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Sergio Osmeña

Sergio Osmeña Sr. was a Filipino politician who served as the fourth President of the Philippines from 1944 to 1946. He was Vice President under Manuel L. Quezon. Upon Quezon's sudden death in 1944, Osmeña succeeded him at age 65, becoming the oldest person to assume the Philippine presidency until 71-year-old Rodrigo Duterte took office in 2016. A founder of the Nacionalista Party, Osmeña was the first Visayan to become president. Prior to his accession in 1944, Osmeña served as Governor of Cebu from 1906 to 1907, Member and first Speaker of the Philippine House of Representatives from 1907 to 1922, Senator from the 10th Senatorial District for thirteen years, in which capacity he served as Senate President pro tempore. In 1935, he was nominated to be the running-mate of Senate President Manuel L. Quezon for the presidential election that year; the duo were overwhelmingly re-elected in 1941. He was the patriarch of the prominent Osmeña family, which includes his son, former Senator Sergio Osmeña Jr. and his grandsons, senators Sergio Osmeña III and John Henry Osmeña, ex-governor Lito Osmeña and Cebu City mayor Tomas Osmeña.

Osmeña was born in Cebu City to Juana Osmeña y Suico, only 14 years of age at the time. Owing to the circumstances of his birth, the identity of his father had been a guarded family secret, surnamed "Sanson". Although carrying the stigma of being an illegitimate child – Juana never married his father – he did not allow this aspect to affect his standing in society; the Osmeña family, a rich and prominent clan of Chinese Filipino heritage with vast business interests in Cebu, warmed to him as he established himself as a prominent figure in local society. Osmeña received his elementary education at the Colegio de San Carlos and graduated in 1892. Osmeña continued his education in Manila, studying in San Juan de Letran College where he first met Manuel L. Quezon, a classmate of his, as well as Juan Sumulong and Emilio Jacinto, he took up law at the University of Santo Tomas and was second place in the bar examination in 1903. He served on the war staff of General Emilio Aguinaldo as a journalist.

In 1900, he founded El Nuevo Día which lasted for three years. When Cebu Governor Juan Climaco was sent as a member of the Board of Commissioners of the St. Louis Purchase Expedition, Osmeña was appointed acting governor; when Climaco returned, he was appointed as provincial fiscal. His stint there elevated him in politics when he was elected governor of Cebu in 1906. While governor, he ran for election to the first National Assembly of 1907 and was elected as the first Speaker of that body. Osmeña was 29 years old and the highest-ranking Filipino official, he and another provincial politician, Manuel L. Quezon of Tayabas, set up the Nacionalista Party as a foil to the Partido Federalista of Manila-based politicians. In his first years as Speaker, he was plagued with organizational burdens as the National Assembly is still organizing; the Members of the Assembly sought to establish legislative procedures which were rejected by the American superiors because they still perceive that Filipinos are incapable to be independent.

Three important bills from the Assembly were rejected by the Philippine Commission: the repeal of the Sedition law which imposed penalties on any Filipino who advocated independence. However, it did not stop him from presiding over the important legislation; the creation of the Council of State and the Board of Control enabled the Philippine legislature to share some of the executive powers of the American Governor-General. In 1916, the Jones Law was passed replacing the Philippine Commission with a Philippine Senate. Osmeña was friends and classmates with Manuel Quezon, the Majority Floor Leader under Osmeña's speakership; when the Jones Law was passed, Quezon was elected as Osmeña remained Speaker. In 1922 Osmeña was elected to the Senate representing the 10th Senatorial District, he went to the United States as part of the OsRox Mission in 1933, to secure passage of the Hare–Hawes–Cutting Independence Bill, superseded by the Tydings–McDuffie Act in March 1934. In 1924, Quezon and Osmeña reconciled and joined forces in the Partido Nacionalista Consolidado against the threat of an emerging opposition from the Democrata Party.

The reunited Nacionalista Party dominated the political scene until the second break-up when the members polarized into Pros and Antis in 1934. Quezon and Osmeña again reconciled for the 1935 Presidential Election. In 1935 Quezon and Osmeña won the Philippine's first national presidential election under the banner of the Nacionalista Party. Quezon obtained nearly 68% of the vote against his two main rivals, Emilio Aguinaldo and Bishop Gregorio Aglipay, they were inaugurated on 15 November 1935. Quezon had been barred by the Philippine constitution from seeking re-election. However, in 1940, constitutional amendments were ratified allowing him to seek re-election for a fresh term ending in 1943. In the 1941 presidential elections, Quezon was re-elected over former Senator Juan Sumulong with nearly 82% of the vote. Re-elected in 1941, Osmeña remained vice president during the Japanese occupation when the government was in exile; as Vice-President, Osmeña concurrently served as Secretary of Public Instruction from 1935 to 1940, again from 1941 to 1944.

The outbreak of World War II and the Japanese invasion resulted in periodic and drastic changes to the government structure. Executive Order 390, 22 December 1941 abolished the Department of the Interior and established

Sir Frederick Currie, 2nd Baronet

The Reverend Sir Frederick Larkins Currie, 2nd Baronet was an English baronet, the eldest child of Sir Frederick Currie, 1st Baronet and Susannah née Larkins. He was educated at Rugby and Christ's College, where he played first-class cricket for the university, he became an Anglican clergyman, holding incumbencies at Exton and St Andrew’s Wells Street, W.1 He married Eliza Reeve Rackham on 18 September 1849. They had seven children: Eliza Kate, Susannah Louisa, Frederick Reeve, Walter Louis Rackham, Percy George Colin, Arthur Edward and Cecil Edmund, who played cricket for Cambridge University and Hampshire. After his first wife's death, he married Mary Helen Corrie on 24 April 1866. There were no children by the second marriage. On his death the title passed to Frederick Reeve Currie. And, after Frederick Reeve's death, to his next son Walter Louis Rackham Currie

Cassava brown streak virus disease

Cassava brown streak virus disease is a damaging disease of cassava plants, is troublesome in East Africa. It was first identified in 1936 in Tanzania, has spread to other coastal areas of East Africa, from Kenya to Mozambique, it was found that two distinct viruses are responsible for the disease: cassava brown streak virus and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus. Both have ss RNA genomes, belong to the genus Ipomovirus in the family Potyviridae, produce similar symptoms in infected plants. Root rot renders the cassava tuber inedible; this disease is considered to be the biggest threat to food security in coastal East Africa and around the eastern lakes. CBSD is characterized by severe chlorosis and necrosis on infected leaves, giving them a yellowish, mottled appearance. Chlorosis may be associated with the veins, spanning from the mid vein and tertiary veins, or rather in blotches unconnected to veins. Leaf symptoms vary depending on a variety of factors; the growing conditions, plant age, the virus species account for these differences.

Brown streaks may appear on the stems of the cassava plant. A dry brown-black necrotic rot of the cassava tuber exists, which may progress from a small lesion to the whole root; the roots can become constricted due to the tuber rot, stunting growth. The affected plants do not possess all of these characteristics, but those that are affected may. Farmers may be unaware of their infected cassava crops until they are harvested and see the tuber lesions because leaves are asymptomatic; the cassava mosaic virus is another cassava virus that exhibits foliar symptoms similar to CBSD, but they are more obvious. UCBSV has milder symptoms than CBSV, lower pathogenicity. After a period of ambiguity among researchers, the consensus is that the most candidate of CBSD vector is Bemisia tabaci biotype B, the silverleaf whitefly, it is sometimes referred to as Bemisia argentifolii. There is a close association between CBSD incidence; this whitefly species is considered to be the vector of CMV. It is suggested, that B. tabaci whiteflies transmit CBSVs less than CMVs.

The CBSD retention period in B. tabaci may not exceed more than 24 h, but more research is needed to confirm this. The adult B. tabaci lives an average of sixteen days, the maturation process from egg to adult is thirty days. Eggs may be deposited haphazardly or in a spiral fashion on the leaf undersides. Both juvenile and adult whiteflies feed on the phloem of the leaves by inserting a sucker mouth part into the leaf, thereby transmitting the virus to the plant. Saliva containing toxins is injected into the cassava plant while whiteflies feed, disturbing plant growth and reducing yield. Seedlings are affected. After its first identification in 1936, CBSD was totally eliminated in Uganda due to program efforts, there were small yield losses in affected areas; the disease was restricted to < 1000 m above sea level along coastal Kenya to Mozambique, the shores of Lake Malawi. However, as of the year 2000, CBSD has spread throughout Eastern Africa. Midaltitude levels now accommodates CBSD, as it has been reported in Uganda, Democratic Republic Congo, around Tanzanian lake zones.

As of 2009, CBSD outbreaks were most prevalent in south - central Uganda and in Mara Region. There have been reports of CBSD in Rwanda and Burundi; the incidence of CBSD is greatest in Uganda where there is resistance to CMV in cassava and other locations in general. Recent surveys demonstrated that of the 23 districts in Uganda surveyed, 70% had CMD-resistant cassava varieties, all are vulnerable to CBSD – causing viruses; these varieties hosted as many as 200 adult whiteflies on the top five cassava leaves. Predictions cannot be made about the spreading pattern; because the disease does not fan out from only one source point, but rather appears in remote areas, or “hot spots,” models are difficult to devise. This challenge may arise from the movement of cuttings from infected regions and/or an abundance of whiteflies in a particular area. Management tools are still being explored for the control of CBSD, progress has been slow; the development of cassava with resistance to both CMD and CBSD is needed.

In a few cassava varieties, natural resistance has been found against UBCSV. Widespread distribution of germplasm of these varieties can reduce disease incidence on a large scale. Genetic Engineering Genetic engineering specific to the RNA genome is used to encourage resistance in cassava cultivars. A recent study demonstrated that inducing the expression of hairpin RNA homologous to viral sequences is a effective lab technique because it imitates the behavior of the plant immune system encountering foreign bodies, they were able to use hairpin RNA homologous to the 3’ end of CBSV coat protein sequences in the cassava cultivar 60444 to develop resistance to both CBSV and UCBSV. The resulting construct was transferred to a cultivar; this particular cultivar exhibited CMV resistance in its natural state, the motive being to foster resistance to both CMV and CBSV post – grafting, successful. Therefore, the suggestion is that exploiting the immune system of plants that have natural resistance to CMV is a viable method to combat both viruses.

Education Farmers need to be better educated on the subject of CBSD, in

Aimi Station

Aimi Station is an infill railway station on the Tokaido Main Line in Kōta, Japan, operated by the Central Japan Railway Company. It opened on 17 March 2012. Aimi Station is located between Kōda and Okazaki on the Tokaido Main Line, 3.1 km from Kōda Station and 44.4 km from Nagoya Station. The station consists of one side platform serving a total of three tracks; the station building is unattended. The name of the new station was formally announced on 14 July 2011, it opened on 17 March 2012. A bus service operated by Meitetsu Bus runs from Aimi Station to Kōda Station. In fiscal 2017, the station was used by an average of 1552 passengers daily. Aichi Prefectural Kōda High School Okazaki Fukuoka Junior High School List of railway stations in Japan Official website Kota Town information

Public domain film

Many films have been released to the public domain intentionally by the film's author, or because the copyright has expired. Many pre-1954 Japanese films have passed into public domain in Japan. See Japanese Films copyright timeline. In the United States, motion pictures are copyrighted for 95 years. All motion pictures made and exhibited before 1925 are indisputably in the public domain in the United States; this date will move forward one year, every year, meaning that films released in 1925 will enter the public domain in 2021, films from 1926 in 2022, so on. All copyrightable works made by United States government employees as part of their official duties are in the public domain from their creation; the status of works made by contractors is dependent on the terms of their contract. Note that this applies only to the federal government, not to state or local governments, which may or may not claim copyright depending on state laws Another issue affects copyright of foreign works in the United States.

The Uruguay Round agreements on copyright led to the U. S. Congress re-imposing copyright on some items which had fallen into the public domain, as of 1996. In the course of changes made to both U. S. domestic law and international copyright agreements in the last two decades, some works which had fallen in the public domain had copyright restored in the U. S; this was challenged on the grounds that works once in the public domain could not revert to copyright protection - a constitutional question. The see-saw course of court decisions on the matter have caused confusion, with many significant works changing status several times in a short period. From a holding published on 3 April 2009 to a reversal on 21 June 2010, re-imposition of copyright was not permitted; that brief period came after the 2001 American case Golan v. Gonzales was reconsidered as Golan v. Holder. Since the Supreme Court of the U. S. has granted certiorari, we may expect a definitive answer on point soon. Judge Babcock held that the First Amendment was not applicable to resurrecting foreign copyright claims.

This holding followed tradition in that the First Amendment has always been held not to prevail against the earlier copyright clause. Subsequently, Babcock reversed himself on advice by a higher court that such an act by an arm of government changed the traditional interpretation of copyright and should be subject to First Amendment scrutiny; that reversal was itself reversed on summary judgement granted for the government. Babcock's holding - that "In the United States, that body of law includes the bedrock principle that works in the public domain remain in the public domain. Removing works from the public domain violated Plaintiffs’ vested First Amendment interests" - therefore no longer applies. Unless and until review is complete by SCOTUS, public domain works can have copyright re-imposed by international treaty and the First Amendment will not prevent it. Note that restored and dubbed versions of films can themselves be subject to copyright if other elements of the film are in the public domain.

Thus if a film dates from 1915 and as such is ineligible for copyright in the United States of America, a 2004 version with new visual or audio elements may be itself eligible for a 2004 copyright to those new elements. Special features and packaging are themselves subject to copyright protection; the question of whether restored films like the most recent version of Metropolis can be copyrighted will not be clear until after the SCOTUS review is complete. That is because the SCOTUS review examines both the First Amendment issue, affecting a version which existed in 1996, the much more fundamental question whether Congress has the right to remove works from the public domain at all. There is a legal question in the U. S. whether a restored print, as a copy of a public domain work, is not original - so does not qualify for copyright protection. List of films in the public domain in the United States List of countries' copyright length Public domain Public domain music Public Domain Day

2000–01 Parma A.C. season

Parma Associazione Calcio had a moderately strong season in 2000–01, managing to qualify for the UEFA Champions League, but losing the final of Coppa Italia and dropping out of the UEFA Cup too early for the board's liking leading to coach Alberto Malesani being let go at the end of the season. 2000–01 marked the first time in four years that Parma had to make do without star striker Hernán Crespo, who left for 2000 champions Lazio in the early summer. Sérgio Conçeicão and Matías Almeyda arrived from the Rome club as part of the transfer, but as they were midfielders Parma was staring at a potential striking crisis. Marco Di Vaio hit the back of the net 15 times, but Márcio Amoroso continued his miserable display in the Parma shirt, which saw him offloaded to Borussia Dortmund in the summer of 2001. Still young, superstar goalkeeper Gianluigi Buffon played out his final season with the club, along with defender Lilian Thuram. Both were sold to Juventus in the summer, their absence was felt in the 2001–02 season.

2001 remains the last time Parma qualified for the Champions League. Squad at end of seasonNote: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Savo Milošević - Zaragoza, €25,000,000 Roberto Sensini - Lazio, October Stephen Appiah - Udinese Patrick M'Boma - Cagliari Sabri Lamouchi - Monaco Sérgio Conceição - Lazio, part-exchange Júnior - Palmeiras Johan Micoud - Bordeaux Emiliano Bonazzoli - Brescia Matías Almeyda - Lazio, part-exchange Gianluca Falsini - Hellas Verona Mario Stanić - Chelsea, 28 June, €8,960,000 Dino Baggio - Lazio, October, €5,164,572.72 Hernán Crespo - Lazio, €25,696,000 plus Matías Almeyda and Sérgio Conceição Ariel Ortega - River Plate, €5,681,029.99 Roberto Breda - Genoa Luigi Apolloni - Hellas Verona Pietro Strada - Cosenza Ousmane Dabo - Monaco Saliou Lassissi - Fiorentina Paolo Vanoli - Fiorentina Johan Walem - Udinese Michele Serena - Internazionale Davide Zoboli - Benevento Raffaele Longo - Vicenza Emiliano Bonazzoli - Hellas Verona Last updated: 17 June 2001