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Serendipity is the occurrence of an unplanned fortunate discovery. Serendipity is a common occurrence throughout the history of product invention and scientific discovery. Serendipity is seen as a potential design principle for online activities that would present a wide array of information and viewpoints, rather than just re-enforcing a user's opinion; the first noted use of "serendipity" in the English language was by Horace Walpole on 28 January 1754. In a letter he wrote to his friend Horace Mann, Walpole explained an unexpected discovery he had made about a lost painting of Bianca Cappello by Giorgio Vasari by reference to a Persian fairy tale, The Three Princes of Serendip; the princes, he told his correspondent, were "always making discoveries, by accidents and sagacity, of things which they were not in quest of." The name comes from an old name for Sri Lanka, hence Sarandib by Arab traders. It is derived from the Sanskrit Siṃhaladvīpaḥ; the word has been exported into many other languages, with the general meaning of “unexpected discovery” or “fortunate chance”.

The term "serendipity" is applied to inventions made by chance rather than intent. Andrew Smith, editor of The Oxford Companion to American Food and Drink, has speculated that most everyday products had serendipitous roots, with many early ones related to animals; the origin of cheese, for example originated in the Nomad practice of storing milk in the stomach of a dead camel, attached to the saddle of a live one, thereby mixing rennet from the stomach with the milk stored within. Other examples of serendipity in inventions include: The Post-It Note, which emerged after 3M scientist Spencer Silver produced a weak adhesive, a colleague used it to keep bookmarks in place on a church hymnal. Silly Putty, which came from a failed attempt at synthetic rubber; the use of sensors to prevent automobile air bags from killing children, which came from a chair developed by the MIT Media Lab for a Penn and Teller magic show. The microwave oven. Raytheon scientist Percy Spencer first patented the idea behind it after noticing that emissions from radar equipment had melted the candy in his pocket.

The Velcro hook-and-loop fastener, whose idea came about on a bird hunting trip when George de Mestral viewed under a microscope the cockleburs stuck to his pants and saw that each burr was covered with tiny hooks. The Popsicle, whose origins go back to San Francisco where Frank Epperson, age 11, accidentally left a mix of water and soda powder outside to freeze overnight. Serendipity contributed to entomologist Shaun Winterton discovering Semachrysa jade, a new species of lacewing, which he found not in its native Malaysia, but on the photo-sharing site Flickr. Winterton's discovery was aided by Flickr's ability to present images that are personalized to a user's interests, thereby increasing the odds he would chance upon the photo. Computer scientist Jaime Teevan has argued that serendipitous discovery is promoted by such personalization, writing that "people don’t know what to do with random new information. Instead, we want information, at the fringe of what we know, because, when we have the cognitive structures to make sense of the new ideas."

Serendipity is a design principle for online activity that would present viewpoints that diverge from those participants hold. Harvard Law professor Cass Sunstein argues that such an "architecture of serendipity" would promote a healthier democracy. Like a great city or university, "a well-functioning information market" provides exposure to new ideas and ways of life, "Serendipity is crucial because it expands your horizons. You need that if you want to be free." The idea has potential application in the design of social media, information searches, web browsing. William Boyd coined the term zemblanity in the late twentieth century to mean somewhat the opposite of serendipity: "making unhappy and expected discoveries occurring by design". A zemblanity is an "unpleasant unsurprise", it derives from Novaya Zemlya, a cold, barren land with many features opposite to the lush Sri Lanka. Bahramdipity is derived directly from Bahram Gur, it describes the suppression of serendipitous discoveries or research results by powerful individuals.

Browse Coincidence Felix culpa Insight Lateral thinking Multiple discovery Role of chance in scientific discoveries side effect Merton, Robert K.. The Travels and Adventures of Serendipity: A Study in Sociological Semantics and the Sociology of Science. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-11754-6.. Frédéric Darbellay et al. Interdisciplinary Research Boosted by Serendipity, Creativity Research Journal, Volume 26, Issue 1, 2014. Hannan, Patrick J.. Serendipity and Wisdom in Research. IUniverse. ISBN 978-0-595-36551-7. Roberts, Royston M.. Serendipity: Accidental Discoveries in Science. Wiley. ISBN 978-0-471-60203-3. Andel, Pek Van. "Anatomy of the unsought finding: serendipity: origin, domains, appearances and programmability". British Journal for the Philosophy of Science. 45: 631–648. Doi:10.1093/bjps/45.2.631. Gaughan, Richard. Accidental Genius: The World's Greatest By-Chance Discoveries. Metro Books. ISBN 978-1-4351-2557-5. Solomon, Y. & Bronstein, J.. Serendipity in legal information seeking behavior: Chance encounters of family-law advocates with court rulings, Aslib Journal of Information Management, 68, 112–134.

Doi: 10.1108/AJIM-04-2015-0056 Accidental discoveries. PBS Top Ten: Accidental discoveries. Discovery Channel at the Wayback Machine ACM Paper on Creating s

Fable Fortune

Fable Fortune is a free-to-play digital collectible card game set in the Fable universe. The game was released for Windows and Xbox One in February 2018, after an initial early access release, it was co-developed by Flaming Fowl Studios and Mediatonic. Fable Fortune is a digital collectible card game. Development for the game began at Lionhead Studios 18 months prior to the studio's closure in April 2016. Microsoft offered the Fable license to Flaming Fowl Studios, an independent developer formed of former Lionhead staff to continue its development. Flaming Fowl turned to a Kickstarter crowdfunding campaign in May 2016, looking to raise £250,000 towards the game's development costs; the campaign failed its target and was cancelled in June 2016. Flaming Fowl CEO Craig Oman cited difficulties in crowdfunding a free-to-play title, the unfamiliar genre for the Fable universe as reasons for the failure; the game did however attract private funding. The game was released as early access for Windows and Xbox One in July 2017, was co-developed by Flaming Fowl Studios and Mediatonic.

The game launched out of early access on 22 February 2018. Fable Fortune received a mixed reception from critics. Official website

Fort Logan (Colorado)

Fort Logan was a military post south of downtown Denver, Colorado that operated from 1887 to 1946. Named Fort Sheridan, in 1889 the fort was named after Union General John A. Logan, commander of US Volunteer forces during the American Civil War. Denver citizens were concerned about their safety due to the influx of settlers from the east, they petitioned the United States Army to build a post. Colorado Senator Henry M. Teller introduced a bill in Congress 1886 for construction of a post, signed on February 1887; the fort known as "the camp near the city of Denver" first housed members of the 18th Infantry from Leavenworth and Fort Hays. They established a temporary barracks and guardhouse; the post responded to local civil and labor disputes. A three-acre cemetery was established in 1889; the first recorded burial was for Mable Peterkin, daughter of Private Peterkin, who died on June 28, 1889. It was named Fort Logan in August 1889 for General John A. Logan, who led Union Army volunteer forces during the Civil War.

He was the head of the post-war organization Grand Army of the Republic and issued General Orders No. 11, establishing May 30 as "Decoration Day", now called Memorial Day. In 1889, the town of Fort Logan was established that included surrounding land. During the Spanish -- American War, it mobilized troops with a temporary organization. In 1908, 340 acres of land were added to the fort, the following year it was reduced to a recruiting post, it was the only major military post in Colorado during World War I. It continued to operate as a recruiting post until 1922 when the 38th Infantry was garrisoned at the post; the fort was closed in May 1946. When the post was no longer required, some of the land was used for creation of the Fort Logan National Cemetery in 1949. A Queen Anne style officer's quarters building was made into a museum. Most of the land was donated in 1960 to the state of Colorado was used for the Fort Logan Mental Health Center. Jack Stokes Ballard. Fort Logan. Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7385-7582-7

Mansour Pourheidari

Mansour Pourheidari was an Iranian football player and manager. He started his football career at Daraei, before joining Taj in 1965, he played ten years for Taj. Pourheidari returned to Daraei in 1975 to play his final career's two years at the club, he played for Iran albeit earning three caps only. After retiring from playing football, Pourheidari started his coaching career, becoming assistant manager of Esteghlal, he was promoted to the first team manager in 1983. He was the head coach of the club for 9 years overall, managing them in 309 games, he is the only Iranian who has won AFC Champions League as both player and coach. He was the Head Coach of Iran national football team in 1998 Asian Games where they won the first place and gold medal, he died on 4 November 2016 of cancer. He was technical manager and a member of the board of directors of Esteghlal at the time of his death, he began his football career at the age of 17 in Daraei but was transferred to Taj in 1965 and played as a right defender for ten years and won the Asian Championship in 1970.

He played for Iran national football team and had 3 caps. He retired in 1977 from football, he began his managerial career in 1980 as assistant coach to Asghar Sharafi. He was promoted as the club's head coach in 1983 after the resignation of Sharafi. After three years, he was resigned and becomes head coach of UAE Pro-League side, Al-Ahli and led the team until 1989, he won the league in the following season. He led Esteghlal to their second Asian trophy in 1991, he was left the team in the next year but was returned again as head coach in 1995 and led the team for one season. After that, he was unable to earn any trophy, he became head coach of Iran national football team in 1998 and led it until 2000. Pourheidari was a member of the Board of directors of Esteghlal for decades, he was team manager of Esteghlal from 2010 to 2012 and from 2012, he was technical manager of the club. As of 31 March 2010 Iranian Football League: 1970–71, 1974–75 Asian Club Championship: 1970 EsteghlalIranian Football League: 1989–90, 2000–01 Hazfi Cup: 1996, 2000 Asian Club Championship: 1991Iran national teamAsian Games: 1998 January 1999 Asian Coach of the Month He was married to Farideh Shojaee, former Iran Football Federation vice president

Sheikh Abdurahman Sh. Nur

Sheikh Abdurahman Sh. Nur was a Somali Sheikh, qādi of the government at that time and the inventor of the Borama script for the Somali language. Sheikh Abdurahman Sh. Nur grew up in Borama, he was of royal lineage, the Reer Ugaas subclan of the Makayl-Dheere branch of the Gadabuursi Dir clan. Growing up he was a Qur'anic teacher in the British Somaliland protectorate, his father was a qādi for many years. He was a learned or knowledgeable man, in particular when it came to the history of his own clan, the Gadabuursi. Sheikh'Abdurahman would follow in his father's footsteps by becoming a qādi, albeit of the entire northern British Somaliland region. In 1933, Nuur devised a quite phonetically accurate new orthography for transcribing the Somali language. While the script enjoyed considerable currency in his hometown, the Sheikh harbored no illusions as to its widespread adoption, writing in a publication of his wherein he employed the script itself that "I publish it here with no intention of attempting to contribute to the abundant confusion in the choice of a standard orthography for Somali".

Osmanya script Borama script Kaddare script Somali alphabet Wadaad's writing Osman Yusuf Kenadid Shire Jama Ahmed Hussein Sheikh Ahmed Kaddare David D. Laitin, Politics and thought: the Somali experience, Lewis, I. M.. "The Gadabuursi Somali Script". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. 21: 134–156. Doi:10.1017/s0041977x00063278. JSTOR 610496. Osmanya, Wadaad's writing and the Somali language The Gadabuursi Somali Script - qasidas in Gadabuursi/Borama

Rectified 9-orthoplexes

In nine-dimensional geometry, a rectified 9-simplex is a convex uniform 9-polytope, being a rectification of the regular 9-orthoplex. There are 9 rectifications of the 9-orthoplex. Vertices of the rectified 9-orthoplex are located at the edge-centers of the 9-orthoplex. Vertices of the birectified 9-orthoplex are located in the triangular face centers of the 9-orthoplex. Vertices of the trirectified 9-orthoplex are located in the tetrahedral cell centers of the 9-orthoplex; these polytopes are part of a family 511 uniform 9-polytopes with BC9 symmetry. The rectified 9-orthoplex is the vertex figure for the demienneractic honeycomb. Or rectified enneacross There are two Coxeter groups associated with the rectified 9-orthoplex, one with the C9 or Coxeter group, a lower symmetry with two copies of 8-orthoplex facets, with the D9 or Coxeter group. Cartesian coordinates for the vertices of a rectified 9-orthoplex, centered at the origin, edge length 2 are all permutations of: Its 144 vertices represent the root vectors of the simple Lie group D9.

The vertices can be seen in 3 hyperplanes, with the 36 vertices rectified 8-simplexs cells on opposite sides, 72 vertices of an expanded 8-simplex passing through the center. When combined with the 18 vertices of the 9-orthoplex, these vertices represent the 162 root vectors of the B9 and C9 simple Lie groups. Rectified 9-demicube Birectified enneacross trirectified enneacross H. S. M. Coxeter: H. S. M. Coxeter, Regular Polytopes, 3rd Edition, Dover New York, 1973 Kaleidoscopes: Selected Writings of H. S. M. Coxeter, edited by F. Arthur Sherk, Peter McMullen, Anthony C. Thompson, Asia Ivic Weiss, Wiley-Interscience Publication, 1995, ISBN 978-0-471-01003-6 H. S. M. Coxeter and Semi Regular Polytopes I, H. S. M. Coxeter and Semi-Regular Polytopes II, H. S. M. Coxeter and Semi-Regular Polytopes III, Norman Johnson Uniform Polytopes, Manuscript N. W. Johnson: The Theory of Uniform Polytopes and Honeycombs, Ph. D. Klitzing, Richard. "9D uniform polytopes". X3o3o3o3o3o3o3o4o - vee, o3x3o3o3o3o3o3o4o - riv, o3o3x3o3o3o3o3o4o - brav, o3o3o3x3o3o3o3o4o - tarv, o3o3o3o3x3o3o3o4o - nav, o3o3o3o3o3x3o3o4o - tarn, o3o3o3o3o3o3x3o4o - barn, o3o3o3o3o3o3o3x4o - ren, o3o3o3o3o3o3o3o4x - enne Polytopes of Various Dimensions Multi-dimensional Glossary