The Serbian SuperLiga, known as the Linglong Tire SuperLiga for sponsorship reasons, is a Serbian professional league for football clubs. At the top of the Serbian football league system, it is the country's primary football competition, it is contested by 16 clubs, operating a system of promotion and relegation with the Serbian First League. The SuperLiga was formed during the summer of 2005 as the country's top football league competition in Serbia and Montenegro. Since summer 2006 after the secession of Montenegro from Serbia, the league only has had Serbian clubs. Serbian clubs used to compete in the Yugoslav First League; this competition was formed in 1923 and lasted until 2003. After the downfall of SFR Yugoslavia in 1991 a new Yugoslavia would be formed that would be named FR Yugoslavia with Montenegro and Serbia, they kept the name Yugoslavia until 2003 when the country changed its name to Serbia and Montenegro: this union lasted until 2006 when Montenegro gained independence and formed its own league, the Montenegrin First League.
The current SuperLiga champions are Red Star Belgrade. UEFA ranks the league 18th in Europe of 55 leagues; the league was known as Meridian Prva liga/Super liga from 2004 until 2008. The league's official sponsor until 2015 was beer brand Jelen pivo, thus resulted in the league's official name to be Jelen SuperLiga; the SuperLiga began as a league with a playoff system in an attempt to boost ratings and improve competition. After the first season however, the SuperLiga changed its format; the 2007–08 season was the first to be played in a more traditional format. The league no longer divided into a play-out group midway through the campaign. Instead, the 12 teams began playing each other three times in a more conventional league format. After two seasons with that format the Football Association of Serbia decided to add 4 teams to the SuperLiga; the 2009–10 season will be the first with a 16 team league played in a conventional league format of one home and one away match rather than the previous 3 match encounters.
This drops the match schedule from 33 rounds to 30. As of the 2015-16 season, the league reverted to its previous playoff system, whereby the top 8 placed teams compete in the championship round at the end of the season and the 8 lowest placed teams play in the relegation playoff round; the two bottom placed teams are relegated to the Serbian Prva Liga. The third lowest-placed team is sent to a relegation playoff against the third-placed team in the second division. Whichever team wins will play in the SuperLiga the following season; the champions of the SuperLiga are drawn into the primary qualifying rounds for the UEFA Champions League, while the second and third placed teams are drawn into the primary qualifying rounds for the UEFA Europa League. The Yugoslav First League started being played in 1923, gathered the best clubs from the former Yugoslavia. In 1991, clubs from Slovenia and Croatia left and formed their own league systems, in 1992 so did the clubs from Bosnia and Herzegovina and Macedonia.
The Yugoslav First League was played since 1992 with clubs from Serbia and Montenegro, until 2006, when Montenegro declared independence and subsequently formed its own league system. Since 2006 the league is formed by clubs from Serbia and got renamed into Serbian SuperLiga. In 1992 the Yugoslav First League became the First League of FR Yugoslavia and was played since with the clubs from Serbia and Montenegro; the league winner had access to the UEFA Champions League qualifications rounds, the 2nd, 3rd and the Cup winner had played in the UEFA Cup. The bottom clubs would be relegated to the two Second Leagues depending on the republic they were based in, the Second League of Serbia and the Second League of Montenegro. In 2002, FR Yugoslavia changed its name to Serbia and Montenegro, the league was named First League of Serbia and Montenegro between 2002 and its dissolution, in 2006. In 2006 Serbia and Montenegro formed their own top leagues. Serbian SuperLiga was declared the successor of the First Leagues of FR Yugoslavia and Serbia and Montenegro.
A total of 41 clubs participated between 1992 and 2006, being 34 from Serbia, 6 from Montenegro and one from Bosnia and Herzegovina. A total of 3 clubs were champions, all from Serbia, Red Star and Obilić. A total of 28 clubs participated between 2013 in the Serbian Superliga. After 13 seasons, Partizan has won 8 championship titles and Red Star has won 5 championship title. Partizan is a record holder of winning 6 consecutive champion titles; the following is a list of clubs who have played in the Serbian SuperLiga at any time since its formation in 2006 to the current season. Teams playing in the 2019–20 Serbian SuperLiga season are indicated in bold. A total of 34 teams have played in the Serbian SuperLiga; the table is accurate as of the start of the 2019–20 season. League or status at 2019–20: The following 16 clubs compete in the Jelen SuperLiga during the 2019–20 season. Serbian top level football has been played in 27 stadiums since its formation in 2006; the top-three stadiums by clubs who are competing in the Serbian top flight are by seating capacity are Belgrade-based Red Star Stadium, Partizan Stadium and FK Radnicki Nis stadium Cair Stadium.
Below are the ten largest stadiums in Serbia of clubs who are competing or have competed in the Serbian top division of football. In t
Willy F. James Jr. was a United States Army private first class, killed in action while running to the aid of his wounded platoon leader during World War II. In 1997, he was awarded the Medal of Honor in 1996, the nation's highest military decoration for valor, for his actions on April 7, 1945, in the vicinity of Lippoldsberg, Germany. James and six other Black Americans who served in World War II were awarded the Medal of Honor on January 12, 1997; the Medal of Honor was posthumously presented to James by President Bill Clinton on January 13, 1997 during a Medals of Honor ceremony for the seven recipients at the White House in Washington, D. C; the seven recipients are the first and only Black Americans to be awarded the Medal of Honor for World War II. Willy James was born on March 1920, in Kansas City, Missouri. James enlisted in the U. S. Army on September 11, 1942. In April 1945, he was an infantry scout assigned to Company G, 413th Infantry Regiment, 104th Infantry Division. On April 7, he was lead scout during a maneuver to secure an enemy bridgehead near Lippoldsberg, Germany.
As his regiment crossed the Weser River, he was pinned down for more than an hour by enemy machine gun fire. After James returned to his platoon with his scouting observations, he helped to develop a new assault plan, designating targets in the new attack; when James saw his platoon leader shot down by enemy snipers, he went to his lieutenant's aid and was himself killed by machine gun fire as he was making his way across open ground. On September 14, 1945, he was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross posthumously for extraordinary heroism. Pfc. James was buried in the Netherlands American Cemetery and Memorial in the Dutch town of Margraten, his grave can be found in plot P, row 9, grave 9. Medal of HonorIn the early 1990s, it was determined that Black soldiers had been denied consideration for the Medal of Honor in World War II because of their race. In 1993, the U. S. Army had contracted Shaw University in Raleigh, North Carolina, to research and determine if there was racial disparity in the review process for recipients of the MOH.
The study commissioned by the U. S. Army, described systematic racial discrimination in the criteria for awarding decorations during World War II. After an exhaustive review of files, the study recommended in 1996 that ten Black Americans who served in World War II be awarded the MOH. In October of that year, Congress passed legislation that would allow President Clinton to award the Medal of Honor to these former soldiers. Seven of the ten including Pfc. James were approved, awarded the MOH on January 12, 1997. On January 13, 1997, President Clinton presented the MOH to the seven Black Americans. Pfc. James' widow accepted the MOH on his behalf during the ceremony. Vernon Baker was the only living recipient of the medal at the time. James' decorations and awards include: James's Medal of Honor citation reads: The President of the United States in the name of The Congress takes pride in presenting the Medal of Honor posthumously to Private First Class Willy F. James, Jr. United States Army Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty: Private First Class Willy F. James, Jr. distinguished himself by extraordinary heroism at the risk of his own life on 7 April 1945 in the Weser River Valley, in the vicinity of Lippoldsberg, Germany.
On 7 April 1945, Company G, 413th Infantry, fought its way across the Weser River in order to establish a crucial beachhead. The company launched a fierce attack against the town of Lippoldsberg, possession of, vital to securing and expanding the important bridgehead. Private First Class James was first scout of the lead squad in the assault platoon; the mission of the unit was to seize and secure a group of houses on the edge of town, a foothold from which the unit could launch an attack on the rest of the town. Far out in front, Private First Class James was the first to draw enemy fire, his platoon leader came forward to investigate, but poor visibility made it difficult for Private First Class James to point out enemy positions with any accuracy. Private First Class James volunteered to go forward to reconnoiter the enemy situation. Furious crossfire from enemy snipers and machineguns pinned down Private First Class James after making his way forward 200 yards across open terrain. Lying in an exposed position for more than an hour, Private First Class James intrepidly observed the enemy's positions which were given away by the fire Private first class James was daringly drawing upon himself.
With utter indifference to his personal safety, in a storm of enemy small arms fire, Private First Class James made his way back more than 300 yards across open terrain under enemy observation to his platoon positions, gave a full, detailed report on the enemy disposition. The unit worked out a new plan on maneuver based on Private First Class James' information; the gallant soldier volunteered to lead a squad in an assault on the key house in the group that formed the platoon objective. He made his way forward, leading his squad in the assault on the held enemy positions in the building and designating targets and continuously as he moved along. While doing so, Private First Class James saw. Hastily designating and coolly orienting a leader in his place, Private First Class James went to the aid of his platoon leader, exposing himself recklessly to the incessant enemy fire; as he was making his way across open ground, Private First Class James was killed by a
Reiger Park is a coloured township situated in Boksburg in the Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Municipality, South Africa. It was established as Stirtonville after the Second World War when people influxed from rural areas seeking work on the gold mines. In 1963, due to the apartheid government's policy of separate development, the black people were moved to Vosloorus, the Indians to Actonville and the coloured people were left to stay in Stirtonville renamed to Reiger Park; the locals have given their own unofficial names to the different areas of Reiger Park, for example Jerusalem, Excuse Me and Popcorn. In 1997, the Popcorn area experienced violent rent boycotts.
The Colchester Martyrs were 16th-century English Protestant martyrs. They were executed for heresy in Colchester, during the reigns of Henry VIII and Mary I, their story is recorded in Foxe's Book of Martyrs. "ne Henry" and his servant were burned at the stake. John Lawrence, a priest and former Blackfriar at Sudbury, Suffolk was burned at the stake. Nicholas Chamberlain, a weaver from Coggeshall, Essex was burned at the stake. Christopher Lister, a husbandman from Dagenham, John Mace, an apothecary from Colchester, John Spencer, a weaver from Colchester, Simon Joyne, a sawyer, Richard Nicol, a weaver from Colchester and John Hamond, a tanner from Colchester, Essex were burned at the stake. William Bongeor, Thomas Benhote, William Purchase, Agnes Silverside, Helen Ewring, Elizabeth Folk, William Munt, John Johnson, Alice Munt and Rose Allen were taken to Colchester Castle and burned at the stake. Agnes Bongeor, wife of Richard Bongeor, John Kurde, Margaret Thurston were burned at the stake William Harris, Richard Day and Christian George were burned at the stake.
James Gore died on 7 December 1555 in Colchester prison and John Thurston, taken at Much Bentley, died in May 1557 in Colchester Castle. A monument to these victims of the Marian persecutions is in St Peter's Church on North Hill. List of Protestant martyrs of the English Reformation
Hermine Körner was a German actress and theater manager. Körner was the fifth child of zoologist William Stader and Emilie Luyken; the father departed in 1880 on a lecture tour in the U. S. from which he did not return, he died on 28 February 1888 in Reading. The widowed mother moved with her five children from Berlin to her parents' house in Altenkirchen, where Körner spent her childhood, she studied piano at the Wiesbaden Conservatory from 1896 under Max Reger. In Wiesbaden, she discovered her passion for the theater, which she shared with her lover, the Austrian officer Franz Ferdinand Körner, she married Körner on 23 December 1897. With the assistance of her father-in-law August Körner, an influential Viennese banker, she was given the opportunity to audition for the director general of the Vienna Court Opera. Körner debuted in 1898 at Vienna's Burgtheater and obtained an engagement at the Emperor's Jubilee Theatre. From 1905 to 1909 Körner played in the Düsseldorfer Schauspielhaus under Louise Dumont and her husband Gustav Lindemann, but went to the Court Theatre in 1909 in Dresden.
In 1915, Max Reinhardt brought her to the Deutsches Theater in Berlin. In Stuttgart and Hamburg, she directed and stood on the stage, from 1919 to 1925 she was director in Dresden and Munich Schauspielhaus. Körner continued to play with Gustaf Gründgens at the Prussian State Theater in Berlin. Körner last lived in Berlin-Wilmersdorf, she was buried in the Zehlendorf cemetery. Man by the Wayside A Prussian Love Story Friedemann Bach Hermine Körner on IMDb
When goods are imported into a European Union country from a non-EU territory, goods may be subject to customs duty, excise duty and value-added tax. Value-added tax is an EU tax adopted by the member states of the European Union. However, as a result of the action of an EU administrative VAT relief an exception is an option allowed on shipments to the member state of a low value; this administrative relief is known as Low Value Consignment Relief or LVCR and it is governed by the EU Council Directive 2009/132/EC. It is an optional VAT relief designed to speed up the transit of low value goods through the mail which might otherwise be delayed by customs and reduce the cost of tax collection where it might not be practicable. Member states, if they decide to allow this relief, can set it between €10 and €22, but must ensure that it is applied in a way that does not cause competitive distortion or allow VAT abuse; the UK sets the limit to £15 for commercial goods. An example was found in the LVCR allowed by the UK on shipments originating from the Channel Islands.
The UK domestic VAT went uncharged and this allowed internet order fulfillment centres to spring up on the Channel Islands for packages under £18. In 2011 the UK Treasury announced that from 1 April 2012, LVCR will no longer apply to goods imported from the Channel Islands, it was announced on 4 October 2012 that Condor Logistics would close its operations with the loss of about 180 jobs. The move was blamed on changes to LVCR affecting the Channel Islands. In August 2013, Huelin-Renouf, which had operated a "lift-on lift-off" container service for 80 years between the Port of Southampton and the Port of Jersey, ceased trading, although the business was taken up by a market entrant, Channel Island Lines. European Union value-added tax VAT-free imports from the Channel Islands