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Sergei Kirov

Sergei Mironovich Kirov was a prominent Russian revolutionary and a Soviet politician. He was a close, personal friend to Joseph Stalin, his death in 1934 was used as a pretext to launch the Great Purge. An Old Bolshevik, Kirov took part in early revolutionary activities against Tsarist Russia, for which he was arrested and imprisoned several times, he rose through the Communist Party ranks to become head of the party organisation in Leningrad and a member of the Politburo. On 1 December 1934, Kirov was killed by a gunman at his offices in the Smolny Institute. There is a widespread belief that Joseph Stalin and elements of the NKVD were behind Kirov's assassination, but evidence for this claim remains lacking. Kirov's death was used as a pretext for Stalin's escalation of repression against dissident elements of the party, culminating in the Great Purge of the late 1930s in which many of the Old Bolsheviks were arrested, expelled from the party, executed. Complicity in Kirov's assassination was a common charge to which the accused confessed in the show trials of the period.

The cities of Kirov, Kirovohrad and Kirovabad, as well as a uncountable number of Kirovsk, Kirovo and other derivatives, were renamed in Kirov's honour after his assassination. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union and Kirovabad returned to their original names: Vanadzor and Ganja, respectively. In order to comply with decommunisation laws, Kirovohrad was renamed in July 2016 by the Ukrainian parliament to Kropyvnytskyi. Sergey Kirov was born Sergei Mironovich Kostrikov into a poor family in Urzhum as one of seven children born to Miron Ivanovich Kostrikov and Yekaterina Kuzminichna Kostrikova. Miron, an alcoholic, abandoned the family around 1890. In 1893, Yekaterina died of tuberculosis; the children's paternal grandmother, Melania Avdeyevna Kostrikova, raised Sergey and his sisters for a brief time, but she could not afford to take care of them all on her small pension of 3 rubles per month. Through her connections, she succeeded in having Sergey placed in an orphanage, but he saw his sisters and grandmother regularly.

In 1901, a group of wealthy benefactors provided a scholarship for him to attend an industrial school at Kazan. After gaining his degree in engineering he moved to Tomsk in Siberia. Kirov became a Marxist and joined the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party in 1904. Kirov took part in the 1905 Russian Revolution and was arrested and released, he joined with the Bolsheviks soon after being released from prison. In 1906, Kirov was arrested once again, but this time jailed for over three years, charged with printing illegal literature. Soon after his release, he again took part in revolutionary activity. Once again being arrested for printing illegal literature, after a year of custody, Kostrikov moved to the Caucasus, where he stayed until the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II. By this time, Sergei Kostrikov had changed his name to Kirov in order to make his name easier to remember, a practice common among Russian revolutionaries of the time. Kostrikov began using the pen name "Kir", first publishing under the pseudonym "Kirov" on 26 April 1912.

One account states that he chose the name "Kir", after a Christian martyr in third-century Egypt from an Orthodox calendar of saints' days, russifying it by adding an "-ov" ending. A second story is. Kirov became commander of the Bolshevik military administration in Astrakhan. Following the Russian Revolution of 1917, he fought in the Russian Civil War until 1920. Simon Sebag Montefiore writes: "During the Civil War, Kirov was one of the swashbuckling commissars in the North Caucasus beside Ordzhonikidze and Mikoyan. In Astrakhan he enforced Bolshevik power in March 1919 with liberal bloodletting; when a bourgeois was caught hiding his own furniture, Kirov ordered him shot." In 1921, he became manager of the Azerbaijan party organisation. Kirov was a loyal supporter of Joseph Stalin, in 1926 he was rewarded with the command of the Leningrad party organisation. Kirov was a close, personal friend of Stalin, a strong supporter of industrialisation and forced collectivisation. At the 16th Congress of the All-Union Communist Party in 1930 he stated: "The General Party line is to conduct the course of our country industrialisation.

Based on the industrialisation, we conduct the transformation of our agriculture. Namely we centralise and collectivise."At the 17th Congress of the All-Union Communist Party, in 1934, Kirov delivered the speech called "The Speech of Comrade Stalin Is the Program of Our Party", which refers to Stalin's speech delivered at the Congress earlier. Kirov praised Stalin for everything. Moreover, he named and ridiculed Nikolai Bukharin, Alexei Rykov and Mikhail Tomsky. Bukharin and Rykov were tried in the show trial called The Trial of the Twenty-One. Tomsky committed suicide expecting the arrest. Kirov did display some independence. Knight suggests that whereas Kirov'might have toed the line as others did', on the other hand he might have acted as a rallying point for those'who wanted to oppose his dictatorship.' Further, Knight suggests that Kirov'would not have been a willing accomplice when the full force of Stalin’s terror was unleashed in Leningrad. Knight’s contention is supported by the fact that whereas most of the elite tried to anticipate what Stalin d

Iduronic acid

L-Iduronic acid is the major uronic acid component of the glycosaminoglycans dermatan sulfate, heparin. It is present in heparan sulfate although here in a minor amount relative to its carbon-5 epimer glucuronic acid. IdoA is a hexapyranose sugar. Most hexapyranoses are stable in one of two chair conformations 1C4 or 4C1. L-iduronate is different and adopts more than one solution conformation, with an equilibrium existing between three low-energy conformers; these are an additional 2S0 skew-boat conformation. IdoA may be modified by the addition of an O-sulfate group at carbon position 2 to form 2-O-sulfo-l-iduronic acid. In 2000, LK Hallak described the importance of this sugar in respiratory syncytial virus infection. Dermatan sulfate and heparan sulfate were the only GAGs containing IdoA, they were the only ones that inhibited RSV infection in cell culture; when internally positioned within an oligosaccharide, the 1C4 and 2S0 conformations predominate. Proton NMR spectroscopy can be used to track changes in the balance of this equilibrium

Martin Sullivan (priest)

Martin Gloster Sullivan was an Anglican Dean in the third quarter of the 20th century. He was educated at Auckland Grammar School and the University of Auckland, he began his career with a curacy at St Matthew's, Auckland. After that he held incumbencies at Te Awamutu. During the Second World War he was a Chaplain to the Forces and when peace returned Principal of College House, Christchurch. In 1950 he was appointed Dean of vicar-general. Moving to London he was appointed Rector of St Mary's, Bryanston Square in 1962 Archdeacon of London the following year. In 1967 he became Dean of St Paul's, a post he held for a decade. An eminent author. In 1965, he was made a Freeman of the City of London, he had married Doris Rosie Grant Cowen in 1934 and remarried Elizabeth Roberton in St Paul's Cathedral in 1973. He had no children. Sullivan died in 1980 at Auckland University. "Sullivan, Martin Gloster". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. Retrieved 30 December 2012

Rockdale, Kentucky

Rockdale is an unincorporated community in Boyd County, United States, located south of Ashland. It is located on Midland Trail at its intersection of Kentucky Route 538 and corridor into the city of Ashland, it was a rural area until the 1970s, when a large subdivision began development, with several hundred tract houses. Rockdale is a part of the Huntington-Ashland Metropolitan Statistical Area; as of the 2010 census, the MSA had a population of 287,702. New definitions from February 28, 2013 placed the population at 363,000. Boyd County Public Schools Chamber of Commerce

Prime Press

Prime Press, Inc. was a science fiction and fantasy small press specialty publishing house founded in 1947. It published a number of interesting science fiction books in its brief four-year lifespan, it was founded by Oswald Train, James A. Williams, Alfred C. Prime, Armand E. Waldo who were all members of the Philadelphia Science Fiction Society; the founders intended that the press focus on writers living in the Philadelphia area or associated with PSFS. In 1950, Prime and Waldo asked Train to buy them out. Williams died in 1951. Train was unable to continue the press on his own, their next book was to have been Lost Continents, by L. Sprague de Camp. Prime had printed the signatures, but handed the project off to Gnome Press who bound them with a new title page; the Mislaid Charm, by Alexander M. Phillips Venus Equilateral, by George O. Smith Equality, and Some Were Human, by Lester del Rey It!, by Theodore Sturgeon Without Sorcery, by Theodore Sturgeon The Torch, by Jack Bechdolt Lest Darkness Fall, by L. Sprague de Camp The Homunculus, by David H. Keller, M.

D. Lords of Creation, by Eando Binder Exiles of Time, by Nelson S. Bond The Eternal Conflict, by David H. Keller, M. D. Three Hundred Years Hence, by Mary Griffith The Incomplete Enchanter, by L. Sprague de Camp Nomad, by George O. Smith The Wolf Leader, by Alexandre Dumas and edited by L. Sprague de Camp The Lady Decides, by David H. Keller, M. D; the Blind Spot, by Austin Hall and Homer Eon Flint, by PrimePress Media India Inc. Chalker, Jack L.. The Science-Fantasy Publishers: A Bibliographic History, 1923-1998. Westminster, MD and Baltimore: Mirage Press, Ltd. pp. 529–533. Clute, John; the Encyclopedia of Science Fiction. New York: St. Martin's Griffin. P. 961. ISBN 0-312-13486-X. Eshbach, Lloyd Arthur. Over My Shoulder: Reflections on a Science Fiction Era. Philadelphia: Oswald Train. Pp. 181–201. OCLC 10489084

Tooth worm

The idea of a tooth worm is an erroneous theory of the cause of dental caries and toothaches. Once widespread, the belief is now obsolete, it was supposed that the disease was caused by small worms resident within the tooth, eating it away. The origins of the belief are wrapped in obscurity. A prominent early mention, a Babylonian cuneiform tablet titled "The Legend of the Worm", recounts how the tooth worm drinks the blood and eats the roots of the teeth – causing caries and periodontitis: "After Anu,Heaven had created,The earth had created the rivers,The rivers had created the canals,The canals had created the marsh, the marsh had created the worm—The worm went, before Shamash, his tears flowing before Ea: "What wilt thou give for my food? What wilt thou give me for my sucking?""I shall give thee the ripe fig, the apricot.""Of what use are they to me, the ripe fig and the apricot? Lift me up and among the teeth and the gums cause me to dwell! The blood of the tooth I will suck, of the gum I will gnaw its roots!"Accounts are found in the Central American legends of Popol Vuh.

The belief persisted into the 18th century, only being disproven by the microscopical endeavors of M. Pierre Fauchard. Modern veterinary practice shows that when removed intact, the necrotic or necrotic tooth pulp can have an appearance like that of a worm. Sinhalese Charm for toothache: Ira deyené asyā! Sanda deyené aeyā! Passé Buduné acyā! Daté nositoo dat aeyā! Worm of the sun-god! Worm of the moon god! Worm of the Passé Buddha! Stay not in the tooth, tou tooth-worm! Although no rigorous evidence was found, some practitioners believed the pulpal tissue within the root of the tooth to in fact be a worm. Most however admitted to have never encountered a worm in vivo, but nonetheless encouraged the belief among the general public. A 2009 study by the University of Maryland Baltimore using micro imaging revealed worm like structures within a dissected molar; these structures, while not worms or caused by worms may have given rise to the Tooth Worm belief. It is unclear what caused them. Media related to Tooth worm at Wikimedia Commons