Serbo-Croatian is a South Slavic language and the primary language of Serbia, Croatia and Herzegovina, Montenegro. It is a pluricentric language with four mutually intelligible standard varieties. South Slavic languages formed a continuum; the turbulent history of the area due to expansion of the Ottoman Empire, resulted in a patchwork of dialectal and religious differences. Due to population migrations, Shtokavian became the most widespread language in the western Balkans, intruding westwards into the area occupied by Chakavian and Kajkavian. Bosniaks and Serbs differ in religion and were often part of different cultural circles, although a large part of the nations have lived side by side under foreign overlords. During that period, the language was referred to under a variety of names, such as "Slavic" in general or "Serbian", "Croatian" or "Bosnian" in particular. In a classicizing manner, it was referred to as "Illyrian"; the process of linguistic standardization of Serbo-Croatian was initiated in the mid-19th-century Vienna Literary Agreement by Croatian and Serbian writers and philologists, decades before a Yugoslav state was established.
From the beginning, there were different literary Serbian and Croatian standards, although both were based on the same dialect of Shtokavian, Eastern Herzegovinian. In the 20th century, Serbo-Croatian served as the official language of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, as one of the official languages of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia; the breakup of Yugoslavia affected language attitudes, so that social conceptions of the language separated on ethnic and political lines. Since the breakup of Yugoslavia, Bosnian has been established as an official standard in Bosnia and Herzegovina, there is an ongoing movement to codify a separate Montenegrin standard. Serbo-Croatian thus goes by the names Serbian, Croatian and sometimes Montenegrin and Bunjevac. Like other South Slavic languages, Serbo-Croatian has a simple phonology, with the common five-vowel system and twenty-five consonants, its grammar evolved from Common Slavic, with complex inflection, preserving seven grammatical cases in nouns and adjectives.
Verbs exhibit imperfective or perfective aspect, with a moderately complex tense system. Serbo-Croatian is a pro-drop language with flexible word order, subject–verb–object being the default, it can be written in Serbian Cyrillic or Gaj's Latin alphabet, whose thirty letters mutually map one-to-one, the orthography is phonemic in all standards. Throughout the history of the South Slavs, the vernacular and written languages of the various regions and ethnicities developed and diverged independently. Prior to the 19th century, they were collectively called "Illyric", "Slavic", "Slavonian", "Bosnian", "Dalmatian", "Serbian" or "Croatian". Since the nineteenth century the term Illyrian or Illyric was used quite often. Although the word Illyrian was used on a few occasions before, its widespread usage began after Ljudevit Gaj and several other prominent linguists met at Ljudevit Vukotinović's house to discuss the issue in 1832; the term Serbo-Croatian was first used by Jacob Grimm in 1824, popularized by the Viennese philologist Jernej Kopitar in the following decades, accepted by Croatian Zagreb grammarians in 1854 and 1859.
At that time and Croat lands were still part of the Ottoman and Austrian Empires. The language was called variously Serbo-Croat, Croato-Serbian and Croatian, Croatian and Serbian, Serbian or Croatian, Croatian or Serbian. Unofficially and Croats called the language "Serbian" or "Croatian" without implying a distinction between the two, again in independent Bosnia and Herzegovina, "Bosnian", "Croatian", "Serbian" were considered to be three names of a single official language. Croatian linguist Dalibor Brozović advocated the term Serbo-Croatian as late as 1988, claiming that in an analogy with Indo-European, Serbo-Croatian does not only name the two components of the same language, but charts the limits of the region in which it is spoken and includes everything between the limits. Today, use of the term "Serbo-Croatian" is controversial due to the prejudice that nation and language must match, it is still used for lack of a succinct alternative, though alternative names have emerged, such as Bosnian/Croatian/Serbian, seen in political contexts such as the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia.
In 9th Century, Old Church Slavonic was adopted as the language of the liturgy in churches serving various Slavic nations. This language was adapted to non-liturgical purposes and became known as the Croatian version of Old Slavonic; the two variants of the language and non-liturgical, continued to be a part of the Glagolitic service as late as the middle of the 19th century. The earliest known Croatian Church Slavonic Glagolitic manuscripts are the Glagolita Clozianus and the Vienna Folia from the 11th century; the beginning of written Serbo-Croatian can be traced from the 10th century and on when Serbo-Croatian medieval texts were written in five scripts: Latin, Early Cyrillic, Bosnian Cyrillic, Arebica, the last principally by Bosniak nobility. Serbo-Croatia
The Gulf of Bahrain is an inlet of the Persian Gulf on the east coast of Saudi Arabia, separated from the main body of water by the peninsula of Qatar. It surrounds the islands of Bahrain; the King Fahd Causeway crosses the western section of the Gulf of Bahrain, connecting Saudi Arabia to Bahrain. The Gulf of Bahrain is a large bay lying on the west side of the Persian Gulf, between the peninsula of Qatar and Saudi Arabia. Midway between the northerly tip of Qatar and the coast of Saudi Arabia lies Bahrain, a group of six islands and many small islets; the Gulf of Bahrain thus has two openings to the Persian Gulf, the westernmost of, spanned by a causeway leading to Saudi Arabia. The elongated southern portion of the Gulf of Bahrain forms the Gulf of Salwah. To the southeast of Bahrain Island, close to the coast of Qatar, lie the Hawar Islands, now part of Bahrain; the King Fahd Causeway that connects Saudi Arabia to the island of Bahrain was inaugurated on 26 November 1986. It consists of five bridges linked by otherwise solid embankments and the design was chosen to try to minimise the environmental impact.
Another causeway, the Qatar–Bahrain Causeway, is planned to link Bahrain to Qatar. This one will be solid for about half the other half will be bridge; the presence of the causeway is to have a considerable effect on the circulation of water in the Gulf. The Hawar Islands, just off the coast of Qatar, were listed as a Ramsar site in 1997, they are home to many bird species including Socotra cormorants. On the main island there are small herds of Arabian sand gazelle; the Gulf of Bahrain is shallow and the waters have a small thermal capacity. They are subject to wide fluctuations in temperature, with a range of 14 to 35 °C around the coasts; the water is rather more saline than other parts of the Persian Gulf. Around Bahrain there are seagrass meadows, coral reefs and mangrove thickets; these areas are important for the biodiversity of the area, providing habitats for invertebrates, juvenile fish and dugongs. Bahrain has been expanding its land area by dredging the seabed and depositing material around its coast.
In 1963, the area of Bahrain was 668 square kilometres and by 2007 it was 759 square kilometres. Extensive coral reefs in the adjoining seas have been destroyed and the increased sediment in the sea has had a deleterious effect on others; the Fasht Adham reef between Bahrain and Qatar was damaged by heat stress in 1996 and 1998 but has since been completely destroyed
Taylor Swift is an American singer-songwriter. She signed a record deal with Big Machine Records in 2005 and released her eponymous debut album in 2006. Swift wrote three of the album's tracks: "Our Song", "Should've Said No", "The Outside"; the remaining eight were co-written with writers Liz Rose, Robert Ellis Orrall, Brian Maher, Angelo Petraglia. In 2007, she released her first extended play Sounds of the Season: The Taylor Swift Holiday Collection, which contains two original tracks written by her: "Christmases When You Were Mine" and "Christmas Must Be Something More". Beautiful Eyes, Swift's second EP, was released in 2008 and features alternate takes of songs from her debut album as well as two new tracks. Swift wrote most of her songs from her second album, Fearless while she promoted her debut album as opening act for country artists; as collaborators were not available on the road, Swift self-penned eight of the tracks while the rest were co-written with Rose, Hillary Lindsey, Colbie Caillat, John Rich.
She contributed two songs, "Today Was a Fairytale" and "Jump Then Fall", to the Valentine's Day soundtrack, recorded a cover of Better Than Ezra's "Breathless" for the Hope for Haiti Now album. Swift wrote every track of her Speak Now album without any co-writers; the album expands on the country pop style of her previous work, touches on themes of love and heartbreak. In late 2011, Swift contributed two original songs, "Safe & Sound", featuring duo The Civil Wars, "Eyes Open", to The Hunger Games soundtrack album. Swift's fourth album Red marked a change in her musical style with the experimentation of heartland rock and dance-pop. In addition to collaborating with producer Nathan Chapman—who recorded her first three albums—she worked with new producers, such as Dann Huff, Max Martin, Shellback. In 2013, she provided guest vocals for Tim McGraw's "Highway Don't Care", which features guitar work by Keith Urban, performed "Sweeter than Fiction" for the One Chance soundtrack album. Swift released her fifth album 1989 in 2014.
Credited as her "first documented, official pop album", it marks a departure from her previous country albums. It incorporates musical genres, such as dance-pop and synth-pop, is described as an album "driven by synths and drums in lieu of guitar". For the album, Swift worked with new co-writers, including Jack Antonoff, Ryan Tedder, Ali Payami. Swift and Martin served as the executive producer, she enlisted her long-time collaborators Chapman, Martin and for the first time Noel Zancanella, Mattman & Robin, Greg Kurstin. In December 2016, Swift recorded the song "I Don't Wanna Live Forever" for the film Fifty Shades Darker with British singer Zayn. On her sixth album Reputation, Swift served as the executive producer, worked with long-time collaborators Antonoff, Shellback, alongside new collaborators such as Oscar Görres and Oscar Holter, Ed Sheeran and Future as featured artists on the album. On Swift's seventh studio album Lover, she served as the executive producer and worked with long-time collaborator Antonoff alongside new collaborators Joel Little, Louis Bell, Frank Dukes, Sounwave, St. Vincent and Cautious Clay.
The album featured Brendon Urie of Panic! at the Disco and Dixie Chicks. The title track remix was released featuring guest lyrics from Shawn Mendes. In November 2019, Swift released "Beautiful Ghosts", a song written with British composer Andrew Lloyd Webber for the Cats motion picture soundtrack; the week before her birthday in 2019, Swift released a non-album Christmas single titled "Christmas Tree Farm". In January 2020, she released the politically-themed track "Only the Young" alongside Miss Americana, a Netflix documentary following her life and career over the course of several years. In February 2020, Swift released a live acoustic version of the fourth single, "The Man", from her seventh studio album