An actor is a person who portrays a character in a performance. The actor performs "in the flesh" in the traditional medium of the theatre or in modern media such as film and television; the analogous Greek term is ὑποκριτής "one who answers". The actor's interpretation of their role—the art of acting—pertains to the role played, whether based on a real person or fictional character. Interpretation occurs when the actor is "playing themselves", as in some forms of experimental performance art. In ancient Greece and Rome, the medieval world, the time of William Shakespeare, only men could become actors, women's roles were played by men or boys. After the English Restoration of 1660, women began to appear on stage in England. In modern times in pantomime and some operas, women play the roles of boys or young men. After 1660 in England, when women first started to appear on stage, the terms actor or actress were used interchangeably for female performers, but influenced by the French actrice, actress became the used term for women in theater and film.
The etymology is a simple derivation from actor with -ess added. When referring to groups of performers of both sexes, actors is preferred. Actor is used before the full name of a performer as a gender-specific term. Within the profession, the re-adoption of the neutral term dates to the post-war period of the 1950 and'60s, when the contributions of women to cultural life in general were being reviewed; when The Observer and The Guardian published their new joint style guide in 2010, it stated "Use for both male and female actors. The guide's authors stated that "actress comes into the same category as authoress, manageress,'lady doctor','male nurse' and similar obsolete terms that date from a time when professions were the preserve of one sex.". "As Whoopi Goldberg put it in an interview with the paper:'An actress can only play a woman. I'm an actor – I can play anything.'" The UK performers' union Equity has no policy on the use of "actor" or "actress". An Equity spokesperson said that the union does not believe that there is a consensus on the matter and stated that the "...subject divides the profession".
In 2009, the Los Angeles Times stated that "Actress" remains the common term used in major acting awards given to female recipients. With regard to the cinema of the United States, the gender-neutral term "player" was common in film in the silent film era and the early days of the Motion Picture Production Code, but in the 2000s in a film context, it is deemed archaic. However, "player" remains in use in the theatre incorporated into the name of a theatre group or company, such as the American Players, the East West Players, etc. Actors in improvisational theatre may be referred to as "players". In 2015, Forbes reported that "...just 21 of the 100 top-grossing films of 2014 featured a female lead or co-lead, while only 28.1% of characters in 100 top-grossing films were female...". "In the U. S. there is an "industry-wide in salaries of all scales. On average, white women get paid 78 cents to every dollar a white man makes, while Hispanic women earn 56 cents to a white male's dollar, Black women 64 cents and Native American women just 59 cents to that."
Forbes' analysis of US acting salaries in 2013 determined that the "...men on Forbes' list of top-paid actors for that year made 21/2 times as much money as the top-paid actresses. That means that Hollywood's best-compensated actresses made just 40 cents for every dollar that the best-compensated men made." The first recorded case of a performing actor occurred in 534 BC when the Greek performer Thespis stepped onto the stage at the Theatre Dionysus to become the first known person to speak words as a character in a play or story. Prior to Thespis' act, Grecian stories were only expressed in song, in third person narrative. In honor of Thespis, actors are called Thespians; the male actors in the theatre of ancient Greece performed in three types of drama: tragedy and the satyr play. Western theatre developed and expanded under the Romans; the theatre of ancient Rome was a thriving and diverse art form, ranging from festival performances of street theatre, nude dancing, acrobatics, to the staging of situation comedies, to high-style, verbally elaborate tragedies.
As the Western Roman Empire fell into decay through the 4th and 5th centuries, the seat of Roman power shifted to Constantinople and the Byzantine Empire. Records show that mime, scenes or recitations from tragedies and comedies and other entertainments were popular. From the 5th century, Western Europe was plunged into a period of general disorder. Small nomadic bands of actors traveled around Europe throughout the period, performing wherever they could find an audience. Traditionally, actors were not of high status. Early Middle Ages actors were denounced by the Church during the Dark Ages, as they were viewed as dangerous and pagan. In many parts of Europe, traditional beliefs of the region and time period meant actors could not receive a Christian burial. In the Early Middle Ages, churches in Europe began staging dramatized versions of biblical events. By the middle of the 11th century, liturgical drama had spread from Russia to Scandinavia
Libero Burro is a 1999 Italian comedy film. The film marked the debut as screenwriter of Sergio Castellitto, it premiered, out of competition, at 56th Venice Film Festival. The film won the Grand Prix at the Mons International Film Festival. Sergio Castellitto as Libero Burro Margaret Mazzantini as Caterina Clavarino Michel Piccoli as Uncle Toni Chiara Mastroianni as Rosa Agnello Robert Hundar as Tito Giovanni Visentin as Dr. Raffaele Pomba Gian Fabio Bosco as Mario Agnello Bruno Armando as Gaetano Novaro List of Italian films of 1999 Libero Burro on IMDb
Carcerato (1981 film)
Carcerato is a 1981 Italian melodrama film written and directed by Alfonso Brescia and starring Mario Merola. Mario Merola as Francesco Improta Regina Bianchi as Donna Assunta, Francesco's Mother Biagio Pelligra as Nicola Esposito Erika Blanc as Lucia, Francesco's Wife Marta Zoffoli as Fiorella, Francesco's Daughter Aldo Giuffré as Peppino Ascalone Antonio Allocca as Pasqualino Lucio Montanaro as Ciccio Nino Vingelli as The Professor Giorgio Ardisson as The Commissioner Sergio Castellitto as Scapricciatiello Michele Esposito as Gennarino Pamela Paris as Donna Maria Lucio Rosato as Brigadiere List of Italian films of 1981 Carcerato on IMDb
Luigi Squarzina was an Italian theatre dramatist and director. Born in Livorno, Squarzina studied in Rome, at the Liceo Classico Tasso, where he had Vittorio Gassman as classmate, he got a degree cum laude in Law he graduated as a director at the Silvio d’Amico Academy of Dramatic Arts. He debuted as a stage director in 1944 with an adaptation of Steinbeck's Of Men. In 1949, Squarzina debuted as a playwright with The Universal Exhibition, never represented in Italy due to censorship. After directing the Teatro Ateneo in Rome, in 1952 he co-founded with Vittorio Gassman the Teatro d'arte italiano. Squarzina directed the Teatro Stabile in Genoa between 1972 and 1976 and the Teatro Stabile in Rome, from 1976 to 1983. Squarzina was active as a scholar and as a director of the theater section of the Encyclopedia of Performing Arts by Silvio D'Amico, he was an occasional actor, for his debut performance in Francesco Rosi's The Mattei Affair he won the Silver Ribbon for best new actor. Fabio Nicolosi.
Squarzina e Pirandello. Dalla matrice narrativa alla realizzazione scenic. Aracne, 2012. Pp. 800. ISBN 8854853488. Luigi Squarzina on IMDb
Marcello Vincenzo Domenico Mastroianni was an Italian film actor. His prominent films include: La Dolce Vita, his honours included British Film Academy Awards, Best Actor awards at the Cannes Film Festival and two Golden Globe Awards. Mastroianni was born in Fontana Liri, a small village in the Apennines in the province of Frosinone and grew up in Turin and Rome, he was the son of Ida and Ottone Mastroianni, who ran a carpentry shop, the nephew of sculptor Umberto Mastroianni. During World War II, after the division into Axis and Allied Italy, he was interned in a loosely guarded German prison camp, from which he escaped to hide in Venice, his brother Ruggero Mastroianni was a film editor who edited a number of his brother's films, appeared alongside Marcello in Scipione detto anche l'Africano, a spoof of the once popular sword and sandal film genre released in 1971. Mastroianni made his screen debut as an uncredited extra in Marionette when he was fourteen, made intermittent minor film appearances until landing his first big role in Atto d'accusa.
Within a decade he became a major international celebrity. Mastroianni followed La Dolce Vita with another signature role, that of a film director who, amidst self-doubt and troubled love affairs, finds himself in a creative block while making a movie in Fellini's 8½, his other prominent films include Days of Love with Marina Vlady. He was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actor three times: for Divorce Italian Style, A Special Day and Dark Eyes. Mastroianni, Dean Stockwell and Jack Lemmon are the only actors to have been twice awarded the Best Actor at the Cannes Film Festival. Mastroianni won it in 1970 in 1987 for Dark Eyes. Mastroianni starred alongside his daughter, Chiara Mastroianni, in Raúl Ruiz's Three Lives and Only One Death in 1996. For this performance he won the Silver Wave Award at the Ft. Lauderdale International Film Festival, his final film, Voyage to the Beginning of the World, was released posthumously. Mastroianni married Flora Carabella on 12 August 1950, they had one daughter together, but separated in 1970 because of his affairs with younger women.
Mastroianni's first serious relationship after the separation was with Faye Dunaway, his co-star in A Place for Lovers. Dunaway wanted to marry and have children, but Mastroianni, a Catholic, refused to divorce Carabella. In 1971, after three years of waiting for Mastroianni to change his mind, Dunaway left him. Decades Dunaway said: "I wish to this day it had worked out."Mastroianni had a daughter, Chiara Mastroianni, with French actress Catherine Deneuve, nearly 20 years his junior and lived with him for four years in the 1970s. During that time, the couple made four movies together: It Only Happens to Others, La cagna, A Slightly Pregnant Man and Don't Touch the White Woman!. After Mastroianni and Deneuve broke up, Carabella offered to adopt Chiara because her parents' work kept them away so often. Deneuve would have none of it. According to People magazine, Mastroianni's other lovers included actresses Anouk Aimee, Ursula Andress, Claudia Cardinale and Lauren Hutton. Around 1976, he became involved with an author and filmmaker.
They remained together until his death. He was made a Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic in 1994. Mastroianni died of pancreatic cancer on 19 December 1996 at the age of 72. Both of his daughters, as well as Deneuve and Tatò, were at his bedside; the Trevi Fountain in Rome, associated with his role in Fellini's La Dolce Vita, was symbolically turned off and draped in black as a tribute. At the 1997 Venice Film Festival, Chiara and Deneuve tried to block the screening of Tatò's four-hour documentary, Marcello Mastroianni: I Remember; the festival refused and the movie was shown. The three women tried to do the same thing at Cannes. Tatò said. David di Donatello Best Actor 1964 Yesterday and Tomorrow 1965 Marriage Italian Style 1986 Ginger and Fred 1988 Dark Eyes 1995 Sostiene Pereira 1983 Carrer David 1995 Special David 1997 Carrer David (post
Gianni Amelio is an Italian film director. Amelio was born in province of Catanzaro, Calabria, his father moved to Argentina soon after his birth. He spent his adolescence with his mother and his grandmother; the absence of a paternal figures will be a constant in Amelio's future works. During his university studies of philosophy in Messina, Amelio got interested in cinema, writing as film critic for a local magazine. In 1965 he moved to Rome, where he worked as operator and assistant director for figures such as Liliana Cavani and Vittorio De Seta, he worked for television, directing documentaries and advertisements. Amelio's first important work is the TV film La città del sole, directed in 1973 for RAI TV and inspired to Tommaso Campanella's work; this was followed by Bertolucci secondo il cinema a documentary about 1900 shooting, the thriller Effetti speciali. Two years he directed the mystery La morte al lavoro, which won prizes at Locarno and Hyères festivals. Il piccolo Archimede of 1979 was critically acclaimed.
In 1982 he debuted for cinema proper with Colpire al cuore, about Italian terrorism, presented at the Venice Film Festival. In 1987 Amelio released I ragazzi di via Panisperna, about the lives of 1930 Italian physicists such as Enrico Fermi and Edoardo Amaldi, which won the award for best screenplay at the Bari Film Festival. 1989's Porte aperte, featuring Gian Maria Volontè, confirmed Amelio's status as one of Italy's best film directors and won a nomination as Best Foreign Film at 1991 Academy Awards. The film received 4 Felix, 2 Silver Ribbon, 4 David di Donatello and 3 Golden Globes awards. Successful was Il ladro di bambini in 1992, which won the Special Prize of Jury at the 1992 Cannes Film Festival plus two Silver Ribbon and 5 David di Donatello. In 1994 Lamerica, about Albanian immigration in Italy, repeated the fate and the success, with 2 Silver Ribbons and 3 Davids. Four years Così ridevano won the Golden Lion at the Venice Film Festival. Amelio gained another Silver Ribbon as best director for Le chiavi di casa, inspired to a novel by Giuseppe Pontiggia, of 2004.
Amelio was a member of jury at the Cannes Film Festival in 1995. In 2006 he released his eighth feature film, La stella che non c'è, featuring Sergio Castellitto. From 2009 to 2012 he has been director of Turin. Amelio came out as gay late in life, shortly before the release of his 2014 documentary Happy to be Different. La città del sole Effetti speciali Bertolucci secondo il cinema La morte al lavoro Il piccolo Archimede I velieri Colpire al cuore I ragazzi di via Panisperna Porte aperte Il ladro di bambini Lamerica Così ridevano Le chiavi della casa La stella che non c'è Le Premier Homme / Il primo uomo L'intrepido Felice chi è diverso La Tenerezza Nastro d'Argento Best Director Open Doors The Stolen Children Lamerica The Keys to the House Leone d'Oro at Venice Film Festival Così ridevano European Film Awards Best Film Porte aperte The Stolen Children Lamerica Academic article on Lamerica, See link: https://www.academia.edu/3379912/Inside_the_Beasts_Cage_Gianni_Amelios_Lamerica_and_the_Dilemmas_of_Post-1989_Leftist_Cinema Raccontare i sentimenti.
Il Cinema di Gianni Amelio, a cura di Sebastiano Gesù, Giuseppe Maimone Editore, Catania 2008 ISBN 978-88-7751-274-1 Gianni Amelio on IMDb GreenCine interviews Gianni Amelio, conducted by NPR's David D'Arcy
The Italians are a Romance ethnic group and nation native to the Italian peninsula and its neighbouring insular territories. Most Italians share a common culture, ancestry or language. All Italian nationals are citizens of the Italian Republic, regardless of ancestry or nation of residence and may be distinguished from people of Italian descent without Italian citizenship and from ethnic Italians living in territories adjacent to the Italian Peninsula without Italian citizenship; the majority of Italian nationals are speakers of a regional variety thereof. However, many of them speak another regional or minority language native to Italy. In 2017, in addition to about 55 million Italians in Italy, Italian-speaking autonomous groups are found in neighbouring nations: a quarter million are in Switzerland, a large population is in France, the entire population of San Marino, there are smaller groups in Slovenia and Croatia in Istria and Dalmatia; because of the wide-ranging diaspora, about 5 million Italian citizens and nearly 80 million people of full or partial Italian ancestry live outside their own homeland, which include the 62.5% of Argentina's population, 1/3 of Uruguayans, 40% of Paraguayans, 15% of Brazilians, people in other parts of Europe bordering Italy, the Americas and the Middle East.
Italians have influenced and contributed to diverse fields, notably the arts and music and technology, cuisine, jurisprudence and business both abroad and worldwide. Furthermore, Italian people are known for their localism, both regionalist and municipalist; the Latin name Italia according to Strabo's Geographica was used by Greeks to indicate the southwestern tip of the Italian peninsula, corresponding to the current region of Calabria, from the strait of Messina to the line connecting the gulf of Salerno and gulf of Taranto. It most originates with Oscan Víteliú, meaning "land of young cattle"; the bull was a symbol of the southern Italic tribes and was depicted goring the Roman wolf as a defiant symbol of free Italy during the Social War. The name was extended to include all the Italian peninsula south of the Rubicon, still by the end of the 1st century BC, to all of the peninsula and beyond. Latin Italicus as a substantive meaning "a man of Italy" is first recorded in Pliny the Elder, Letters 9.23.
The adjective italianus, from which are derived the Italian name of the Italians is medieval. The Italian peninsula was divided into a multitude of tribal or ethnic territory prior to the Roman conquest of Italy in the 3rd century BC. After a series of wars between Greeks and Etruscans, the Latins, with Rome as their capital, gained the ascendancy by 272 BC, completed the conquest of the Italian peninsula by 218 BC; this period of unification was followed by one of conquest in the Mediterranean, beginning with the First Punic War against Carthage. In the course of the century-long struggle against Carthage, the Romans conquered Sicily and Corsica. In 146 BC, at the conclusion of the Third Punic War, with Carthage destroyed and its inhabitants enslaved, Rome became the dominant power in the Mediterranean; the process of Italian unification, the associated Romanization, culminated in 88 BC, when, in the aftermath of the Social War, Rome granted its Italian allies full rights in Roman society, extending Roman citizenship to all Italic peoples.
From its inception, Rome was a republican city-state, but four famous civil conflicts destroyed the republic: Lucius Cornelius Sulla against Gaius Marius and his son, Julius Caesar against Pompey, Marcus Junius Brutus and Gaius Cassius Longinus against Mark Antony and Octavian, Mark Antony against Octavian. Octavian, the final victor, was accorded the title of Augustus by the Senate and thereby became the first Roman emperor. Augustus created for the first time an administrative region called Italia with inhabitants called "Italicus populus", stretching from the Alps to Sicily: for this reason historians like Emilio Gentile called him Father of Italians. In the 1st century BC, Italia was still a collection of territories with different political statuses; some cities, called municipia, had some independence from Rome, while others, the coloniae, were founded by the Romans themselves. Around 7 BC, Augustus divided Italy into eleven regiones. During the Crisis of the Third Century the Roman Empire nearly collapsed under the combined pressures of invasions, military anarchy and civil wars, hyperinflation.
In 284, emperor Diocletian restored political stability. The importance of Rome declined; the seats of the Caesars were Augusta Treverorum for Constantius Chlorus and Sirmium (on the Riv