Serbia in the Middle Ages

Serbia in the Middle Ages refers to the medieval period in the history of Serbia. The period begins in the 6th century with the Slavic migrations to Southeastern Europe, lasts until the Ottoman conquest of Serbian lands in the second half of the 15th century; the period is extended to 1537, when Pavle Bakić, the last titular Despot of Serbia in Hungarian exile, fell in the Battle of Gorjani. The Slavs in general were mentioned by the Roman historians Tacitus and Pliny the Elder and by Claudius Ptolemy, under the name Veneti in the 1st and 2nd century AD. At the turn of the 5th and 6th century, Byzantine author Procopius and Gothic historian Jordanes mention them as Sclaveni. By this time, the Slavs settled in the wide areas of central and eastern Europe - Slovakia, Bohemia, central Danube valley and east of the Carpathians, in modern Romania - thus reaching the northern borders of the Balkan Peninsula, called the Peninsula of Haemus at the time. First mentions of the people named Serbs are recorded by Tacitus in 50 AD and Pliny the Elder in 77 AD. 4th century author Vibius Sequester mentions them, while his contemporary, historian Ammianus Marcellinus refers to the Carpathians, north of the Danube, as the "Serbian Mountains".

De Administrando Imperio, compiled by the Byzantine Emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus mentions that the Serbs relocated from the land of Bojka called the White Serbia. Historiography can't pinpoint for sure where that is, but the general consensus is that it was the Polabí valley in Bohemia. Other hypotheses place it in the upper course of Oder and Vistula, in modern Poland or in the western Ukraine. After a death of the Serbian chieftan, his two sons took over the rule and divided Serbs in two groups. One remained in White Serbia. Sclaveni settled the western Balkans in the 6th and 7th century. Jointly with the Antes, another Slavic group, they conducted intrusions south of the Danube and Sava rivers into the Balkans, the territory of the Byzantine Empire ruled by Justinian I, who revived the Roman Empire; the arrival of the Avars in the Pannonian Plain in 567 pushed. The Slavs followed the Avars in their destructive enterprises, into the Byzantine territory, they destroyed and conquered one by one city and fortress which constituted the Danubian Limes, northern border of the empire, like Sirmium and Singidunum.

In 584 and 586 the Slavs besieged Thessaloniki, on the Aegean Sea, raided Dalmatia in 597 while the entire limes collapsed by 602. The decisive phase followed from 610 to 626, when the Slavs raided the inland of the Balkans, destroying large cities and ravaging the area between the Danube on the north and south of Greece, including the repeated sieges of Thessaloniki in 616 and 618, of Constantinople itself in 626. Only defeat at Constantinople stopped the raids and pacified the situation on the peninsula, but by that time large portions of the Balkans were inhabited by the Slavs; the history of the early medieval Serbian Principality is recorded in the DAI. The emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus assembled it from 948 to 952 for his son and heir Romanos II; the aim was to warn the young prince on the problems. The Serbs are mentioned in the total of 8 chapters, from 29 to 36; the most important is the chapter 32, titled "About the Serbs and the lands in which they dwell today". The DAI drew information on the Serbs from, among others, Serbian sources.

On the origin of the Serbs, the DAI says that "Serbs originate from the unbaptized Serbs called White Serbs, which live on the other side of the Turkey, in the land which they call Bojka, close to the Frankish Empire and the great Croatia, unbaptized known as the White Croatia."The emperor describes how the Serbian tribe was divided in two, with one group migrating to the Balkans: "As two brothers inherited the rule over the Serbs after their father, one of them, taking a half of the people with him, migrated over to Heraclius, emperor of the Romans, who took him in, gave him the settling location in the Theme of Thessalonica, since called Servia. But, after a while, those same Serbs decided to return to their land and the emperor dispatched them. After they crossed the Danube, they changed their mind and sent out a note to the Emperor Heraclius, through the strategos of Singidunum, that they want him to give them another land to settle, and since the modern Serbia and Paganija and the so called land of Zachlumia and Travunija and the land of Konavle remained desolate because of the Avars, the emperor settled Serbs in these lands, they were subordinated to the emperor of the Romans, the emperor brought priests from Rome to baptize them and teach them to perform the pious duties in order, displayed the Christian faith to them."

Another source on early Serbia from the 8th and 9th century are the Royal Frankish Annals by Einhard. It was the oldest historical manuscript which mentioned the name Serbs and gave some details about them; the DAI mentioned. Through linguistical studies, it is concluded that the Early South Slavs were made up of a western and eastern branch, of parallel streams divided in the Timok–Osogovo–Šar line. Archaeological evidence in Serbia and Macedonia

Atabegs of Yazd

The Atabegs of Yazd were a local dynasty, which ruled the city of Yazd from about 1141 to 1319. They succeeded the Kakuyids to. From the names of the earlier members of the dynasty, it seems they were ethnically Persian, but like the Hazaraspids they had adopted the Turkish title of Atabeg. Most of the Atabegs of Yazd were tributaries to the Saljuqs and the Mongol Il-Khans until they were overthrown by the Muzaffarids. Sam ibn Wardanruz Langar ibn Wardanruz Wardanruz ibn Langar Isfahsalar ibn Langar Mahmud Shah ibn Isfahsalar Salghur Shah ibn Mahmud Shah Toghan Shah ibn Salghur Shah Ala al-Dawla ibn Toghan Shah Yusuf Shah ibn Toghan Shah Mongol occupation Hajji Shah ibn Yusuf Shah C. Edmund, Bosworth. Historic Cities of the Islamic World. ISBN 9004153888. Retrieved 26 January 2014. S. C. Fairbanks. "ATĀBAKĀN-E YAZD". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition. Retrieved 26 January 2014

Norman Cahners

Norman Lee Cahners was a major American publisher and philanthropist. The Cahners Publishing Company, which he founded in 1960, had grown into the largest U. S. publisher of trade or business magazines at the time of Cahner's death, three weeks before he was scheduled to retire. Cahners Publishing survived into the early 2000s as Cahners Business Information, a division of the British and Dutch-based Reed Elsevier publishing empire; the company was renamed Reed Business Information in 2002, its headquarters moved from Boston to New York. Cahners was born in Bangor, the son of James A. Cahners, described in one source as a "businessman, lawyer and management consultant"; the father owned the Bangor Gas Company and Eastern Furniture Company, lived on Broadway. The younger Cahners attended Phillips Academy and Harvard, where he became a leading track & field athlete, he and team captain Milton Green qualified for the trials to join the U. S. Olympic boycotted that event because the games were to be held in Nazi Germany.

As if in compensation, Cahners was one of two Harvard undergrads selected to speak at the Harvard Tercentenery Ceremonies in 1936, before an audience of 10,000 alumni, over a worldwide radio hook-up. Cahners was elected president of the Harvard Class of 1936 and was inducted into the Harvard Varsity Athletic Hall of Fame. While directing the U. S. Naval Ordnance Materials Handling Laboratory at the Hingham Naval Ammunition Depot, Massachusetts during World War II, Cahners started a newsletter called The Palletizer, taking its name from the pallet a new technology used to move goods on and off ships and around bases. Cahner was an important technical contributor to the nascent field of materials handling and patenting a'four-way pallet' which became the military and industry standard; the magazine gave contractors advice on how to ship goods for the Navy using the new pallet and forklift system. The Navy let Cahners and his adjunct Saul Goldweitz take both the laboratory and the magazine private after the war and it became Modern Materials Handling.

Cahners began acquiring other magazines in 1956, starting with Metalworking, launching still others. Abandoning his first career in materials handling, he became one of the pioneers of'niche-publishing', founding journals to appeal to specific business audiences and loading them with information and advertising. Cahners Publishing had grown to 90 magazine titles by the time of Cahner's death, the best-known being Variety and Publishers Weekly; the company was headquartered in the Boston suburb of Newton. The first Cahners magazine, Modern Materials Handling, is still published today by Peerless Media, a B2B media company located in Framingham, MA. Cahners and his wife Helene became major philanthropists in Boston. There is a Cabot-Cahners room in Boston's Symphony Hall, a Cahners Theater in the Boston Museum of Science, a Cahners Hall at Northeastern University; the Cahners-Rabb Professorship is an endowed chair at the Harvard Business School, there is an endowed chair in Cahner's name for a cellist's position in the Boston Symphony Orchestra.

Cahners was a Trustee of Colby College in Maine. Helene Rabb Cahners chaired the Board of Trustees at Westbrook College, was a Trustee of Mt. Holyoke College, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, numerous Boston-area hospitals. Reed Business Information dispenses the Norman L. Cahners Life-Time Achievement Award in recognition of the "outstanding, creative use of the business press in the marketing of products and services"; this is one of the prestigious CEBA Awards. Recipients have included the CEO's of Sony Corporation of America, Time-Warner, General Electric, NBC. A second Norman L. Cahners Award is presented by the Materials Handling Industry of America through their Material Handling Education Foundation. Cahners himself won the organization's Reed Apple Award. In 1970 Cahners was named "Man of the Year" by The Advertising Club of New York. Maas, Steve. In a Niche by Himself: The Norman Cahners Story