An identity document is any document which may be used to prove a persons identity. If issued in a small, standard credit card size form, some countries issue formal identity documents, while others may require identity verification using informal documents. When the identity document incorporates a persons photograph, it may be called photo ID, in the absence of a formal identity document, a drivers license may be accepted in many countries for identity verification. Some countries do not accept drivers licenses for identification, often because in countries they do not expire as documents. Most countries accept passports as a form of identification, some countries require all people to have an identity document available at any time. Many countries require all foreigners to have a passport or occasionally a national identity card from their country available at any time if they do not have a permit in the country. The identity document is used to connect a person to information about the person, the photo and the possession of it is used to connect the person with the document.
A unique national identification number is the most secure way, a version of the passport considered to be the earliest identity document inscribed into law was introduced by King Henry V of England with the Safe Conducts Act 1414. For the next 500 years and before World War I, most people did not have or need an identity document, both Australia and Great Britain, for example, introduced the requirement for a photographic passport in 1915 after the so-called Lody spy scandal. The shape and size of identity cards were standardized in 1985 by ISO/IEC7810, some modern identity documents are smart cards including a difficult-to-forge embedded integrated circuit, that were standardized in 1988 by ISO/IEC7816. New technologies allow identity cards to contain information, such as photographs, hand or iris measurements. Electronic identity cards are available in countries including Belgium, Estonia, Guatemala, Hong Kong, Morocco, Portugal. Law enforcement officials claim that identity cards make surveillance and the search for criminals easier, in countries that dont have a national identity card, there is, concern about the projected large costs and potential abuse of high-tech smartcards.
There is debate in these countries about whether such cards and their centralised database would constitute an infringement of privacy, most criticism is directed towards the enhanced possibilities of extensive abuse of centralised and comprehensive databases storing sensitive data. None of the countries listed above mandate possession of identity documents, for example, all vehicle drivers must have a driving licence, and young people may need to use specially issued proof of age cards when purchasing alcohol. Arguments for identity documents as such, In order to avoid mismatching people, Every human being already carries their own personal identification in the form of DNA, which is extremely hard to falsify or to discard. For example, in Sweden private companies such as banks refused to issue ID cards to individuals without a Swedish card and this forced the government to start issuing national cards. It is hard to control information usage by private companies
Food and Drug Administration
The Food and Drug Administration is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments. As of 2017, 3/4th of the FDA budget is funded by the pharmaceutical companies due to the Prescription drug user fee act and these include regulating lasers, cellular phones and control of disease on products ranging from certain household pets to sperm donation for assisted reproduction. The FDA is led by the Commissioner of Food and Drugs, appointed by the President with the advice, the Commissioner reports to the Secretary of Health and Human Services. Dr. Robert M. Califf, MD is the current commissioner, who took over in February 2016 for Dr. Stephen Ostroff, the FDA has its headquarters in unincorporated White Oak, Maryland. The agency has 223 field offices and 13 laboratories located throughout the 50 states, the United States Virgin Islands, in 2008, the FDA began to post employees to foreign countries, including China, Costa Rica, Chile and the United Kingdom.
The site was renamed from the White Oak Naval Surface Warfare Center to the Federal Research Center at White Oak, the first building, the Life Sciences Laboratory, was dedicated and opened with 104 employees on the campus in December 2003. Only one original building from the facility was kept. All other buildings are new construction, the project is slated to be completed by 2017, assuming future Congressional funding While most of the Centers are located in the Washington, D. C. The Office of Regulatory Affairs is considered the eyes and ears of the agency, the Office of Regulatory Affairs is divided into five regions, which are further divided into 20 districts. Districts are based roughly on the divisions of the federal court system. Each district comprises a main office and a number of Resident Posts. ORA includes the Agencys network of laboratories, which analyze any physical samples taken. Though samples are usually food-related, some laboratories are equipped to analyze drugs, the Office of Criminal Investigations was established in 1991 to investigate criminal cases.
Unlike ORA Investigators, OCI Special Agents are armed, and dont focus on aspects of the regulated industries. In many cases, OCI pursues cases involving Title 18 violations, OCI Special Agents often come from other criminal investigations backgrounds, and work closely with the Federal Bureau of Investigation, Assistant Attorney General, and even Interpol. OCI receives cases from a variety of sources—including ORA, local agencies, OCI is a smaller branch, comprising about 200 agents nationwide. The FDA frequently works with federal agencies, including the Department of Agriculture, Drug Enforcement Administration and Border Protection. Often local and state government agencies work with the FDA to provide regulatory inspections, the FDA regulates more than US$1 trillion worth of consumer goods, about 25% of consumer expenditures in the United States
Royal Flying Corps
The Royal Flying Corps was the air arm of the British Army before and during the First World War, until it merged with the Royal Naval Air Service on 1 April 1918 to form the Royal Air Force. During the early part of the war, the RFC supported the British Army by artillery co-operation, at the start of World War I the RFC, commanded by Brigadier-General Sir David Henderson, consisted of five squadrons – one observation balloon squadron and four aeroplane squadrons. These were first used for spotting on 13 September 1914. Aerial photography was attempted during 1914, but again only became effective the next year, by 1918, photographic images could be taken from 15,000 feet and were interpreted by over 3,000 personnel. By this time parachutes had been used by balloonists for three years, on 17 August 1917, South African General Jan Smuts presented a report to the War Council on the future of air power. On 1 April 1918, the RFC and the RNAS were amalgamated to form a new service, after starting in 1914 with some 2,073 personnel, by the start of 1919 the RAF had 4,000 combat aircraft and 114,000 personnel in some 150 squadrons.
The recommendations of the committee were accepted and on 13 April 1912 King George V signed a royal warrant establishing the Royal Flying Corps, the Air Battalion of the Royal Engineers became the Military Wing of the Royal Flying Corps a month on 13 May. The Flying Corps initial allowed strength was 133 officers, and by the end of year it had 12 manned balloons and 36 aeroplanes. The RFC originally came under the responsibility of Brigadier-General Henderson, the Director of Military Training, and had branches for the Army. Major Sykes commanded the Military Wing and Commander C R Samson commanded the Naval Wing, the RFCs motto was Per ardua ad astra. This remains the motto of the Royal Air Force and other Commonwealth air forces, the RFCs first fatal crash was on 5 July 1912 near Stonehenge on Salisbury Plain. Loraine and his observer, Staff Sergeant R. H. V, an order was issued after the crash stating Flying will continue this evening as usual, thus beginning a tradition. Four months on 11 December 1912 Parke was killed when the Handley Page monoplane in which he was flying from Hendon to Oxford crashed.
The Naval Wing, with pilots and aircraft than the Military Wing. In November 1914 the Royal Flying Corps, even taking the loss of the Naval Wing into account, had expanded sufficiently to warrant the creation of wings consisting of two or more squadrons and these wings were commanded by lieutenant-colonels. In October 1915 the Royal Flying Corps had undergone further expansion which justified the creation of brigades, further expansion led to the creation of divisions, with the Training Division being established in August 1917 and RFC Middle East, being raised to divisional status in December 1917. Finally, the air raids on London and the south-east of England led to the creation of the London Air Defence Area in August 1917 under the command of Ashmore who was promoted to major-general. Two of the first three RFC squadrons were formed from the Air Battalion of the Royal Engineers, No.1 Company becoming No.1 Squadron, RFC, a second heavier-than-air squadron, No.2 Squadron, RFC, was formed on the same day
The Avro Lancaster is a British four-engined Second World War heavy bomber designed and built by Avro for the Royal Air Force. The Lanc, as it was known, thus became one of the more famous and most successful of the Second World War night bombers. The Lancaster, an evolution of the troublesome Avro Manchester, was designed by Roy Chadwick and was powered by four Rolls-Royce Merlins, or, in one version and this was the largest payload of any bomber in the war. In 1943, a Lancaster was converted to become an engine test bed for the Metropolitan-Vickers F.2 turbojet, Lancasters were used to test other engines, including the Armstrong Siddeley Mamba and Rolls-Royce Dart turboprops, and the Avro Canada Orenda and STAL Dovern turbojets. Postwar, the Lancaster was supplanted as the RAFs main strategic bomber by the Avro Lincoln, the Lancaster took on the role of long range anti-submarine patrol aircraft and air-sea rescue. In March 1946, a Lancastrian of BSAA flew the first scheduled flight from the new London Heathrow Airport, the resulting aircraft was the Manchester, although a capable aircraft, was underpowered and troubled by the unreliability of the Vulture engine.
Only 200 Manchesters were built, with the type withdrawn from service in 1942, at first the aircraft was called Avro Type 683 Manchester III and renamed the Lancaster. The prototype aircraft BT308 was assembled by the Avro experimental flight department at Ringway Airport, test pilot H. A. Bill Thorn took the controls for its first flight at Ringway, on Thursday,9 January 1941. The aircraft proved to be an improvement on its predecessor. Some of the orders for Manchesters were changed in favour of Lancasters. The Lancaster discarded the stubby central third tail fin of the early Manchesters and used the wider span tailplane, the majority of Lancasters built during the war years were manufactured by Avro at their factory at Chadderton near Oldham, Greater Manchester and test flown from Woodford Aerodrome in Cheshire. Other Lancasters were built by Metropolitan-Vickers and Armstrong Whitworth, the Lancaster B III had Packard Merlin engines but was otherwise identical to contemporary B Is, with 3,030 B IIIs built, almost all at Avros Newton Heath factory.
The B I and B III were built concurrently and minor modifications were made to both marks as new batches were ordered, of variants, only the Canadian-built Lancaster B X, manufactured by Victory Aircraft in Malton, was produced in significant numbers. The first Lancaster produced in Canada was named the Ruhr Express, the first batch of Canadian Lancasters delivered to England suffered from faulty ailerons. This was traced to the use of unskilled labourers, the Lancaster is a mid-wing cantilever monoplane with an oval all-metal fuselage. The wing was constructed in five sections, the fuselage in five sections. All wing and fuselage sections were built separately and fitted all the required equipment before final assembly. The tail unit had twin fins and rudders
Cryptography or cryptology is the practice and study of techniques for secure communication in the presence of third parties called adversaries. Modern cryptography exists at the intersection of the disciplines of mathematics, computer science, Applications of cryptography include ATM cards, computer passwords, and electronic commerce. Cryptography prior to the age was effectively synonymous with encryption. The originator of an encrypted message shared the decoding technique needed to recover the information only with intended recipients. The cryptography literature often uses Alice for the sender, Bob for the intended recipient and it is theoretically possible to break such a system, but it is infeasible to do so by any known practical means. The growth of technology has raised a number of legal issues in the information age. Cryptographys potential for use as a tool for espionage and sedition has led governments to classify it as a weapon and to limit or even prohibit its use. In some jurisdictions where the use of cryptography is legal, laws permit investigators to compel the disclosure of encryption keys for documents relevant to an investigation, Cryptography plays a major role in digital rights management and copyright infringement of digital media.
Until modern times, cryptography referred almost exclusively to encryption, which is the process of converting ordinary information into unintelligible text, decryption is the reverse, in other words, moving from the unintelligible ciphertext back to plaintext. A cipher is a pair of algorithms that create the encryption, the detailed operation of a cipher is controlled both by the algorithm and in each instance by a key. The key is a secret, usually a short string of characters, ciphers were often used directly for encryption or decryption without additional procedures such as authentication or integrity checks. There are two kinds of cryptosystems and asymmetric, in symmetric systems the same key is used to encrypt and decrypt a message. Data manipulation in symmetric systems is faster than asymmetric systems as they generally use shorter key lengths, asymmetric systems use a public key to encrypt a message and a private key to decrypt it. Use of asymmetric systems enhances the security of communication, examples of asymmetric systems include RSA, and ECC.
Symmetric models include the commonly used AES which replaced the older DES, in colloquial use, the term code is often used to mean any method of encryption or concealment of meaning. However, in cryptography, code has a specific meaning. It means the replacement of a unit of plaintext with a code word, English is more flexible than several other languages in which cryptology is always used in the second sense above. RFC2828 advises that steganography is sometimes included in cryptology, the study of characteristics of languages that have some application in cryptography or cryptology is called cryptolinguistics
De Havilland Mosquito
The de Havilland DH.98 Mosquito is a British multi-role combat aircraft with a two-man crew which served during and after the Second World War. It was one of few operational front-line aircraft of the era constructed almost entirely of wood and was nicknamed The Wooden Wonder, the Mosquito was known affectionately as the Mossie to its crews. It was used by the British Overseas Airways Corporation as a fast transport to carry small high-value cargoes to, a single passenger could be carried in the aircrafts bomb bay, which would be adapted for the purpose. When production of the Mosquito began in 1941, it was one of the fastest operational aircraft in the world, entering widespread service in 1942, the Mosquito was a high-speed, high-altitude photo-reconnaissance aircraft, continuing in this role throughout the war. From mid-1942 to mid-1943, Mosquito bombers flew high-speed, medium or low-altitude missions against factories and other pinpoint targets in Germany, from late 1943, Mosquito bombers were formed into the Light Night Strike Force and used as pathfinders for RAF Bomber Commands heavy-bomber raids.
They were used as bombers, often dropping Blockbuster bombs –4,000 lb cookies – in high-altitude. As a night fighter from mid-1942, the Mosquito intercepted Luftwaffe raids on the United Kingdom, starting in July 1942, Mosquito night-fighter units raided Luftwaffe airfields. As part of 100 Group, it was a fighter and intruder supporting RAF Bomber Commands heavy bombers that reduced bomber losses during 1944 and 1945. Second Tactical Air Force Mosquitos supported the British Army during the 1944 Normandy Campaign, from 1943, Mosquitos with RAF Coastal Command strike squadrons attacked Kriegsmarine U-boats and intercepted transport ship concentrations. The Mosquito flew with the Royal Air Force and other air forces in the European and Italian theatres. The Mosquito was operated by the RAF in the South East Asian theatre, during the 1950s, the RAF replaced the Mosquito with the jet-powered English Electric Canberra. By the early-mid-1930s, de Havilland had a reputation for innovative high-speed aircraft with the DH.88 Comet racer, the DH.91 Albatross airliner pioneered the composite wood construction that the Mosquito used.
The 22-passenger Albatross could cruise at 210 miles per hour at 11,000 feet,100 miles per hour better than the Handley Page H. P.42, on 8 September 1936, the British Air Ministry issued Specification P. Aviation firms entered heavy designs with new high-powered engines and multiple turrets, leading to the production of the Avro Manchester. In May 1937, as a comparison to P. 13/36, George Volkert, in 20 pages, Volkert planned an aerodynamically clean medium bomber to carry 3,000 pounds of bombs at a cruising speed of 300 miles per hour. There was support in the RAF and Air Ministry, Captain R N Liptrot, Research Director Aircraft 3, appraised Volkerts design, there were, counter-arguments that, although such a design had merit, it would not necessarily be faster than enemy fighters for long. The idea of a small, fast bomber gained support at an earlier stage than sometimes acknowledged though it was likely that the Air Ministry envisaged it using light alloy components. Geoffrey de Havilland believed a bomber with an aerodynamic design and he thought that adapting the Albatross to meet the RAFs requirements could save time
The Shuttleworth Collection is an aeronautical and automotive museum located at the Old Warden Aerodrome, Old Warden in Bedfordshire, England. It is one of the most prestigious in the due to the variety of old. The collection was founded in 1928 by aviator Richard Ormonde Shuttleworth, while flying a Fairey Battle at night on 2 August 1940, Shuttleworth fatally crashed. His mother, in 1944, formed the Richard Ormonde Shuttleworth Remembrance Trust for the teaching of the science and practice of aviation and of afforestation and maintenance work is carried out by a staff of nine full-time and many volunteer engineers. These volunteers are all members of the 3, 000-strong Shuttleworth Veteran Aeroplane Society and these dedicated enthusiasts are crucial to the preservation and restoration of the collection. In addition to the aircraft, the houses a number of vintage. Events include model-flying days, and once a year, there is a special flying day for schools in the area, the Shuttleworth Collection puts an emphasis on restoring as many aircraft as possible to flying condition, inline with the founders original intention.
Some of the most notable aircraft in the collection are the five Edwardian aeroplanes, what makes these exceptional is that they still fly
H2S was the first airborne, ground scanning radar system. It was used as a general navigation system, allowing landmarks to be identified at long range. The first systems worked at 9.1 cm like the AI Mk, VIII radar they were developed from, and went into service in 1942 as the TR3159 and TR3191. After it was found the resolution of these sets was too low to be useful over large cities like Berlin, in 1943 work started on an operating in the X band at 3 cm. A wide variety of these H2S Mk, III versions were produced before the Mk. IIIG was selected as the late-war standard, the US Radiation Laboratory produced an X band system, the H2X. On its second mission on 2/3 February 1943, an H2S was captured almost intact by German forces. Combined with intelligence gathered from the crew, they learned it was a mapping system and were able to determine its method of operation. When they managed to piece one together from parts and saw the display of Berlin and this led to the introduction of the FuG350 Naxos radar detector, which enabled Luftwaffe night fighters to home on the transmissions of H2S.
The British learned of Naxos and a debate ensued over the use of H2S. However, calculations showed that losses during this period were less than before. Development continued through the late-war Mk, IX that equipped the V bomber fleet. IX was tied into both the bombsight and navigation system to provide a complete long-range Navigation and Bombing System, in this form, H2S was last used in anger during the Falklands War in 1982 on the Avro Vulcan. IX units remained in service on the Handley Page Victor aircraft until 1993, the targeting radar was originally designated BN, but it quickly became H2S. The genesis of this remains somewhat contentious, with different sources claiming it meant Height to Slope. The rotten connection, with a twist, is propounded by R. V, when Cherwell asked how the project was progressing, he was most upset to hear that it had been put on hold, and repeatedly declared about the delay that it stinks. After the Battle of Britain, RAF Bomber Command began night attacks against German cities, the British developed a radio navigation system called Gee and a second medium-range navigation scheme known as Oboe.
Both were based on stations in the UK which sent out synchronized signals
To counterfeit means to imitate something. Counterfeit products are fakes or unauthorised replicas of the real product, counterfeit products are often produced with the intent to take advantage of the superior value of the imitated product. Counterfeit products tend to have company logos and brands, have a reputation for being lower quality. This has resulted in the deaths of hundreds of thousands of people, due to automobile and aviation accidents, the counterfeiting of money is usually attacked aggressively by governments worldwide. Paper money is the most popular product counterfeited, counterfeit money is currency that is produced without the legal sanction of the state or government and in deliberate violation of that countrys laws. The United States Secret Service, mostly known for its guarding-of-officials task, was organized primarily to combat the counterfeiting of American money. Forgery is the process of making or adapting documents with the intention to deceive and it is a form of fraud, and is often a key technique in the execution of identity theft.
Uttering and publishing is a term in United States law for the forgery of documents, such as a trucking companys time. Questioned document examination is a process for investigating many aspects of various documents. Security printing is a printing industry specialty, focused on creating legal documents which are difficult to forge, the spread of counterfeit goods has become global in recent years and the range of goods subject to infringement has increased significantly. Apparel and accessories accounted for over 50 percent of the goods seized by U. S Customs. A report by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development indicates that up to US$200 Billion of international trade could have been in counterfeit and illegally copied goods in 2005. In November 2009, the OECD updated these estimates, concluding that the share of counterfeit and that represents an increase to US$250 billion worldwide. In a detailed breakdown of the counterfeit goods industry, the total loss faced by countries around the world is $600 billion, when calculating counterfeit products, current estimates place the global losses at $400 billion.
Some see the rise in counterfeiting of goods as being related to globalisation and these new managers of production have little or no loyalty to the original corporation. They see that profits are being made by the brand for doing little and see the possibilities of removing the middle men. Certain consumer goods, especially expensive or desirable brands or those that are easy to reproduce cheaply, have become frequent. The counterfeiters either attempt to deceive the consumer into thinking they are purchasing a legitimate item, or convince the consumer that they could deceive others with the imitation
String (computer science)
In computer programming, a string is traditionally a sequence of characters, either as a literal constant or as some kind of variable. The latter may allow its elements to be mutated and the length changed, a string is generally understood as a data type and is often implemented as an array of bytes that stores a sequence of elements, typically characters, using some character encoding. A string may more general arrays or other sequence data types and structures. When a string appears literally in source code, it is known as a literal or an anonymous string. In formal languages, which are used in logic and theoretical computer science. Let Σ be a non-empty finite set of symbols, called the alphabet, no assumption is made about the nature of the symbols. A string over Σ is any sequence of symbols from Σ. For example, if Σ =, 01011 is a string over Σ, the length of a string s is the number of symbols in s and can be any non-negative integer, it is often denoted as |s|. The empty string is the string over Σ of length 0.
The set of all strings over Σ of length n is denoted Σn, for example, if Σ =, Σ2 =. Note that Σ0 = for any alphabet Σ, the set of all strings over Σ of any length is the Kleene closure of Σ and is denoted Σ*. In terms of Σn, Σ ∗ = ⋃ n ∈ N ∪ Σ n For example, if Σ =, although the set Σ* itself is countably infinite, each element of Σ* is a string of finite length. A set of strings over Σ is called a language over Σ. For example, if Σ =, the set of strings with an number of zeros, is a formal language over Σ. Concatenation is an important binary operation on Σ*, for any two strings s and t in Σ*, their concatenation is defined as the sequence of symbols in s followed by the sequence of characters in t, and is denoted st. For example, if Σ =, s = bear, and t = hug, st = bearhug, String concatenation is an associative, but non-commutative operation. The empty string ε serves as the identity element, for any string s, the set Σ* and the concatenation operation form a monoid, the free monoid generated by Σ.
In addition, the length function defines a monoid homomorphism from Σ* to the non-negative integers, a string s is said to be a substring or factor of t if there exist strings u and v such that t = usv
The Short SC.1 was the first British fixed-wing vertical take-off and landing aircraft developed by Short Brothers. It was powered by an arrangement of five Rolls-Royce RB108 jet engines, four of which were used for vertical flight, a total of two prototypes were used in test flights between 1957 and 1971. Research data from the SC.1 test programme contributed to the development of the Hawker Siddeley P.1127 and the subsequent Hawker Siddeley Harrier, the first operational VTOL aircraft. In October 2012, the Short SC.1 received Northern Irelands first Engineering Heritage Award as a recognition of its significant achievement in the engineering field, during the 1940s, various nations became interested in developing viable aircraft capable of conducting vertical take-offs and landings. There was a present for an aircraft that would exploit the experienced gained from the Thrust Measuring Rig. The SC.1 has its origins within a submission by Short Brothers to meet a Ministry of Supply request for tender for a vertical take-off research aircraft, which had been issued in September 1953.
On 15 October 1954, the design was accepted by the ministry. As per the order, Short constructed two prototypes, designated XG900 and XG905. The Short SC.1 was a low wing tailless delta wing aircraft of approximately 8,000 lb all-up weight. The lift engines were mounted vertically in side-by-side pairs in a bay so that their resultant thrust line passed close to the centre of gravity of the aircraft. These pairs of engines could be swivelled about transverse axes, they were able to produce vectored thrust for acceleration/deceleration along the aircrafts longitudinal axis. The type possessed two means of exercising control over the aircraft, aerodynamic surfaces which were used during conventional flight. The SC.1 was equipped with the first fly-by-wire control system to be fitted to a VTOL-capable aircraft, the outputs from the three control systems were compared and a majority rule enforced, ensuring that a failure in a single system was overridden by the other two systems. Any failure in a pathway was indicated to the pilot as a warning.
In common with other VTOL aircraft, the Short SC.1 suffered from vertical thrust loss due to the ground effect. Research into this performed on scale models suggested that for the SC.1 these losses would be between 15 per cent and 20 per cent at undercarriage height, fuel tanks were located along the wing leading edges and in bag tanks fitted between the main wing spars. The fixed undercarriage legs were designed specifically for flight, each leg carried a pair of head-resistant castoring wheels. Long-stroke oleos were used to cushion vertical landings, the robust gear was able to withstand a descent rate of 18 ft per second