People's Party (Serbia, 2008)
The People's Party was a political party in Serbia. It was founded and led by the former Mayor of Novi Sad and former Serbian Radical Party member Maja Gojković; the party intended to take part in the next election together with the Democratic Party of Serbia and New Serbia. In 2010 the party left the populists and together with several other parties, formed the United Regions of Serbia, a broad coalition of regional parties; the People's Party participated in the 2012 parliamentary elections as part of the United Regions of Serbia coalition, received 2 seats in the National Assembly. The party was expelled from the URS after it separately entered negotiations with the Democratic Party. On 3 December 2012 the party ceased to exist. However, some local councils headed by Nebojša Korać opposed this decision, controversially continued receiving finances proportional to the party's original electoral result though both MPs had left the party. Former website
United Russia is the ruling political party of the Russian Federation. United Russia is the largest party in Russia and as of 2018 it holds 335 of the 450 seats in the State Duma; the United Russia party formed in December 2001 through a merger of the Unity and the Fatherland – All Russia parties. As of 2017, the United Russia party supports the policies of the presidential administration. Although the United Russia party's popularity declined from its peak of 64.4% in the 2007 Duma elections to 49.32% in the 2011 elections, it remained the most popular party in the country ahead of the second-placed Communist Party at 19.19%. In the 2016 elections, it received 54.2% while the second-place Communist Party received 13.3%. The party has no coherent ideology, but it embraces specific politicians and officials with a variety of political views who support the administration; the party appeals to non-ideological voters, therefore United Russia is classified by political scientists as a "catch-all party" or as a "party of power".
In 2009, it proclaimed Russian conservatism as its official ideology. United Russia's predecessor was the Unity bloc, created three months before the December 1999 Duma elections to counter the advance of the Fatherland – All Russia party led by Yuri Luzhkov; the creation of the party was supported by Kremlin insiders, who were wary of what looked like a certain OVR victory. They did not expect Unity to have much chance of success since President Boris Yeltsin was unpopular and Prime Minister Vladimir Putin's ratings were still minuscule; the new party attempted to mimic OVR's formula of success, placing an emphasis on competence and pragmatism. Charismatic Minister of Emergency Situations Sergei Shoigu was appointed as the party leader. In 1999, Prime Minister Putin's popularity soared to double digit figures after he decisively sent troops to the rebellious Chechnya republic as a retaliation for terrorist bombings in Moscow and other cities and in response for the Chechen invasion of Dagestan.
Putin's war effort was hugely popular and portrayed positively by the Boris Berezovsky-owned Channel One Russia as well as by state-controlled RTR. Contrary to its creators' expectations, Unity's election campaign was a huge success and the party received 23.3% of the votes more than OVR's 13.3% and within one percentage point of the Communist Party's 24.3%. The popularity of the prime minister proved decisive for Unity's victory; the election results made clear that Putin was going to win the 2000 presidential election, which resulted in competitors Luzhkov and Yevgeni Primakov dropping out. Yeltsin gave Putin a boost by resigning as President on 31 December 1999. While Unity had had only one narrow purpose, limited only to the 1999 Duma elections, after the victory state officials began to transform the party into a permanent one. A large number of independent deputies, elected to the Duma were invited to join the party's delegation. Many OVR deputies joined, including its leader Luzhkov. In April 2001, OVR and Unity leaders issued a joint declaration that they had started the process of unification.
In July 2001, the unified party, called Union of Unity and Fatherland, held its founding congress and in December 2001 it became All-Russian Party of Unity and Fatherland, or more United Russia. In the second party congress in March 2003, Sergei Shoygu stood down and Boris Gryzlov was elected as the new party leader. Instead of the "communism versus capitalism" dichotomy that had dominated the political discourse in the 1990s, in the 1999–2000 electoral cycle Putin started to emphasize another reason to vote for his party: stability, yearned for by Russian citizens after a decade of chaotic revolutionary change. With the exception of the continued fighting in the Northern Caucasus, Putin delivered it. On 13 January 2003, United Russia had 257,000 members—behind Liberal Democratic Party of Russia and the Communists. Throughout Putin's first years as President, the country's economy improved growing more each year than in all of the previous decade and Putin's approval ratings hovered well above 70%.
Russia's economic recovery was helped by high prices for its primary exports such as oil and raw materials. The passage rate of law proposals increased after United Russia became the dominant party in the Duma. In 1996–1999, only 76% of the legislation that passed the third reading was signed by the President while in 1999–2003 the ratio was 93%. While Yeltsin had relied on his decree powers to enact major decisions, Putin never had to. United Russia's dominance in the Duma enabled Putin to push through a wide range of fundamental reforms, including a flat income tax of 13%, a reduced profits tax, an overhaul of the labour market, breakups of national monopolies and new land and legal codes. United Russia characterised itself as wholly supportive of Putin's agenda, which proved a recipe for success and resulted in the party scoring a major victory in the 2003 Duma elections, receiving more than a third of the popular vote. Throughout its history, United Russia has been successful in using administrative resources to weaken its opponents.
For example, state-controlled news media portrayed the Communist Party as hypocritical for accepting money from several "dollar millionaries" during the 2003 Duma election campaign. United Russia introduced tougher party and voter registration requirements and increased the election threshold from 5% to 7% for the 2007 elections. Opposition parties made several strategic mistakes. For example and the Union of Right Forces seemed to spend more effort attacking each
Serbia the Republic of Serbia, is a country situated at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe in the southern Pannonian Plain and the central Balkans. The sovereign state borders Hungary to the north, Romania to the northeast, Bulgaria to the southeast, North Macedonia to the south and Bosnia and Herzegovina to the west, Montenegro to the southwest; the country claims a border with Albania through the disputed territory of Kosovo. Serbia's population is about seven million, its capital, ranks among the oldest and largest citiеs in southeastern Europe. Inhabited since the Paleolithic Age, the territory of modern-day Serbia faced Slavic migrations to the Balkans in the 6th century, establishing several sovereign states in the early Middle Ages at times recognized as tributaries to the Byzantine and Hungarian kingdoms; the Serbian Kingdom obtained recognition by the Vatican and Constantinople in 1217, reaching its territorial apex in 1346 as the short-lived Serbian Empire. By the mid-16th century, the entirety of modern-day Serbia was annexed by the Ottomans, their rule was at times interrupted by the Habsburg Empire, which started expanding towards Central Serbia from the end of the 17th century while maintaining a foothold in the north of the country.
In the early 19th century, the Serbian Revolution established the nation-state as the region's first constitutional monarchy, which subsequently expanded its territory. Following disastrous casualties in World War I, the subsequent unification of the former Habsburg crownland of Vojvodina with Serbia, the country co-founded Yugoslavia with other South Slavic peoples, which would exist in various political formations until the Yugoslav Wars of the 1990s. During the breakup of Yugoslavia, Serbia formed a union with Montenegro, peacefully dissolved in 2006. In 2008, the parliament of the province of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence, with mixed responses from the international community. Serbia is a member of the UN, CoE, CERN, OSCE, PfP, BSEC, CEFTA, is acceding to the WTO. Since 2014 the country has been negotiating its EU accession with perspective of joining the European Union by 2025. Serbia dropped in ranking from Free to Partly Free in the 2019 Freedom House report. Since 2007, Serbia formally adheres to the policy of military neutrality.
An upper-middle income economy with a dominant service sector followed by the industrial sector and agriculture, the country ranks high on the Human Development Index, Social Progress Index as well as the Global Peace Index. The origin of the name, "Serbia" is unclear. Various authors mentioned names of Serbs and Sorbs in different variants: Surbii, Serbloi, Sorabi, Sarbi, Serboi, Surbi, etc; these authors used these names to refer to Serbs and Sorbs in areas where their historical presence was/is not disputed, but there are sources that mention same or similar names in other parts of the World. Theoretically, the root *sъrbъ has been variously connected with Russian paserb, Ukrainian pryserbytysia, Old Indic sarbh-, Latin sero, Greek siro. However, Polish linguist Stanisław Rospond derived the denomination of Srb from srbati. Sorbian scholar H. Schuster-Šewc suggested a connection with the Proto-Slavic verb for "to slurp" *sьrb-, with cognates such as сёрбать, сьорбати, сёрбаць, srbati, сърбам and серебати.
From 1945 to 1963, the official name for Serbia was the People's Republic of Serbia, which became the Socialist Republic of Serbia from 1963 to 1990. Since 1990, the official name of the country is the "Republic of Serbia". However, between the period from 1992 to 2006, the official names of the country were the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro. Archeological evidence of Paleolithic settlements on the territory of present-day Serbia are scarce. A fragment of a human jaw was believed to be up to 525,000 -- 397,000 years old. Around 6,500 years BC, during the Neolithic, the Starčevo and Vinča cultures existed in or near modern-day Belgrade and dominated much of Southeastern Europe. Two important local archeological sites from this era, Lepenski Vir and Vinča-Belo Brdo, still exist near the banks of the Danube. During the Iron Age, Thracians and Illyrians were encountered by the Ancient Greeks during their expansion into the south of modern Serbia in the 4th century BC.
The Celtic tribe of Scordisci settled throughout the area in the 3rd century BC and formed a tribal state, building several fortifications, including their capital at Singidunum and Naissos. The Romans conquered much of the territory in the 2nd century BC. In 167 BC the Roman province of Illyricum was established; as a result of this, contemporary Serbia extends or over several former Roman provinces, including Moesia, Praevalitana, Dalmatia and Macedoni
Blue is one of the three primary colours of pigments in painting and traditional colour theory, as well as in the RGB colour model. It lies between green on the spectrum of visible light; the eye perceives blue when observing light with a dominant wavelength between 450 and 495 nanometres. Most blues contain a slight mixture of other colours; the clear daytime sky and the deep sea appear blue because of an optical effect known as Rayleigh scattering. An optical effect called. Distant objects appear. Blue has been an important colour in decoration since ancient times; the semi-precious stone lapis lazuli was used in ancient Egypt for jewellery and ornament and in the Renaissance, to make the pigment ultramarine, the most expensive of all pigments. In the eighth century Chinese artists used cobalt blue to white porcelain. In the Middle Ages, European artists used it in the windows of Cathedrals. Europeans wore clothing coloured with the vegetable dye woad until it was replaced by the finer indigo from America.
In the 19th century, synthetic blue dyes and pigments replaced mineral pigments and synthetic dyes. Dark blue became a common colour for military uniforms and in the late 20th century, for business suits; because blue has been associated with harmony, it was chosen as the colour of the flags of the United Nations and the European Union. Surveys in the US and Europe show that blue is the colour most associated with harmony, confidence, infinity, the imagination and sometimes with sadness. In US and European public opinion polls it is the most popular colour, chosen by half of both men and women as their favourite colour; the same surveys showed that blue was the colour most associated with the masculine, just ahead of black, was the colour most associated with intelligence, knowledge and concentration. Blue is the colour of light between green on the visible spectrum. Hues of blue include ultramarine, closer to violet. Blue varies in shade or tint. Darker shades of blue include ultramarine, cobalt blue, navy blue, Prussian blue.
Blue pigments were made from minerals such as lapis lazuli and azurite, blue dyes were made from plants. Today most blue dyes are made by a chemical process; the modern English word blue comes from Middle English bleu or blewe, from the Old French bleu, a word of Germanic origin, related to the Old High German word blao. In heraldry, the word azure is used for blue. In Russian and some other languages, there is no single word for blue, but rather different words for light blue and dark blue. See Colour term. Several languages, including Japanese, Thai and Lakota Sioux, use the same word to describe blue and green. For example, in Vietnamese the colour of both tree leaves and the sky is xanh. In Japanese, the word for blue is used for colours that English speakers would refer to as green, such as the colour of a traffic signal meaning "go". Linguistic research indicates. Colour names developed individually in natural languages beginning with black and white, adding red, only much – as the last main category of colour accepted in a language – adding the colour blue when blue pigments could be manufactured reliably in the culture using that language.
Human eyes perceive blue when observing light which has a dominant wavelength of 450–495 nanometres. Blues with a higher frequency and thus a shorter wavelength look more violet, while those with a lower frequency and a longer wavelength appear more green. Pure blue, in the middle, has a wavelength of 470 nanometres. Isaac Newton included blue as one of the seven colours in his first description the visible spectrum, He chose seven colours because, the number of notes in the musical scale, which he believed was related to the optical spectrum, he included indigo, the hue between blue and violet, as one of the separate colours, though today it is considered a hue of blue. In painting and traditional colour theory, blue is one of the three primary colours of pigments, which can be mixed to form a wide gamut of colours. Red and blue mixed together form violet and yellow together form green. Mixing all three primary colours together produces a dark grey. From the Renaissance onwards, painters used this system to create their colours.
The RYB model was used for colour printing by Jacob Christoph Le Blon as early as 1725. Printers discovered that more accurate colours could be created by using combinations of magenta, cyan and black ink, put onto separate inked plates and overlaid one at a time onto paper; this method could produce all the colours in the spectrum with reasonable accuracy. In the 19th century the Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell found a new way of explaining colours, by the wa
Strength of Serbia Movement
The Strength of Serbia Movement – BK is a political party in Serbia and led by Serbian businessman Bogoljub Karić. The Movement received 42,813 votes and won 4 seats in the first round of the 2004 Vojvodina parliamentary elections and additional 3 seats in the second round, by majority system. Official website
Assembly of Vojvodina
The unicameral parliament of the Serbian autonomous province of Vojvodina is known as the Assembly of the Autonomous province of Vojvodina. The President of the Assembly is István Pásztor of the Alliance of Vojvodina Hungarians; the current parliament was elected in 2016. It is elected by proportional representation. 1992 Vojvodina provincial election 1996 Vojvodina provincial election 2000 Vojvodina provincial election 2004 Vojvodina provincial election 2008 Vojvodina provincial election 2012 Vojvodina provincial election Number of seats in the assembly: SNS coalition - 63 Socialist Party of Serbia-United Serbia - 12 Serbian Radical Party - 10 Democratic Party - 10 League of Social Democrats of Vojvodina - 9 Enough is Enough - 7 Alliance of Vojvodina Hungarians - 7 President: István Pásztor Vice-presidents: Damir Zobenica, Snežana Sedlar, Aleksandra Đanković, Dušan Jakovljev, Smiljana Glamočanin Varga, Miroslav Vasin, Ivan Stijepović Secretary: Nikola Banjac Assembly of Vojvodina
European People's Party
The European People's Party is a conservative and Christian democratic European political party. A transnational organisation, it is composed of other political parties, not individuals. Founded by Christian democratic parties in 1976, it has since broadened its membership to include liberal-conservative parties and parties with other centre-right political perspectives; the EPP has been the largest party in the European Parliament since 1999 and in the European Council since 2002. It is by far the largest party in the current European Commission; the President of the European Council, President of the European Commission and the President of the European Parliament are all from the EPP. Many of the Founding fathers of the European Union were from parties that formed the EPP. Outside the EU the party controls a majority in the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe; the EPP has alternated with its centre-left rival the Party of European Socialists as the largest European political party and parliamentary group.
The EPP includes major centre-right parties such as the Union of Germany, The Republicans of France, CD&V of Belgium, KDU-ČSL of the Czech Republic, Fine Gael of Ireland, New Democracy of Greece, Forza Italia of Italy, the People's Party of Spain, the Social Democratic Party of Portugal, the Civic Platform of Poland but Fidesz of Hungary. According to its website, the EPP is "the family of the political centre-right, whose roots run deep in the history and civilisation of the European continent, has pioneered the European project from its inception"; the EPP was founded in Luxembourg on 8 July 1976 on the initiative of Jean Seitlinger. It had been preceded by the Secretariat International des partis démocratiques d'inspiration chrétienne, founded in 1925, the Nouvelles Equipes Internationales, founded in 1946, the European Union of Christian Democrats, founded in 1965. In the late 1990s the Finnish politician Sauli Niinistö negotiated the merger of the European Democrat Union, of which he was President, into the EPP.
In October 2002 the EDU ceased its activities after being formally absorbed by the EPP at a special event in Estoril, Portugal. In recognition of his efforts Niinistö was elected Honorary President of the EPP the same year; the EPP has had five Presidents: During its Congress in Bucharest in 2012 the EPP updated its political platform after 20 years and approved a political manifesto in which it summarised its main values and policies. The manifesto highlights: Freedom as a central human right, coupled with responsibility Respect for traditions and associations Solidarity to help those in need, who in turn should make an effort to improve their situation Ensuring solid public finances Preserving a healthy environment Subsidiarity Pluralist democracy and a Social Market EconomyThe manifesto describes the EPP's priorities for the EU, including: European Political Union Direct election of the President of the European Commission Completion of the European Single Market Promotion of the family, improvements in education and health Strengthening of the common immigration and asylum policy, integrating immigrants Continuation of enlargement of the EU, enhancement of the European Neighbourhood Policy and special relationship frameworks for countries that cannot, or do not want to, join the EU Defining a true common EU energy policy Strengthening European political parties As a central part of its campaign for the European elections in 2009 the EPP approved its election manifesto at its Congress in Warsaw in April that year.
The manifesto called for: Creation of new jobs, continuing reforms and investment in education, lifelong learning, employment in order to create opportunities for everyone. Avoidance of protectionism, coordination of fiscal and monetary policies. Increased transparency and surveillance in financial markets. Making Europe the market leader in green technology. Increasing the share of renewable energy to at least 20 per cent of the energy mix by 2020.. Family-friendly flexibility for working parents, better child care and housing, family-friendly fiscal policies, encouragement of parental leave. A new strategy to attract skilled workers from the rest of the world to make Europe’s economy more competitive, more dynamic and more knowledge-driven; the dispute about the right-wing politics of the Hungarian Fidesz-leader Viktor Orbán has produced a split in the EPP in the run-up of the 2019 European Parliament election. On the one hand the EPP over years was reluctant to address the stance against the rule of law of Fidesz, expressed by the Article 7 proceedings of the European Parliament, on the other hand European Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker, a prominent EPP-member, stated “I believe his place is not in the European People’s Party”.
Orbán’s campaigns targeting billionaire George Soros and Jean-Claude Juncker carried wide reverberations for Europe questioning the EPP’s effort to install its lead candidate Manfred Weber as the next Commission president. After years of deferring a decision about the Fidesz issue, the EPP felt compelled to address the problem two months before the 2019 European elections, as 13 outraged member parties requested its exclusion from the EPP due to its billboard campaign featuring Jean-Claude Juncker. 190 of the 193 EPP-delegates decided on 20 March 2019 to suspend Fidesz membership. According to this, Fidesz is "until further notice" excluded from EPP meetings and inte