1980 Summer Olympics
The 1980 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXII Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event held in Moscow, Soviet Union, in present-day Russia. The 1980 Games were the first Olympic Games to be staged in Eastern Europe and they were the first Olympic Games to be held in a socialist country, and the only Summer Games to be held in such a country until 2008 in Beijing, China. These were the final Olympic Games under the IOC Presidency of Michael Morris and this prompted the Soviet-led boycott of the 1984 Summer Olympics. The only two cities to bid for the 1980 Summer Olympics were Moscow and Los Angeles, the choice between them was made on 23 October 1974 in the 75th IOC Session in Vienna, Austria. Los Angeles would eventually host the 1984 Summer Olympics, eighty nations were represented at the Moscow Games – the smallest number since 1956. Six nations made their first Olympic appearance in 1980, Botswana, Laos, cyprus made its debut at the Summer Olympics, but had appeared earlier at the 1980 Winter Olympics in Lake Placid, New York.
Sri Lanka competed for the first time under its new name, Benin had competed previously as Dahomey and Zimbabwe competed for the first time under that name. The Soviet invasion spurred Jimmy Carter to issue an ultimatum on January 20,1980,65 countries and regions invited did not take part in the 1980 Olympics. Many of these followed the United States boycott initiative, while others cited economic reasons for not coming, under Ayatollah Khomeini hostile to both superpowers, boycotted when the Islamic Conference condemned the invasion. Many of the boycotting nations participated instead in the Liberty Bell Classic, known as the Olympic Boycott Games, in Philadelphia. However, the nations that did compete had won 71 percent of all medals, competitors from three countries – New Zealand and Spain – competed under the flags of their respective National Olympic Committees. Some of these teams that marched under other than their national flags were depleted by boycotts by individual athletes. The impact of the boycott was mixed, some events, such as field hockey and equestrian sports, were hard hit, while others such as boxing, rowing, swimming and field and weightlifting had more participants than in 1976.
Athletes from 25 countries won Olympic gold and competitors from 36 countries became Olympic medalists, Italy won four times more gold medals than they won in Montreal and France multiplied its gold medal tally by three. Romania won more medals than it had at any previous Olympics. In terms of medals, the Moscow Olympics was Irelands most successful games since Melbourne 1956. The same was true for Great Britain, third World athletes qualified for more events and took more medals than they did at any previous Olympics. 21 percent of the competitors were women – a higher percentage than at any previous Olympics, There were 203 events – more than at any previous Olympics
1980 Summer Olympics opening ceremony
The Opening Ceremony of the 1980 Summer Olympics was the official opening ceremony held in the afternoon at 16,00 Moscow Time on 19 July 1980 in the Grand Arena of the Central Lenin Stadium. It was attended by the Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, Leonid Brezhnev, countdown of Kremlin Clock chimes at 16,00 Moscow Time. Fanfare by the Herald Trumpeters, Moscow Fanfare by Soviet musician and composer A. Golovin Introduction of the Soviet leader, playing of the national anthem of the Soviet Union. The card stunt displays the coat of arms of the USSR, Parade of Greek chariots in the stadium, followed by red flags with the emblem of the Moscow Olympics on them. The song Stadium of my Dreams was heard, greece enters first, the Soviet Union last. Other delegations enter in Cyrillic alphabetical order Welcoming remarks by the chairman of the Moscow Olympic Organizing Committee OCOG-80, speech by the President of the International Olympic Committee, Lord Killanin, his final Olympic Opening Ceremony speech.
Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev announced the opening of the Olympic Games, the flag was carried by eight Masters of Sports of the USSR accompanied by 22 others. The flag was raised to the Olympic Anthem sung in Russian, the flame was carried into the stadium by triple jumper Viktor Saneyev. The last runner was Sergei Belov, member of the Soviet Union national basketball team, Belov ascended to the cauldron through a path of cards created by the card stunt. Olympic Oath, taken by gymnast Nikolai Andrianov Judges Oath, taken by wrestling referee Alexander Medved, salyut 6 crew Leonid Popov and Valery Ryumin sent their greetings to the Olympians and wished them happy starts in the live communication between the station and the Central Lenin Stadium. They appeared on the scoreboard and their voices were translated via loud speakers. Artistic performance Friendship of the Peoples, A dance suite featuring the traditional dances of the 15 Soviet republics, the Russian finale featured troikas and a final performance by the performers from all the republics.
The song Wide Is My Motherland was heard at the beginning, gymnasts performance, including ribbon and pommel horse displays. Misha, Scores of performers donned as Misha, the Moscow Olympics mascot, childrens performance, beginning with a boys pole horse performance, followed by a girls doll performance. Gymnastic maneuvers were done by the performance in part of the segment. Performance of acrobats and trampoline gymnastics display, appearance of five pillars in the configuration of the Olympic Rings. Each pillar held performers forming human vases, Performers from throughout the opening ceremony re-entered the stadium as the Moscow Olympics theme song Moscow Gives the Start was sung, and would exit again. The card stunt at this time was showing the Moscow 1980 Olympic logo, both the opening and closing ceremonies were shown in Yuri Ozerovs 1981 film O, You - the Peace
1976 Summer Olympics
The 1976 Montreal Summer Olympics, officially called the Games of the XXI Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event in Montreal, Quebec, in 1976, and the first Olympic Games held in Canada. Montreal was awarded the rights to the 1976 Games on May 12,1970, at the 69th IOC Session in Amsterdam, over the bids of Moscow and it is so far the only Summer Olympic Games to be held in Canada. Calgary and Vancouver hosted the Winter Olympic Games in 1988 and 2010, the vote occurred on May 12,1970, at the 69th IOC Session in Amsterdam, Netherlands. Los Angeles was eliminated after the first round and Montreal won in the second round, Moscow would go on to host the 1980 Summer Olympics and Los Angeles the 1984 Summer Olympics. One blank vote was cast in the second and final round, toronto had made its third attempt for the Olympics but failed to get the support of the Canadian Olympic Committee, which selected Montreal instead. Robert Bourassa, the Premier of Quebec, first asked Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau to advise Canadas monarch, Elizabeth II, Bourassa became unsettled about how unpopular the move might be with sovereigntists in the province, annoying Trudeau, who had already made arrangements.
The Oxford Olympics Study estimates the outturn cost of the Montreal 1976 Summer Olympics at USD6.1 billion in 2015-dollars and cost overrun at 720% in real terms. This includes sports-related costs only, that is, operational costs incurred by the committee for the purpose of staging the Games. The competition venues, the Olympic village, international broadcast center, and media and press center, the cost overrun for Montreal 1976 is the highest cost overrun on record for any Olympics. The cost and cost overrun for Montreal 1976 compares with costs of USD4.6 billion, average cost for the Summer Games since 1960 is USD5.2 billion, average cost overrun is 176%. The ceremony marked the opening of the Games of the XXI Olympiad, the queen entered the Royal Box with her consort, Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, and her son, Prince Andrew. The parade of athletes began moments with the arrival of the Greek team, All other teams entered the stadium according to French alphabetical order. Although most would eventually boycott the Games in the days to follow, much of the music performed for the parade was arranged by Vic Vogel and was inspired by late Quebec composer, André Mathieu.
Immediately following the parade, a troupe of 80 women dancers dressed in white performed a dance in the outline of the Olympic rings. Following that came the official speeches, first by Roger Rousseau, head of the Montreal Olympic organizing committee and her Majesty was invited to proclaim the Games open, which she did, first in French, in English. Accompanied by the Olympic Hymn, the Olympic flag was carried into the stadium, the flag was carried by eight men and hoisted by four women, representing the ten provinces and two territories of Canada. As the flag was hoisted, a choir performed an a cappella version of the Olympic Hymn. Once the flag was unfurled, a troupe of Bavarian dancers, representing Munich, host of the previous 1972 Summer Olympics, following a brief dance, that flag was passed from the Mayor of Munich to the IOC President and to the Mayor of Montreal
North European Basketball League
The North European Basketball League, or Northern European Basketball League, was a short-lived basketball league founded in 1998 by Šarūnas Marčiulionis. In 1999, the first competition took place involving eight teams from aforementioned countries, eventually the tournament started to lose its regional characteristics involving more clubs from Central and Eastern Europe, from Southern Europe and even from Israel and Turkey. There were 31 teams from 19 countries participating in 2001–2002 tournament, the Final Four of the NEBL was always played in Vilnius, Lithuania. By 2002, top clubs like CSKA Moscow, Žalgiris and Maccabi lost their interest in the competition in favor to newly organized and much more commercially attractive Euroleague. In season 2002–2003 a body of the tournament wasnt held - the four best teams of Northern Conference FIBA Champions Cup played for last NEBL title in Final Four. The NEBL would be transformed into todays Baltic Basketball League with the ten best basketball teams from Lithuania and Estonia participating in it,20 April 2000 The Baltic Times
PBC CSKA Moscow
PBC CSKA Moscow is a Russian professional basketball team that is based in Moscow, Russia. The club, currently owned by Norilsk Nickel, is a member of the VTB United League and the EuroLeague. It is often referred to in the West as Red Army or the Red Army team for its past affiliation with the Armed Forces sports society, which was associated with the Soviet Army. In their second most recent EuroLeague championship in 2008, they defeated Israeli powerhouse Maccabi Tel Aviv, 77–91, CSKA lost in the 2007 final 93–91 to Panathinaikos on the Greens home floor, the Nikos Galis Olympic Indoor Hall in Athens. In 2008, they won a rematch of the 2006 final against Maccabi 91–77 in Madrid, in 2009, they lost a rematch of the 2007 final against Panathinaikos 73–71 in Berlin. The club competed in 8 consecutive EuroLeague Final Fours from 2003 to 2010, over many years, CSKA has the reputation for being one of the richest clubs in Europe. CSKA was founded on 29 April 2013, known as OPPV, OPPV, which means Опытно-показательная военно-спортивная площадка всевобуча, a department in the General military education service, was the first central sports deparment of the Red Army.
It was based on the pre-revolutionary Community of Amateur Skiers, the first success of the basketball department came at the 1924 Soviet Championship, which was played between cities, not clubs. Two more titles followed in 1928 and 1935, in 1938, the Soviet Championships were played between clubs, and CSKA under the name CDKA debuted there. By the end of the Great Patriotic War, CSKA established itself as one of the most respected Soviet basketball teams. In 1953 and 1954, the club was renamed CDSA, between 1955–60 it was known as CSK MO, and finally in 1960 it received its current name CSKA, CSKA has had a long history of success. They won the European Cup in 1961,1963,1969, and 1971, won the Soviet Championship 24 times, and won the Russian League title every year from 1992 through 2000, and 2003 through 2013. CSKA made the Final Four of the EuroLeague in 1996,2004, though CSKA eventually lost in the semifinals on their home court to Spanish League club Tau Cerámica and to Panathinaikos of the Greek League in the third-place game.
That sent them to the 2nd grade teams in the EuroLeague draw and that same year they lost a game in the finals series of the Russian League, but they eventually got the Russian League crown. In 2006, CSKA qualified for the 2005–06 Euroleague Top 16 by finishing third in their group and they finished at the top of their Top 16 group, being denied a perfect record at Tau in their final match. CSKA entered the Final Four on a roll as the club to sweep their best-of-three quarterfinal series defeating Turkish League power Efes Pilsen. Panathinaikos won a closely fought battle, in 2008, their EuroLeague win put them in sole possession of second place for overall European titles. Only Real Madrid, with nine titles, had won more than CSKAs six titles at the time, on October 14,2008, the team played a NBA preseason game with the Toronto Raptors at Air Canada Centre in Toronto
1968 Summer Olympics
The 1968 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XIX Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event held in Mexico City, Mexico, in October 1968. These were the first Olympic Games to be staged in Latin America and they were the first Games to use an all-weather track for track and field events instead of the traditional cinder track. The 1968 Games were the third to be held in the last quarter of the year, after the 1956 Games in Melbourne, the Mexican Student Movement of 1968 happened concurrently and the Olympic Games were correlated to the governments repression. On October 18,1963, at the 60th IOC Session in Baden-Baden, West Germany, Mexico City finished ahead of bids from Detroit, Buenos Aires and Lyon to host the Games. The 1968 torch relay recreated the route taken by Christopher Columbus to the New World, journeying from Greece through Italy and Spain to San Salvador Island, and on to Mexico. American sculptor James Metcalf, an expatriate in Mexico, won the commission to forge the Olympic torch for the 1968 Summer Games, the Australian Peter Norman, who had run second, wore an American civil rights badge as support to them on the podium.
As punishment, the IOC banned Smith and Carlos from the Olympic Games for life, American George Foreman won the gold medal for boxing by defeating Soviet Ionas Chepulis via a second-round TKO. After the victory, Foreman waved a small American flag as he bowed to the crowd, the high elevation of Mexico City, at 2,240 m above sea level, influenced many of the events, particularly in track and field. No other Summer Olympic Games before or since have been held at high elevation, as a reminder of this fact, one of the promotional articles of these Olympics was a small metallic box labeled Aire de México, that was Especial para batir récords. The tracks at previous Olympics were conventional cinder, for the first time and West Germany competed as separate teams, after being forced by the IOC to compete as a combined German team in 1956,1960, and 1964. Beethovens Ode to Joy was played when East and West Germany arrived in the stadium. Al Oerter of the U. S. won his fourth gold medal in the discus to become only the second athlete to achieve this feat in an individual event.
Bob Beamon of the U. S. leapt 8.90 m in the long jump and it remained the Olympic record and stood as the world record for 23 years, until broken by American Mike Powell in 1991. American athletes Jim Hines, Tommie Smith and Lee Evans set long-standing world records in the 100 m,200 m and 400 m, in the triple jump, the previous world record was improved five times by three different athletes. Viktor Saneev won the first of three gold medals in this event. Dick Fosbury of the U. S. won the medal in the high jump using his unconventional Fosbury flop technique. Věra Čáslavská of Czechoslovakia won four medals in gymnastics. Debbie Meyer of the U. S. became the first swimmer to win three gold medals, in the 200,400 and 800 m freestyle events
Russia, officially the Russian Federation, is a country in Eurasia. The European western part of the country is more populated and urbanised than the eastern. Russias capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world, other urban centers include Saint Petersburg, Yekaterinburg, Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a range of environments. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk, the East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, in 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus ultimately disintegrated into a number of states, most of the Rus lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion. The Soviet Union played a role in the Allied victory in World War II.
The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the worlds first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the second largest economy, largest standing military in the world. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic, the Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russias extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the producers of oil. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction, Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. The name Russia is derived from Rus, a state populated mostly by the East Slavs. However, this name became more prominent in the history, and the country typically was called by its inhabitants Русская Земля.
In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus by modern historiography, an old Latin version of the name Rus was Ruthenia, mostly applied to the western and southern regions of Rus that were adjacent to Catholic Europe. The current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Kievan Rus, the standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is Russians in English and rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are translated into English as Russians
Perm is a city and the administrative center of Perm Krai, located on the banks of the Kama River in the European part of Russia near the Ural Mountains. According to the 2010 Census, Perms population is 991,162, as of the 2010 Census, the city was the thirteenth most populous in Russia. From 1940 to 1957 it was named Molotov, the name Perm is of Finno-Ugric etymology, likely of Uralic origin. Komi is a member of the Permic group of Finno-Ugric languages, in Finnish and Vepsian perämaa means far-away land, similarly, in Hungarian perem means edge or verge. The geologic period of the Permian takes its name from the toponym, the city is located on the bank of the Kama River upon hilly terrain. The Kama is the tributary of the Volga River and one of the deepest and most picturesque rivers of Russia. This river is the waterway which grants the Ural Mountains access to the White Sea, Baltic Sea, Sea of Azov, Black Sea, the Kama divides the city into two parts, the central part and the right bank part.
The city stretches for 70 kilometers along the Kama and 40 kilometers across it, the city street grid parallels the Kama River, traveling generally east-west, while other main streets run perpendicularly to those following the river. The grid pattern accommodates the hills of the city where it crosses them, another distinguishing feature of the citys relief is the large quantity of small rivers and brooks. The largest of them are the Mulyanka, the Yegoshikha, the Motovilikha, Perm has a continental climate with warm summers and long, cold winters. Perm is located in the old Perman area, which was inhabited by Finno-Ugric peoples. Perm was first mentioned as the village of Yagoshikha in 1647, vasily Tatishchev, appointed by the Tsar as a chief manager of Ural factories, founded Perm together with another major center of the Ural region, Yekaterinburg. In 1870, a theater was opened in the city. In 1916, Perm State University—a major educational institution in modern Russia—was opened, after the outbreak of the Russian Civil War, Perm became a prime target for both sides because of its military munitions factories.
On December 25,1918, the Siberian White Army under Anatoly Pepelyayev, on July 1,1919, the city was retaken by the Red Army. In the 1930s, Perm grew as an industrial city with aviation, shipbuilding. During the Great Patriotic War, Perm was a center of artillery production in the Soviet Union. During the cold war, Perm became a closed city, the city is a major administrative, industrial and cultural center