The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the worlds oceans with a total area of about 106,460,000 square kilometres. It covers approximately 20 percent of the Earths surface and about 29 percent of its surface area. It separates the Old World from the New World, the Atlantic Ocean occupies an elongated, S-shaped basin extending longitudinally between Eurasia and Africa to the east, and the Americas to the west. The Equatorial Counter Current subdivides it into the North Atlantic Ocean, in contrast, the term Atlantic originally referred specifically to the Atlas Mountains in Morocco and the sea off the Strait of Gibraltar and the North African coast. The Greek word thalassa has been reused by scientists for the huge Panthalassa ocean that surrounded the supercontinent Pangaea hundreds of years ago. The term Aethiopian Ocean, derived from Ancient Ethiopia, was applied to the Southern Atlantic as late as the mid-19th century, many Irish or British people refer to the United States and Canada as across the pond, and vice versa.
The Black Atlantic refers to the role of ocean in shaping black peoples history. Irish migration to the US is meant when the term The Green Atlantic is used, the term Red Atlantic has been used in reference to the Marxian concept of an Atlantic working class, as well as to the Atlantic experience of indigenous Americans. Correspondingly, the extent and number of oceans and seas varies, the Atlantic Ocean is bounded on the west by North and South America. It connects to the Arctic Ocean through the Denmark Strait, Greenland Sea, Norwegian Sea, to the east, the boundaries of the ocean proper are Europe, the Strait of Gibraltar and Africa. In the southeast, the Atlantic merges into the Indian Ocean, the 20° East meridian, running south from Cape Agulhas to Antarctica defines its border. In the 1953 definition it extends south to Antarctica, while in maps it is bounded at the 60° parallel by the Southern Ocean, the Atlantic has irregular coasts indented by numerous bays and seas. Including these marginal seas the coast line of the Atlantic measures 111,866 km compared to 135,663 km for the Pacific.
Including its marginal seas, the Atlantic covers an area of 106,460,000 km2 or 23. 5% of the ocean and has a volume of 310,410,900 km3 or 23. 3%. Excluding its marginal seas, the Atlantic covers 81,760,000 km2 and has a volume of 305,811,900 km3, the North Atlantic covers 41,490,000 km2 and the South Atlantic 40,270,000 km2. The average depth is 3,646 m and the maximum depth, the bathymetry of the Atlantic is dominated by a submarine mountain range called the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. It runs from 87°N or 300 km south of the North Pole to the subantarctic Bouvet Island at 42°S, the MAR divides the Atlantic longitudinally into two halves, in each of which a series of basins are delimited by secondary, transverse ridges. The MAR reaches above 2000 m along most of its length, the MAR is a barrier for bottom water, but at these two transform faults deep water currents can pass from one side to the other
Greenland is an autonomous constituent country within the Danish Realm between the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Though physiographically a part of the continent of North America, Greenland has been politically and culturally associated with Europe for more than a millennium. The majority of its residents are Inuit, whose ancestors began migrating from the Canadian mainland in the 13th century, Greenland is the worlds largest island. Three-quarters of Greenland is covered by the permanent ice sheet outside Antarctica. With a population of about 56,480, it is the least densely populated country in the world, the Arctic Umiaq Line ferry acts as a lifeline for western Greenland, connecting the various cities and settlements. Greenland has been inhabited off and on for at least the last 4,500 years by Arctic peoples whose forebears migrated there from what is now Canada, Norsemen settled the uninhabited southern part of Greenland beginning in the 10th century, and Inuit peoples arrived in the 13th century.
The Norse colonies disappeared in the late 15th century, soon after their demise, beginning in 1499, the Portuguese briefly explored and claimed the island, naming it Terra do Lavrador. In the early 18th century, Scandinavian explorers reached Greenland again, to strengthen trading and power, Denmark-Norway affirmed sovereignty over the island. Greenland was settled by Vikings more than a thousand years ago, Vikings set sail from Greenland and Iceland, discovering North America nearly 500 years before Columbus reached Caribbean islands. Though under continuous influence of Norway and Norwegians, Greenland was not formally under the Norwegian crown until 1262, the Kingdom of Norway was extensive and a military power until the mid-14th century. Thus, the two kingdoms resources were directed at creating Copenhagen, Norway became the weaker part and lost sovereignty over Greenland in 1814 when the union was dissolved. Greenland became a Danish colony in 1814, and was made a part of the Danish Realm in 1953 under the Constitution of Denmark, in 1973, Greenland joined the European Economic Community with Denmark.
However, in a referendum in 1982, a majority of the population voted for Greenland to withdraw from the EEC which was effected in 1985, Greenland contains the worlds largest and most northernly national park, Northeast Greenland National Park. Greenland is divided into four municipalities - Sermersooq, Qaasuitsup and it retains control of monetary policy, providing an initial annual subsidy of DKK3.4 billion, which is planned to diminish gradually over time. Greenland expects to grow its economy based on increased income from the extraction of natural resources, the capital, held the 2016 Arctic Winter Games. At 70%, Greenland has one of the highest shares of renewable energy in the world, the early Viking settlers named the island as Greenland. In the Icelandic sagas, the Norwegian-born Icelander Erik the Red was said to be exiled from Iceland for manslaughter, along with his extended family and his thralls, he set out in ships to explore an icy land known to lie to the northwest. After finding an area and settling there, he named it Grœnland
Ittoqqortoormiit or Illoqqortoormiut, formerly known as Scoresbysund, is a settlement in the Sermersooq municipality in eastern Greenland. Its population is 452 as of 2013, the former name Scoresbysund derives from the Arctic explorer and whaler William Scoresby, who was the first to map the area in 1822. The name Ittoqqortoormiit means Big-House Dwellers in the Eastern Greenlandic dialect, the region is known for its wildlife, including polar bears and seals. Ittoqqortoormiit is located on Liverpool Land, near the mouth of the shore of the Kangertittivaq fjord. Ittoqqortoormiit was founded in 1925 by Ejnar Mikkelsen and some 80 Inuit settlers and they were brought on the ship Gustav Holm and settled 400 kilometres south of the last known Inuit settlement in northeastern Greenland. The settlement was encouraged by the colonial power Denmark which at the time had a growing interest in Northeast Greenland, at the same time, the colonization was intended to improve declining living conditions in Tasiilaq, from where the settlers were more or less voluntarily transferred.
The settlers soon prospered on the good hunting conditions of the new area, before that, the area itself had been home to a dense population of Inuit in the past, as testified by ruins and other archeological remains. Ittoqqortoormiit Municipality was a municipality of Greenland. It is now part of Sermersooq Municipality, Ittoqqortoormiit is one of the most remote towns in Greenland. In the summer, there are two Air Iceland weekly departures from Reykjavík to Nerlerit Inaat, most of the only one flight to Iceland a week. Air Greenland has weekly flights from Kangerlussuaq and Nuuk, local hunters have made a living from whale and polar bear hunting for generations, and it remains, up to the present, a significant cultural-economical factor in the area. Flesh and by-products play a part in the economy of the hunting families. Income is gained by trading these products, but these options are seasonal, tourism, on the other hand, is growing in importance. Ittoqqortoormiit is the closest town in Greenland from Iceland, the buildings at the abandoned Uunarteq settlement are used by the local inhabitants as cottages during summer.6 °C makes Ittoqqortoormiit one of the coldest permanently inhabited locations on Earth.
The population of Ittoqqortoormiit has fluctuated over the past two decades, decreasing almost 17% since 2006
Sermiligaaq is a settlement in the Sermersooq municipality in southeastern Greenland. It is located near the Sermilik Fjord and its population was 222 in 2010. In Kalaallisut, its name means Beautiful Glacierfjord, the population of Sermiligaaq has slowly increased in the last two decades, unlike in the neighboring settlements of Kuummiit and Kulusuk. The settlement is served by the Sermiligaaq Heliport
Administrative divisions of Greenland
Greenland is divided into four municipalities – Kujalleq, Qaasuitsup and Sermersooq – as well as the large Northeast Greenland National Park which is unincorporated. The Thule Air Base is administered by the United States Air Force, Greenland was originally divided between the two colonies of North Greenland with its capital at Godhavn and South Greenland with its capital at Godthaab. These were directed by inspectors until 1924, when the officials were promoted to governors, the colonies were united in 1940 and the administration centralized at Godthaab. In 1953 a new Danish constitution promoted Greenland to full membership in the Danish state with all of its inhabitants given Danish citizenship, for statistical and some regulatory purposes the country was divided into three divisions in 1951, West Greenland, North Greenland and East Greenland. By 2008, Kitaa had 15 municipalities, Tunu 2, in 1908 Greenland was divided into 63 municipalities with elected municipal councils. After the modernization phase started in the 1950s these were consolidated, the structural reform in 2008-9 created 4 enlarged municipalities
Qeqqata is a new municipality in western Greenland, operational from 1 January 2009. The municipality was named after its location in part of the country. Its population is 9,620 as of January 2013, the administrative center of the municipality is in Sisimiut. In the north, it is bordered by the Qaasuitsup municipality, the waters of the western coast are that of the Davis Strait, separating Greenland from Baffin Island. With the area of 115,500 km2 it is the second-smallest municipality of Greenland after Kujalleq, Maniitsoq area Maniitsoq Atammik Kangaamiut Napasoq Sisimiut area Sisimiut Itilleq Kangerlussuaq Sarfannguit Like all of Greenland, there are no roads between settlements. There are three airports in Qeqqata, Kangerlussuaq and Sisimiut, where Kangerlussuaq is the hub for Greenland. Other settlements are served by boats
Inuit Ataqatigiit is a democratic socialist separatist political party in Greenland striving to make Greenland an independent state. The party, founded in 1976, was out of the increased youth radicalism in Denmark during the 1970s. Formerly a left-wing socialist party, it has developed towards supporting privatisation and it believes that an independent Greenland should be competitive. Inuit Ataqatigiit is represented in the Folketing by Sara Olsvig, who is the leader of the party, Inuit Ataqatigiit made a major electoral breakthrough in the 2009 Greenlandic parliamentary election. 4% to 43. 7%. It supplanted both its coalition partners, shifting the Forward party from first to second and the Democrats party from second to third, at the 2014 elections the party obtained 11 members in the Greenlandic parliament. In the Danish general election,1994, an independent won a seat in the Danish Parliament, official website The North Atlantic Group in the Danish Parliament
Alanngorsuaq Fjord, known as Coppermine Bay, is a fjord in the Kujalleq municipality in southern Greenland. At the mouth of the fjord the coastline of southwestern Greenland turns to the east towards Qaqortoq, alanngorsuaq Fjord opens towards the west a few miles north of Cape Desolation. The Inner Kitsissut islands lie on the side of the mouth of the bay. The fjord is 40 km long, with an east-north-east − west-south-west orientation, there are several oblong, uninhabited islands in the inner part of the fjord, its mouth widening into a 17 km bay at the confluence with the Labrador Sea at approximately 60°53′30″N 48°19′30″W. The shores of the fjord are uninhabited, arsuk is the closest settlement, located just beyond the border with the Sermersooq municipality, approximately 30 km to the north of the fjord mouth. The fjord marked the limit of the former Frederikshåb District. It was named Coppermine Bay after a mining operation in Southwestern Greenland at the beginning of the 20th century
Kangilinnguit or Kangilínguit, formerly Grønnedal, is a settlement and a naval base in Greenlands Sermersooq municipality, located at the mouth of Arsuk Fjord in southwestern Greenland. The settlement had 160 inhabitants in 2010, most of whom are Danish Navy personnel, a road – roughly 5 kilometres long – between Kangilinnguit and Ivittuut make them the only towns in Greenland connected by roads. It was the only settlement within the former Ivittuut Municipality. For the former U. S. Naval Operating Facility there, Kangilinnguit was founded as Green Valley by the United States Navy during the Second World War to protect the highly strategic cryolite quarry in the former settlement of Ivittuut. The U. S. Navy turned the base over to the Danish Navy in August 1951, during the early years of the Cold War, the base was used by anti-submarine warfare ships of NATO, which tracked Soviet Navy submarines in the North Atlantic. However, the Greenlandic government has successfully lobbied to keep the command intact in order to boost the local economy, under the terms of the 2010-2014 Danish Defense Agreement approved by the Danish parliament on 24 June 2009, the Greenland Command will absorb the Faroe Island Command.
The combined command will be placed in Nuuk under the name of Arctic Command, website of the Greenland Command at Kangilinnguit arsukfjorden. gl − local web site with maps
Tasiilaq, formerly Ammassalik and Angmagssalik, is a town in the Sermersooq municipality in southeastern Greenland. With 2,017 inhabitants as of 2013, it is the most populous community on the eastern coast, the Sermilik Station, dedicated to the research of the nearby Mittivakkat Glacier, is located near the town. The people of Saqqaq culture were the first to reach eastern Greenland, arriving from the north, through what is now known as Peary Land and Independence Fjord, thule migrations passed through the area in the fifteenth century, finding the southeastern coast uninhabited. Population increased however from the 1880s, dispersing over several villages in the area, the permanent settlement was founded in 1894 as a Danish trading station. The town was known as Ammassalik. The official name took place in 1997. The fjord is an inlet of the long Ammassalik Fjord emptying into the North Atlantic to the east of the town, the large Sermilik Fjord lies further to the west. With 2,017 inhabitants as of 2013, Tasiilaq is one of the towns in Greenland, with migrants from the smaller towns.
Together with Nuuk, it is the town in the Sermersooq municipality exhibiting stable growth patterns over the last two decades. The population increased by over 37% relative to the 1990 levels, Tasiilaq is the main location where East Greenlandic is spoken. There are no roads far outside Tasiilaq, the longest is a 3 km narrow gravel road to the hydro power plant. Transport to further places is by helicopter or boat, Air Greenland operates helicopter services from Tasiilaq Heliport to neighboring Kulusuk Airport, which offers connections to Nuuk, Ittoqqortoormiit via Nerlerit Inaat Airport, and to Iceland. The heliport serves as a local helicopter hub with flights to villages in the region, Kuummiit, Sermiligaaq. In the summer, the boats of Royal Arctic Line connect Tasiilaq with Kulusuk. - Kópavogur, Iceland Tasiilaq has a climate, with long and snowy winters and short. From time to time, Tasiilaq is affected by piteraqs, on February 6,1970 the worst documented piteraq ever hit Tasiilaq, causing heavy damage and nearly ruining the town