilities elsewhere in the archipelago, such as Ambon and Ternate, the Portuguese did not return until 1529. Five of the Banda islands were within gunshot of each other and he realised that a fort on the main island Neira would give him full control of the group; the Bandanese were, hostile to such a plan, their warlike antics were both costly and tiresome to Garcia whose men were attacked when they attempted to build a fort. From on, the Portuguese were infrequent visitors to the islands preferring to buy their nutmeg from traders in Malacca. Unlike other eastern Indonesian islands, such as Ambon, Solor and Morotai, the Bandanese displayed no enthusiasm for Christianity or the Europeans who brought it in the sixteenth century, no serious attempt was made to Christianise the Bandanese. Maintaining their independence, the Bandanese never allowed the Portuguese to build a fort or a permanent post in the islands. Though, it was this lack of ports which brought the Dutch to trade at Banda instead of the clove islands of Ternate and Tidore.
The Dutch followed the Portuguese to Banda but were to have a much more dominating and lasting presence. Dutch-Bandanese relations were mutually resentful from the outset, with Holland’s first merchants complaining of Bandanese reneging on agreed deliveries and price, cheating on quantity and quality. For the Bandanese, on the other hand, although they welcomed another competitor purchaser for their spices, the items of trade offered by the Dutch—heavy woolens, damasks, unwanted manufactured goods, for example—were unsuitable in comparison to traditional trade products; the Javanese and Indian, Portuguese traders for example brought indispensable items along with steel knives, copper and prized Chinese porcelain. As much as the Dutch disliked dealing with the Bandanese, the trade was a profitable one with spices selling for 300 times the purchase price in Banda; this amply justified the risk in shipping them to Europe. The allure of such profits saw an increasing number of Dutch expeditions.
The sacred kingfisher is a medium-sized woodland kingfisher that occurs in mangroves, woodlands and river valleys in Australia, New Zealand, other parts of the western Pacific. In New Zealand the species is known by its Māori name kōtare, it is called “sacred” for it was said to be a holy bird for Polynesians, who believed it to have control over the waves. The local subspecies of collared kingfisher and other kingfishers in the southwestern Pacific were ascribed venerable power over the ocean; the sacred kingfisher was described by the naturalists Nicholas Aylward Vigors and Thomas Horsfield in 1827 under the binomial name Halcyon sanctus. Halcyon is feminine and the correct name would be Halcyon sancta. Vigors and Horsfield compare their species to Alcedo sacra described by Johann Friedrich Gmelin in 1788. Gmelin in turn based his description on John Latham's "Sacred King's Fisher" published in 1782. Latham described several varieties, one of, illustrated in Arthur Phillip's The Voyage of Governor Phillip to Botany Bay published in 1789.
The genus Halcyon is now split and the sacred kingfisher placed in the genus Todiramphus, erected by the French surgeon and naturalist René Lesson in 1827. Five subspecies are recognised: T. s. sanctus – Australia to east Solomon Island to New Guinea and Indonesia T. s. vagans – New Zealand, Lord Howe Island and Kermadec Islands T. s. norfolkiensis – Norfolk Island T. s. canacorum – New Caledonia T. s. macmillani – Loyalty Islands The sacred kingfisher is a medium-sized kingfisher. They are turquoise, with white underparts and collar feathers. Both sexes are similar, but females are more dull-colored. Juveniles underparts. Sacred kingfishers are found in Australia, New Zealand, Lord Howe Island, Norfolk Island, New Guinea, eastern Indonesia, much of northern and western Melanesia, the Kermadec Islands; this species breeds throughout much of Australia, New Zealand, New Caledonia and locally, New Guinea. Populations in the southern two-thirds of Australia migrate northwards at the end of breeding season to New Guinea, east to the eastern Solomon Islands and west to Indonesia becoming uncommon to sparse as west as Sumatra.
Birds move south again to Australia in August to September. It has occurred as a vagrant on Christmas Island, the Marshall Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia, Nauru. A pair spotted in Pampanga Philippines April / May 2016. In Australia, it occurs in eucalypt forests, melaleuca forests and paperbark forests. In New Zealand, T. sanctus vagans shows altitudinal migration, with post-breeding movement from higher altitudes to the coast and from forest to coast and open lands. The sacred kingfisher is 19–23 cm long, feeds on insects, small crustaceans, small rodents and reptiles, there are a few reports of them eating small finches. A bird will sit on a low branch and wait for prey to pass by, it swoops down to grab the prey and returns to its perch to eat, much like a hawk. Once a pair of birds has mated, both members of the pair dig the nest; the female lays about five eggs, both birds incubate the eggs and take care of the young. Coates, Brian, J and Bishop, K. David. 1997. A Guide to the Birds of Wallacea.
Dove Publications. Brisbane, Qld. Australia. MacKinnon and Phillips, Karen. 1993. The Birds of Borneo, Sumatra and Bali. O. U. P. Oxford, UK http://birdsinbackyards.net/species/Todiramphus-sanctus Sacred kingfisher calling video Australian Museum fact sheet GROMS database
The Muridae, or murids, are the largest family of rodents and of mammals, containing over 700 species found throughout Eurasia and Australia. The name Muridae comes from the Latin mus, meaning "mouse". Murids are found nearly everywhere in the world. Murids are not found in many oceanic islands. Although none of them is native to the Americas, a few species, notably the house mouse and black rat, have been introduced worldwide. Murids occupy a broad range of ecosystems from tropical forests to tundras. Fossorial and semiaquatic murid species occur, though most are terrestrial; the extensive list of niches filled by murids helps to explain their relative abundance. A broad range of feeding habits is found in murids, ranging from herbivorous and omnivorous species to specialists that consume earthworms, certain species of fungi, or aquatic insects. Most genera consume plant matter and small invertebrates storing seeds and other plant matter for winter consumption. Murids have sciurognathous jaws and a diastema is present.
Murids lack premolars. Three molars are found, the nature of the molars varies by genus and feeding habit; some murids are social, while others are solitary. Females produce several litters annually. In warm regions, breeding may occur year-round. Though the lifespans of most genera are less than two years, murids have high reproductive potential and their populations tend to increase and drastically decline when food resources have been exhausted; this is seen in a three- to four-year cycle. The murids are small mammals around 10 cm long excluding the tail, but ranging from 4.5 to 8 cm in the African pygmy mouse to 48 cm in the southern giant slender-tailed cloud rat. They have slender bodies with scaled tails longer than the body, pointed snouts with prominent whiskers, but with wide variation in these broad traits; some murids have elongated legs and feet to allow them to move with a hopping motion, while others have broad feet and prehensile tails to improve their climbing ability, yet others have neither adaptation.
They are most some shade of brown in colour, although many have black, grey, or white markings. Murids have excellent senses of hearing and smell, they live in a wide range of habitats from forest to grassland, mountain ranges. A number of species the gerbils, are adapted to desert conditions, can survive for a long time with minimal water, they consume a wide range of foods depending on the species, with the aid of powerful jaw muscles and gnawing incisors that grow throughout life. The dental formula of murids is 188.8.131.52-184.108.40.206-3. Murids breed often producing large litters several times per year, they give birth between 20 and 40 days after mating, although this varies between species. The young are born blind and helpless, although exceptions occur, such as in spiny mice; as with many other small mammals, the evolution of the murids is not well known, as few fossils survive. They evolved from hamster-like animals in tropical Asia some time in the early Miocene, have only subsequently produced species capable of surviving in cooler climates.
They have become common worldwide during the Holocene, as a result of hitching a ride commensally with human migrations. The murids are classified in around 150 genera and about 710 species. Deomyinae Gerbillinae Leimacomyinae Lophiomyinae Murinae Murids feature in literature, including folk tales and fairy stories. In the Pied Piper of Hamelin, retold in many versions since the 14th century, including one by the Brothers Grimm, a rat-catcher lures the town's rats into the river, but the mayor refuses to pay him. In revenge, the rat-catcher lures away all the children of the town, never to return. Mice feature in some of Beatrix Potter's small books, including The Tale of Two Bad Mice, The Tale of Mrs Tittlemouse, The Tale of Johnny Town-Mouse, The Tailor of Gloucester, which last was described by J. R. R. Tolkien as the nearest to his idea of a fairy story, the rest being "beast-fables". Among Aesop's Fables are The Frog and the Mouse. In James Herbert's first novel, The Rats, a vagrant is attacked and eaten alive by a pack of giant rats.
Fe, Fi, Fo, Phooey, mice who orbited the Moon on Apollo 17 Muridae at Encyclopædia Britannica Ernest Ingersoll. "Mouse". Encyclopedia Americana. Muridae at Mammal Species of the World "Walker's Mammals of the World." Google Books. 08 Nov. 2015. ADW: Muridae: INFORMATION
The purple-naped lory is a species of parrot in the family Psittaculidae. It is forest-dwelling endemic to the islands of Seram and also Haruku and Saparua, South Maluku, Indonesia, it is considered endangered, the main threat being from trapping for the cage-bird trade. The purple-naped lory is 28 cm long, it is red with an all red tail that fades to darker red towards the tip. The top of its head is black, it has green wings, blue thighs, a variable transverse yellow band across the chest. It has an orange beak, dark-grey eyerings, orange-red irises. Juveniles have a brown beak, grey-white eyerings, brown irises, a wider yellow band across the chest, a more extensive purple patch on the back of neck. Forshaw, Joseph M.. Parrots of the World. Illustrated by Frank Knight. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-09251-6. BirdLife Species Factsheet
Endemism is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, country or other defined zone, or habitat type. The extreme opposite of endemism is cosmopolitan distribution. An alternative term for a species, endemic is precinctive, which applies to species that are restricted to a defined geographical area; the word endemic is from New Latin endēmicus, from Greek ενδήμος, endēmos, "native". Endēmos is formed of en meaning "in", dēmos meaning "the people"; the term "precinctive" has been suggested by some scientists, was first used in botany by MacCaughey in 1917. It is the equivalent of "endemism". Precinction was first used by Frank and McCoy. Precinctive seems to have been coined by David Sharp when describing the Hawaiian fauna in 1900: "I use the word precinctive in the sense of'confined to the area under discussion'...'precinctive forms' means those forms that are confined to the area specified." That definition excludes artificial confinement of examples by humans in far-off botanical gardens or zoological parks.
Physical and biological factors can contribute to endemism. The orange-breasted sunbird is found in the fynbos vegetation zone of southwestern South Africa; the glacier bear is found only in limited places in Southeast Alaska. Political factors can play a part if a species is protected, or hunted, in one jurisdiction but not another. There are two subcategories of endemism: neoendemism. Paleoendemism refers to species that were widespread but are now restricted to a smaller area. Neoendemism refers to species that have arisen, such as through divergence and reproductive isolation or through hybridization and polyploidy in plants. Endemic types or species are likely to develop on geographically and biologically isolated areas such as islands and remote island groups, such as Hawaii, the Galápagos Islands, Socotra. Hydrangea hirta is an example of an endemic species found in Japan. Endemics can become endangered or extinct if their restricted habitat changes, particularly—but not only—due to human actions, including the introduction of new organisms.
There were millions of both Bermuda petrels and "Bermuda cedars" in Bermuda when it was settled at the start of the seventeenth century. By the end of the century, the petrels were thought extinct. Cedars ravaged by centuries of shipbuilding, were driven nearly to extinction in the twentieth century by the introduction of a parasite. Bermuda petrels and cedars are now rare. Principal causes of habitat degradation and loss in endemistic ecosystems include agriculture, urban growth, surface mining, mineral extraction, logging operations and slash-and-burn agriculture
Marsupials are any members of the mammalian infraclass Marsupialia. All extant marsupials are endemic to Australasia and the Americas. A distinctive characteristic common to these species is that most of the young are carried in a pouch. Well-known marsupials include kangaroos, koalas, opossums and Tasmanian devils; some lesser-known marsupials are the dunnarts and cuscuses. Marsupials represent the clade originating from the last common ancestor of extant metatherians. Like other mammals in the Metatheria, they give birth to undeveloped young that reside in a pouch located on their mothers’ abdomen for a certain amount of time. Close to 70% of the 334 extant species occur on the Australian continent; the remaining 100 are found in the Americas — in South America, but thirteen in Central America, one in North America, north of Mexico. The word marsupial comes from the technical term for the abdominal pouch. It, in turn, is borrowed from Latin and from the ancient Greek μάρσιππος mársippos, meaning "pouch".
Marsupials are taxonomically identified as members of the mammalian infraclass Marsupialia, first described as a family under the order Pollicata by German zoologist Johann Karl Wilhelm Illiger in his 1811 work Prodromus Systematis Mammalium et Avium. However, James Rennie, author of The Natural History of Monkeys and Lemurs, pointed out that the placement of five different groups of mammals - monkeys, tarsiers, aye-ayes and marsupials - under a single order did not appear to have a strong justification. In 1816, French zoologist George Cuvier classified all marsupials under the order Marsupialia. In 1997, researcher J. A. W. Kirsch and others accorded infraclass rank to Marsupialia. There are two primary divisions: Australian marsupials. Marsupialia is further divided as follows:† - Extinct Superorder Ameridelphia Order Didelphimorphia Family Didelphidae: opossums Order Paucituberculata Family Caenolestidae: shrew opossums Superorder Australidelphia Order Microbiotheria Family Microbiotheriidae: monito del monte Order †Yalkaparidontia Order Dasyuromorphia Family †Thylacinidae: thylacine Family Dasyuridae: antechinuses, dunnarts, Tasmanian devil, relatives Family Myrmecobiidae: numbat Order Notoryctemorphia Family Notoryctidae: marsupial moles Order Peramelemorphia Family Thylacomyidae: bilbies Family †Chaeropodidae: pig-footed bandicoots Family Peramelidae: bandicoots and allies Order Diprotodontia Suborder Vombatiformes Family Vombatidae: wombats Family Phascolarctidae: koalas Family †Diprotodontidae: Giant wombats Family †Palorchestidae: Marsupial tapirs Family †Thylacoleonidae: marsupial lions Suborder Phalangeriformes Family Acrobatidae: feathertail glider and feather-tailed possum Family Burramyidae: pygmy possums Family †Ektopodontidae: sprite possums Family Petauridae: striped possum, Leadbeater's possum, yellow-bellied glider, sugar glider, mahogany glider, squirrel glider Family Phalangeridae: brushtail possums and cuscuses Family Pseudocheiridae: ringtailed possums and relatives Family Tarsipedidae: honey possum Suborder Macropodiformes Family Macropodidae: kangaroos and relatives Family Potoroidae: potoroos, rat kangaroos, bettongs Family Hypsiprymnodontidae: musky rat-kangaroo Comprising over 300 extant species, several attempts have been made to interpret the phylogenetic relationships among the different marsupial orders.
Studies differ on whether Didelphimorphia or Paucituberculata is the sister group to all other marsupials. Though the order Microbiotheria is found in South America, morphological similarities suggest it is related to Australian marsupials. Molecular analyses in 2010 and 2011 identified Microbiotheria as the sister group to all Australian marsupials. However, the relations among the four Australidelphid orders are not as well understood; the cladogram below, depicting the relationships among the various marsupial orders, is based on a 2015 phylogenetic study. DNA evidence supports a South American origin for marsupials, with Australian marsupials arising from a single Gondwanan migration of marsupials from South America to Australia. There are many small arboreal species in each group; the term "opossum" is used to refer to American species, while similar Australian species are properly called "possums". Marsupials have the typical characteristics of mammals—e.g. Mammary glands, three middle ear bones, true hair.
There are, striking differences as well as a number of anatomical features that separate them from Eutherians. In addition to the front pouch, which contains multiple nipples for the protection and sustenance of their young, marsupials have other common structural features. Ossified patellae are absent in most modern marsupials and epipubic bones are present. Marsupials lack a gross communication between the right and left brain hemispheres; the skull has peculiarities in comparison to placental mammals. In general, the skull is small and tight. Holes are located in the front of the orbit; the cheekbone extends further to the rear. The angular extension of the lower jaw is bent toward the center. Another feature is the hard palate which, in contrast to the placental mammals' foramina, always have more openings. The
The Netherlands is a country located in Northwestern Europe. The European portion of the Netherlands consists of twelve separate provinces that border Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, the North Sea to the northwest, with maritime borders in the North Sea with Belgium and the United Kingdom. Together with three island territories in the Caribbean Sea—Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba— it forms a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; the official language is Dutch, but a secondary official language in the province of Friesland is West Frisian. The six largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam, The Hague, Utrecht and Tilburg. Amsterdam is the country's capital, while The Hague holds the seat of the States General and Supreme Court; the Port of Rotterdam is the largest port in Europe, the largest in any country outside Asia. The country is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G10, NATO, OECD and WTO, as well as a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union.
It hosts several intergovernmental organisations and international courts, many of which are centered in The Hague, dubbed'the world's legal capital'. Netherlands means'lower countries' in reference to its low elevation and flat topography, with only about 50% of its land exceeding 1 metre above sea level, nearly 17% falling below sea level. Most of the areas below sea level, known as polders, are the result of land reclamation that began in the 16th century. With a population of 17.30 million people, all living within a total area of 41,500 square kilometres —of which the land area is 33,700 square kilometres —the Netherlands is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. It is the world's second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products, owing to its fertile soil, mild climate, intensive agriculture; the Netherlands was the third country in the world to have representative government, it has been a parliamentary constitutional monarchy with a unitary structure since 1848.
The country has a tradition of pillarisation and a long record of social tolerance, having legalised abortion and human euthanasia, along with maintaining a progressive drug policy. The Netherlands abolished the death penalty in 1870, allowed women's suffrage in 1917, became the world's first country to legalise same-sex marriage in 2001, its mixed-market advanced economy had the thirteenth-highest per capita income globally. The Netherlands ranks among the highest in international indexes of press freedom, economic freedom, human development, quality of life, as well as happiness; the Netherlands' turbulent history and shifts of power resulted in exceptionally many and varying names in different languages. There is diversity within languages; this holds for English, where Dutch is the adjective form and the misnomer Holland a synonym for the country "Netherlands". Dutch comes from Theodiscus and in the past centuries, the hub of Dutch culture is found in its most populous region, home to the capital city of Amsterdam.
Referring to the Netherlands as Holland in the English language is similar to calling the United Kingdom "Britain" by people outside the UK. The term is so pervasive among potential investors and tourists, that the Dutch government's international websites for tourism and trade are "holland.com" and "hollandtradeandinvest.com". The region of Holland consists of North and South Holland, two of the nation's twelve provinces a single province, earlier still, the County of Holland, a remnant of the dissolved Frisian Kingdom. Following the decline of the Duchy of Brabant and the County of Flanders, Holland became the most economically and politically important county in the Low Countries region; the emphasis on Holland during the formation of the Dutch Republic, the Eighty Years' War and the Anglo-Dutch Wars in the 16th, 17th and 18th century, made Holland serve as a pars pro toto for the entire country, now considered either incorrect, informal, or, depending on context, opprobrious. Nonetheless, Holland is used in reference to the Netherlands national football team.
The region called the Low Countries and the Country of the Netherlands. Place names with Neder, Nieder and Nedre and Bas or Inferior are in use in places all over Europe, they are sometimes used in a deictic relation to a higher ground that consecutively is indicated as Upper, Oben, Superior or Haut. In the case of the Low Countries / Netherlands the geographical location of the lower region has been more or less downstream and near the sea; the geographical location of the upper region, changed tremendously over time, depending on the location of the economic and military power governing the Low Countries area. The Romans made a distinction between the Roman provinces of downstream Germania Inferior and upstream Germania Superior; the designation'Low' to refer to the region returns again in the 10th century Duchy of Lower Lorraine, that covered much of the Low Countries. But this time the corresponding Upper region is Upper Lorraine, in nowadays Northern France; the Dukes of Burgundy, who ruled the Low Countries in the 15th century, used the term les pays de par deçà for the Low Countries as opposed to les pays de par delà for their original