Ngorongoro Conservation Area
The Ngorongoro Conservation Area is a protected area and a World Heritage Site located 180 km west of Arusha in the Crater Highlands area of Tanzania. The area is named after a large volcanic caldera within the area; the conservation area is administered by the Ngorongoro Conservation Area Authority, an arm of the Tanzanian government, its boundaries follow the boundary of the Ngorongoro Division of the Arusha Region. The 2009 Ngorogoro Wildlife Conservation Act placed new restrictions on human settlement and subsistence farming in the Crater, displacing Maasai pastoralists, most of whom had been relocated to Ngorongoro from their ancestral lands to the north when the British colonial government established Serengeti National Park in 1959; the name of the crater has an onomatopoeic origin. Based on fossil evidence found at the Olduvai Gorge, various hominid species have occupied the area for 3 million years. Hunter-gatherers were replaced by pastoralists a few thousand years ago; the Mbulu came to the area about 2,000 years ago and were joined by the Datooga around the year 1700.
Both groups were driven from the area by the Maasai in the 1800s. Massive fig trees in the northwest of the Lerai Forest are sacred to the Datooga; some of them may have been planted on the grave of a Datago leader who died in battle with the Maasai around 1840. No Europeans are known to have set foot in the Ngorongoro Crater until 1892, when it was visited by Oscar Baumann. Two German brothers farmed in the crater until the outbreak of World War I, after leasing the land from the administration of German East Africa; the brothers organized shooting parties to entertain their German friends. They attempted to drive the wildebeest herds out of the crater. In 1921, the first game preservation ordinance was passed, which restricted hunting to permit holders throughout Tanzania. In 1928, hunting was prohibited on all land within the crater rim, except the former Siedentopf farms; the National Park Ordinance of 1948 created the Serengeti National Park. This, caused problems with the Maasai and other tribes, resulting in the Ngorongoro Conservation Area Ordinance that separated the conservation area from the national park.
Maasai pastoralists living in Serengeti National Park were systematically relocated to Ngorongoro, increasing the population of Maasai and livestock living in the Crater. The Ngorongoro Conservation Area Authority was established by the Game Park Laws Act, 1976 and owns the majority of Ngorongoro Conservation Area land, including the Crater; the area became a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1979. The Wildlife Conservation Act of 2009 further restricted human use of Ngorongoro Crater and created a legal framework to politically disenfranchise and forcibly displace traditional pastoralists; the restriction on land use generates tension between the local Maasai communities and conservation authorities. The International Union for Conservation of Nature is seeking solutions to ease conflict and improve collaborative efforts towards conservation with the locals. Land in the conservation area is multi-use and unique because it is the only conservation area in Tanzania that protects wildlife while allowing human habitation.
Land use is controlled to prevent negative effects on the wildlife population. For example, cultivation is prohibited at all but subsistence levels; the area is part of the Serengeti ecosystem and, to the northwest, adjoins the SNP and is contiguous with the southern Serengeti plains. These plains extend to the north into the unprotected Loliondo division and are kept open to wildlife through transhumance pastoralism practiced by the Maasai; the south and west of the area are volcanic highlands, including the famous Ngorongoro Crater and the lesser known Empakaa Crateri. The southern and eastern boundaries are defined by the rim of the East African Rift wall, which prevents animal migration in these directions; the main feature of the Ngorongoro Conservation Authority is the Ngorongoro Crater, the world's largest inactive and unfilled volcanic caldera. The crater, which formed when a large volcano exploded and collapsed on itself two to three million years ago, is 610 metres deep and its floor covers 260 square kilometres.
Estimates of the height of the original volcano range from 4,500 to 5,800 metres high. The crater floor is 1,800 metres above sea level; the crater was voted by Seven Natural Wonders as one of the Seven Natural Wonders of Africa in Arusha, Tanzania in February 2013. The Ngorongoro volcano was active from about 2.45 to 2 million years ago. The volcanic eruptions like that of Ngorongoro, which resulted in the formation of Ngorongoro Crater in Tanzania, were common. Similar collapses occurred in the case of Olmoti and Empakaai, but they were much smaller in magnitude and impact. Out of the two recent volcanoes to the northeast of the Empakaai caldera, Kerimasi and Ol Doinyo Lengai, Doinyo Lengai is still active and had major eruptions in 2007 and 2008. Smaller ash eruptions and lava flows continue to fill the current crater, its name is Maasai language for ‘Mountain of God’. The crater highlands on the side facing the easterly trade winds receive 800 to 1,200 millimetres of rain a year and are covered in montane forest.
The less-steep west wall receives only 400 to 600 millimetres and is grassland and bushland dotted with Euphorbia bussei trees. The crater floor is open grassland with two small wooded areas dominated by fever tree (Vachell
The Nile crocodile is an African crocodile, the largest freshwater predator in Africa, may be considered the second-largest extant reptile and crocodilian in the world, after the saltwater crocodile. The Nile crocodile is quite widespread throughout sub-Saharan Africa, occurring in the central and southern regions of the continent, lives in different types of aquatic environments such as lakes and marshlands. Although capable of living in saline environments, this species is found in saltwater, but inhabits deltas and brackish lakes; the range of this species once stretched northward throughout the Nile, as far north as the Nile delta. On average, the adult male Nile crocodile weighs 225 to 750 kg. However, specimens exceeding 6.1 m in length and weighing up to 1,090 kg have been recorded. Sexual dimorphism is prevalent, females are about 30% smaller than males, they have thick, scaly armored skin. Nile crocodiles are opportunistic apex predators, they are generalists. Their diet consists of different species of fish, reptiles and mammals.
They are ambush predators that can wait for hours and weeks for the suitable moment to attack. They are agile predators and wait for the opportunity for a prey item to come well within attack range. Swift prey are not immune to attack. Like other crocodiles, Nile crocodiles have an powerful bite, unique among all animals, sharp, conical teeth that sink into flesh, allowing for a grip, impossible to loosen, they can apply high levels of force for extended periods of time, a great advantage for holding down large prey underwater to drown. Nile crocodiles are social crocodiles, they share large food sources, such as schools of fish and big carcasses. Their strict hierarchy is determined by size. Large, old males are at the top of this hierarchy and have primary access to food and the best basking spots. Crocodiles tend to respect this order. Like most other reptiles, Nile crocodiles lay eggs; the hatchlings are protected for a period of time, but hunt by themselves and are not fed by the parents. The Nile crocodile is one of the most dangerous species of crocodile and is responsible for hundreds of human deaths every year.
It is a rather common species of crocodile and is not endangered despite some regional declines or extinctions. The binomial name Crocodylus niloticus is derived from the Greek κρόκη, kroke, δρῖλος, referring to its rough skin; the Nile crocodile is called tanin ha-yeor in Hebrew, timsah al-nil in Arabic, mamba in Swahili, garwe in Shona, ngwenya in Ndebele, ngwena in Venda, kwena in Sotho and Tswana. It sometimes referred to as the African crocodile, Ethiopian crocodile, common crocodile, or the black crocodile. Although no subspecies are formally recognized, as many as seven have been proposed due to variations in appearance and size noted in various populations through Africa; these have consisted of: C. n. africanus, C. n. chamses, C. n. corviei, C. n. madagascariensis, C. n. niloticus, C. n. pauciscutatus, C. suchus. In a study of the morphology of the various populations, including C. suchus, the appearance of the Nile crocodile sensu lato was found to be more variable than any other recognized crocodile species, at least some of these variations were related to locality.
A study on Lake Turkana in Kenya has shown that the local crocodiles appear to have more osteoderms in their ventral surface than other known populations, thus are of lesser value in leather trading, accounting for an exceptionally large local population there in the late 20th century. The segregation of the West African crocodile from the Nile crocodile has been supported by morphological characteristics, studies of genetic materials and habitat preferences; the separation of the two is not recognized by the IUCN as their last evaluations of the group was in 2008 and 2009, years before the primary publications supporting the distinction of the West African crocodiles. DNA from West African crocodiles has indicated that, unlike the Nile crocodile, it is most related to East Asian species, such as the Philippine crocodile, than other extant crocodilians. At one time, the fossil species Rimasuchus lloydi was thought to be the ancestor of the Nile crocodile, but more recent research has indicated that Rimasuchus, despite its large size, is more related to the dwarf crocodile among living species.
Other fossil species from Africa are retained in Crocodylus and appear to be related to the Nile crocodile: namely C. checchiai from the Miocene in Kenya, C. anthropophagus from Plio-Pleistocene Tanzania, C. thorbjarnarsoni from Plio-Plei
International Union for Conservation of Nature
The International Union for Conservation of Nature is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources. It is involved in data gathering and analysis, field projects and education. IUCN's mission is to "influence and assist societies throughout the world to conserve nature and to ensure that any use of natural resources is equitable and ecologically sustainable". Over the past decades, IUCN has widened its focus beyond conservation ecology and now incorporates issues related to sustainable development in its projects. Unlike many other international environmental organisations, IUCN does not itself aim to mobilize the public in support of nature conservation, it tries to influence the actions of governments and other stakeholders by providing information and advice, through building partnerships. The organization is best known to the wider public for compiling and publishing the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, which assesses the conservation status of species worldwide.
IUCN has a membership of over 1400 non-governmental organizations. Some 16,000 scientists and experts participate in the work of IUCN commissions on a voluntary basis, it employs 1000 full-time staff in more than 50 countries. Its headquarters are in Switzerland. IUCN has observer and consultative status at the United Nations, plays a role in the implementation of several international conventions on nature conservation and biodiversity, it was involved in establishing the World Wide Fund for Nature and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. In the past, IUCN has been criticized for placing the interests of nature over those of indigenous peoples. In recent years, its closer relations with the business sector have caused controversy. IUCN was established in 1948, it was called the International Union for the Protection of Nature and the World Conservation Union. Establishment IUCN was established on 5 October 1948, in Fontainebleau, when representatives of governments and conservation organizations signed a formal act constituting the International Union for the Protection of Nature.
The initiative to set up the new organisation came from UNESCO and from its first Director General, the British biologist Julian Huxley. The objectives of the new Union were to encourage international cooperation in the protection of nature, to promote national and international action and to compile and distribute information. At the time of its founding IUPN was the only international organisation focusing on the entire spectrum of nature conservation Early years: 1948–1956 IUPN started out with 65 members, its secretariat was located in Brussels. Its first work program focused on saving species and habitats and applying knowledge, advancing education, promoting international agreements and promoting conservation. Providing a solid scientific base for conservation action was the heart of all activities. IUPN and UNESCO were associated, they jointly organized the 1949 Conference on Protection of Nature. In preparation for this conference a list of gravely endangered species was drawn up for the first time, a precursor of the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
In the early years of its existence IUCN depended entirely on UNESCO funding and was forced to temporarily scale down activities when this ended unexpectedly in 1954. IUPN was successful in engaging prominent scientists and identifying important issues such as the harmful effects of pesticides on wildlife but not many of the ideas it developed were turned into action; this was caused by unwillingness to act on the part of governments, uncertainty about the IUPN mandate and lack of resources. In 1956, IUPN changed its name to International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Increased profile and recognition: 1956–1965 In the 1950s and 1960s Europe entered a period of economic growth and formal colonies became independent. Both developments had impact on the work of IUCN. Through the voluntary involvement of experts in its Commissions IUCN was able to get a lot of work done while still operating on a low budget, it established links with the Council of Europe. In 1961, at the request of United Nations Economic and Social Council, the United Nations Economic and Social Council, IUCN published the first global list of national parks and protected areas which it has updated since.
IUCN's best known publication, the Red Data Book on the conservation status of species, was first published in 1964. IUCN began to play a part in the development of international treaties and conventions, starting with the African Convention on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Environmental law and policy making became a new area of expertise. Africa was the focus of many of the early IUCN conservation field projects. IUCN supported the ‘Yellowstone model’ of protected area management, which restricted human presence and activity in order to protect nature. IUCN and other conservation organisations were criticized for protecting nature against people rather than with people; this model was also applied in Africa and played a role in the decision to remove the Maasai people from Serengeti National Park and the Ngorongoro Conservation Area. To establish a stable financial basis for its work, IUCN participated in setting up the World Wildlife Fund
The Maasai are a Nilotic ethnic group inhabiting northern and southern Kenya and northern Tanzania. They are among the best known local populations internationally due to their residence near the many game parks of the African Great Lakes, their distinctive customs and dress; the Maasai speak the Maa language, a member of the Nilo-Saharan family, related to the Dinka and Nuer languages. Some have become educated in the official languages of Kenya and Tanzania and English; the Maasai population has been reported as numbering 841,622 in Kenya in the 2009 census, compared to 377,089 in the 1989 census. The Tanzanian and Kenyan governments have instituted programs to encourage the Maasai to abandon their traditional semi-nomadic lifestyle, but the people have continued their age-old customs. An Oxfam study has suggested that the Maasai could pass on traditional survival skills such as the ability to produce food in deserts and scrublands that could help populations adapt to climate change. Many Maasai tribes throughout Tanzania and Kenya welcome visits to their villages to experience their culture and lifestyle, in return for a fee.
The Maasai arrived via the South Sudan. Most Nilotic speakers in the area, including the Maasai, the Turkana and the Kalenjin, are pastoralists, are famous for their fearsome reputations as warriors and cattle-rustlers; the Maasai and other groups in East Africa have adopted customs and practices from neighboring Cushitic-speaking groups, including the age set system of social organization and vocabulary terms. According to their oral history, the Maasai originated from the lower Nile valley north of Lake Turkana and began migrating south around the 15th century, arriving in a long trunk of land stretching from what is now northern Kenya to what is now central Tanzania between the 17th and late 18th century. Many ethnic groups that had formed settlements in the region were forcibly displaced by the incoming Maasai, while other Southern Cushitic groups, were assimilated into Maasai society; the Nilotic ancestors of the Kalenjin absorbed some early Cushitic populations. The Maasai territory reached its largest size in the mid-19th century, covered all of the Great Rift Valley and adjacent lands from Mount Marsabit in the north to Dodoma in the south.
At this time the Maasai, as well as the larger Nilotic group they were part of, raised cattle as far east as the Tanga coast in Tanganyika. Raiders used spears and shields, but were most feared for throwing clubs which could be thrown from up to 70 paces. In 1852, there was a report of a concentration of 800 Maasai warriors on the move in what is now Kenya. In 1857, after having depopulated the "Wakuafi wilderness" in what is now southeastern Kenya, Maasai warriors threatened Mombasa on the Kenyan coast; because of this migration, the Maasai are the southernmost Nilotic speakers. The period of expansion was followed by the Maasai "Emutai" of 1883–1902; this period was marked by epidemics of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia and smallpox. The estimate first put forward by a German lieutenant in what was northwest Tanganyika, was that 90 percent of cattle and half of wild animals perished from rinderpest. German doctors in the same area claimed that "every second" African had a pock-marked face as the result of smallpox.
This period coincided with drought. Rains failed in 1897 and 1898; the Austrian explorer Oscar Baumann travelled in Maasai lands between 1891 and 1893, described the old Maasai settlement in the Ngorongoro Crater in the 1894 book Durch Massailand zur Nilquelle: "There were women wasted to skeletons from whose eyes the madness of starvation glared... warriors scarcely able to crawl on all fours, apathetic, languishing elders. Swarms of vultures followed them from high, awaiting their certain victims." By one estimate two-thirds of the Maasai died during this period. Starting with a 1904 treaty, followed by another in 1911, Maasai lands in Kenya were reduced by 60 percent when the British evicted them to make room for settler ranches, subsequently confining them to present-day Samburu,Laikipia,Kajiado and Narok districts. Maasai in Tanganyika were displaced from the fertile lands between Mount Meru and Mount Kilimanjaro, most of the fertile highlands near Ngorongoro in the 1940s. More land was taken to create wildlife reserves and national parks: Amboseli National Park, Nairobi National Park, Maasai Mara, Samburu National Reserve, Lake Nakuru National Park and Tsavo in Kenya.
Maasai are pastoralist and have resisted the urging of the Tanzanian and Kenyan governments to adopt a more sedentary lifestyle. They have demanded grazing rights to many of the national parks in both countries; the Maasai people stood against slavery and lived alongside most wild animals with an aversion to eating game and birds. Maasai land now has East Africa's finest game areas. Maasai society never condoned traffic of human beings, outsiders looking for people to enslave avoided the Maasai. There are twenty two geographic sectors or sub tribes of the Maasai community, each one having its own customs, appearance and dialects; these subdivisions are known as'nations' or' iloshon'in the Maa language: the Keekonyokie, Purko, Siria, Loitai, Matapato, Loodokolani,Kaputiei,Moitanik,Ilkirasha, Samburu,Lchamus,Laikipia,Loitokitoki,Larusa,Salei,Sir
The Serengeti ecosystem is a geographical region in Africa. It is located in northern Tanzania, it spans 30,000 km2. The Serengeti hosts the second largest terrestrial mammal migration in the world, which helps secure it as one of the Seven Natural Wonders of Africa, as one of the ten natural travel wonders of the world; the Serengeti is renowned for its large lion population and is one of the best places to observe prides in their natural environment. The region contains the Serengeti National Park in several game reserves. 70 large mammal and 500 bird species are found there. This high diversity is a function of diverse habitats, including riverine forests, kopjes and woodlands. Blue wildebeests, gazelles and buffalos are some of the found large mammals in the region. There has been controversy about a proposed road to be built through the Serengeti. Serengeti is derived from Maa. Much of the Serengeti was known to outsiders as Maasailand; the Maasai are known as fierce warriors and live alongside most wild animals with an aversion to eating game and birds, subsisting on their cattle.
Their strength and reputation kept the newly arrived Europeans from exploiting the animals and resources of most of their land. A rinderpest epidemic and drought during the 1890s reduced the numbers of both Maasai and animal populations; the Tanzanian government in the 20th century re-settled the Maasai around the Ngorongoro Crater. Poaching and the absence of fires, the result of human activity, set the stage for the development of dense woodlands and thickets over the next 30–50 years. Tsetse fly populations now prevented any significant human settlement in the area. By the mid-1970s, wildebeest and the Cape buffalo populations had recovered and were cropping the grass, reducing the amount of fuel available for fires; the reduced intensity of fires has allowed acacia to once again become established. In the 21st century, mass rabies vaccination programmes for domestic dogs in the Serengeti have not only indirectly prevented hundreds of human deaths, but protected wildlife species such as the endangered African wild dog.
Each year around the same time, the circular great wildebeest migration begins in the Ngorongoro Conservation Area of the southern Serengeti in Tanzania and loops in a clockwise direction through the Serengeti National Park and north towards the Masai Mara reserve in Kenya. This migration is a natural phenomenon determined by the availability of grazing; the initial phase lasts from January to March, when the calving season begins – a time when there is plenty of rain-ripened grass available for the 260,000 zebra that precede 1.7 million wildebeest and the following hundreds of thousands of other plains game, including around 470,000 gazelles. During February, the wildebeest spend their time on the short grass plains of the southeastern part of the ecosystem and giving birth to 500,000 calves within a 2 to 3-week period. Few calves are born ahead of time and of these, hardly any survive; the main reason is that young calves are more noticeable to predators when mixed with older calves from the previous year.
As the rains end in May, the animals start moving northwest into the areas around the Grumeti River, where they remain until late June. The crossings of the Grumeti and Mara rivers beginning in July are a popular safari attraction because crocodiles are lying in wait; the herds arrive in Kenya in late July / August, where they stay for the remainder of the dry season, except that the Thomson's and Grant's gazelles move only east/west. In early November, with the start of the short rains the migration starts moving south again, to the short grass plains of the southeast arriving in December in plenty of time for calving in February. About 250,000 wildebeest die during the journey from Tanzania to the Maasai Mara National Reserve in southwestern Kenya, a total of 800 kilometres. Death is from thirst, exhaustion, or predation; the Serengeti has some of East Africa's finest game areas. Besides being known for the great migration, the Serengeti is famous for its abundant large predators; the ecosystem is home to over 3,000 lions, 1,000 leopards, 7,700 to 8,700 spotted hyenas..
The East African cheetah are present in Serengeti. Wild dogs are scarce in much of the Serengeti; this is true in places such as Serengeti National Park, in which lions and spotted hyenas, predators that steal wild dog kills and are a direct cause of wild dog mortality, are abundant. The Serengeti is home to a diversity of grazers, including African buffalo, Grant's gazelle, eland and topi; the Serengeti can support this remarkable variety of grazers only because each species those that are related, has a different diet. For example, wildebeests prefer to consume shorter grasses. Dik-diks eat the lowest leaves of a tree, impalas eat the leaves that are higher up, giraffes eat leaves that are higher; the governments of Tanzania and Kenya maintain a number of protected areas, including national parks, conservation areas, game reserves, that give legal protection to over 80 percent of the Serengeti. The southeastern area lies in the rain shadow of the Ngorongoro Conservation Area's highlands and is composed of shortgrass treeless plains with abundant small dicots.
Soils are high in nutrients, overlying a shallow calcareous hardpan due to natrocarbonatite eruptions from Ol Do
Tanzania National Parks Authority
The Tanzania National Parks Authority known as TANAPA is responsible for the management of Tanzania's national parks. TANAPA is a parastatal corporation and all its income is reinvested into the organization, it is governed by a number of instruments including the National Parks Act, Chapter 282 of the 2002 and the Wildlife Conservation Act No. 5 of 2009. TANAPA manages the nation's 17 National parks which covers 15% of the land area and has the mandate to conserve and manage the wildlife in Tanzania, to enforce the related laws and regulations in this industry, it manages the biodiversity of the country and conserving the flora and fauna. The organization does not have a mandate over the game reserves such as the Selous Game Reserve, managed by the Tanzanian Wildlife Division and the Ngorongoro Conservation Area managed by the Ngorongoro Conservation Authority; the Arusha Manifesto gave the initial foundation for the expansion of the Tanzanian National Park authority and an increase in protected areas in the country, as of December 2015 parks and conservation areas cover about 14% percent of the land.
TANAPA is governed by the National Parks Ordinance Chapter 282 of the 2002 and manages 17 national parks. TANAPA manages 17 national parks covering an area of 57,024 km2 the land area of Croatia. TANAPA is responsible for the following parks: Arusha National Park Gombe Stream National Park Jozani Chwaka Bay National Park Katavi National Park Kilimanjaro National Park Kitulo National Park Lake Manyara National Park Mahale Mountains National Park Mikumi National Park Mkomazi National Park Ruaha National Park Rubondo Island National Park Saadani National Park Saanane Island National Park Serengeti National Park Tarangire National Park Udzungwa Mountains National Park TANAPA's main source of revenue is sourced from tourist arrivals. TANAPA in collaboration with the Tanzania Tourist Board markets the national parks locally and internationally to attract visitors. TANAPA has been mandated to promote domestic tourism, it is TANAPA's first and foremost goal to protect the wildlife and natural resources living in the park and to ensure tourists do not cause damage to the ecosystem.
The organization has received various donations of vehicles and aircraft to help train rangers with modern technology and techniques. TANAPA pays to maintain the park facilities for tourists and conservation activities such as Roads, Gates and Airstrips. TANAPA manages 26 airstrips throughout its network of national parks. Forest fires break out in the parks and it is under TANAPA's mandate to put them out; the authority has in place a Fire management plan implemented yearly which help reducing number of destructive insect e.g. tsetse fly, help reduce the amount of litter that can catalyze a fire during dry season and early burning of the grass helps facilitate new forage for animals. List of protected areas of Tanzania Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism Tanzania Wildlife Research Institute Official Website