Sermon on the Mount

The Sermon on the Mount is a collection of sayings and teachings of Jesus Christ, which emphasizes his moral teaching found in the Gospel of Matthew. It is the first of the Five Discourses of Matthew and takes place early in the Ministry of Jesus after he has been baptized by John the Baptist, finished his fasting and meditation retreat in the desert, begun to preach in Galilee; the name and location of the mountain is unstated. The Sermon is the longest continuous discourse of Jesus found in the New Testament, has been one of the most quoted elements of the Canonical Gospels, it includes some of the best known teachings of Jesus, such as the Beatitudes, the recited Lord's Prayer. The Sermon on the Mount is considered to contain the central tenets of Christian discipleship; the Sermon on the Mount occupies chapters 6 and 7 of the Gospel of Matthew. The Sermon has been one of the most quoted elements of the Canonical Gospels; this is the first of the Five Discourses of Matthew, the other four being Matthew 10, Matthew 13, Matthew 18 and the Olivet discourse in Matthew 24.

The Sermon is set early in the Ministry of Jesus, after he has been baptized by John the Baptist in chapter 3 of Matthew's Gospel, gathered his first disciples in chapter 4, had returned from a long fast and contemplation in the Judaean Desert where he had been tempted by Satan to renounce his spiritual mission and gain worldly riches. Before this episode, Jesus had been "all about Galilee" preaching, as in Matthew 4:23, "great crowds followed him" from all around the area; the setting for the sermon is given in Matthew 5:1-2. Jesus sees the multitudes, goes up into the mountain, is followed by his disciples, begins to preach; the Sermon is brought to its close by Matthew 8:1, which reports that Jesus "came down from the mountain followed by great multitudes". While the issue of the exact theological structure and composition of the Sermon on the Mount is subject to debate among scholars, specific components within it, each associated with particular teachings, can be identified. Matthew 5:3–12 discusses the Beatitudes.

These describe the character of the people of the Kingdom of Heaven, expressed as "blessings". The Greek word most versions of the Gospel render as "blessed," can be translated "happy". In Matthew, there are eight blessings. In all cases the phrases used in the Beatitudes are familiar from an Old Testament context, but in the sermon Jesus gives them new meaning. Together, the Beatitudes present a new set of ideals that focus on love and humility rather than force and mastery. In Christian teachings, the Works of Mercy, which have corporal and spiritual components, have resonated with the theme of the Beatitude for mercy; these teachings emphasize that these acts of mercy provide both spiritual benefits. Matthew 5:13–16 presents the metaphors of salt and light; this completes the profile of God's people presented in the beatitudes, acts as the introduction to the next section. There are two parts in this section, using the terms "salt of the earth" and Light of the World to refer to the disciples – implying their value.

Elsewhere, in John 8:12, Jesus applies Light of the World to himself. Jesus preaches about hell and what hell is like: "But I say unto you, That whosoever is angry with his brother without a cause shall be in danger of the judgment: and whosoever shall say to his brother "Raca" shall be in danger of the council: but whosoever shall say, Thou fool, shall be in danger of hell fire." The longest discourse in the Sermon is Matthew 5:17–48, traditionally referred to as the Antitheses or Matthew's Antitheses. In the discourse, Jesus fulfills and reinterprets the Old Covenant and in particular its Ten Commandments, contrasting with what "you have heard" from others. For example, he advises turning the other cheek, to love your enemies, in contrast to taking an eye for an eye. According to most interpretations of Matthew 5:17, 18, 19, 20, most Christian views of the Old Covenant, these new interpretations of the Law and Prophets are not opposed to the Old Testament, the position of Marcion, but form Jesus' new teachings which bring about salvation, hence must be adhered to, as emphasized in Matthew 7:24–27 towards the end of the sermon.

In Matthew 6 Jesus condemns doing what would be "good works" for recognition and not from the heart, such as those of alms and fasting. The discourse goes on to condemn the superficiality of materialism and call the disciples not to worry about material needs, but to "seek" God's kingdom first. Within the discourse on ostentation, Matthew presents an example of correct prayer. Luke places this in a different context; the Lord's prayer contains parallels to 1 Chronicles 29:10–18. The first part of Matthew 7, i.e. Matthew 7:1–6 deals with judging. Jesus condemns those who judge others before first judging themselves: "Judge not, that ye be not judged." In the last part in Matthew 7:17–29 Jesus concludes the sermon by warning against false prophets. The teachings of the Sermon on the Mount have been a key element of Christian ethics, for centuries the sermon has acted as a fundamental recipe for the conduct of the followers of Jesus. Various religious and moral thinkers have admired its message, it has been one of the main sources of Christian pacifism.

In the 5th cent

Doctors of Madness

Doctors of Madness were a British protopunk art rock band active as a recording and touring band from 1975 until late 1978. They had little commercial success. Since they have come to be regarded as prime movers who were forerunners of the punk movement; the Doctors of Madness were formed in 1974 in a basement in Brixton, south London, by the band's composer and lead singer/guitarist Richard Strange, known as ‘Kid’ Strange. To provide a platform for his musical ideas and compositions, which analysed urban culture neurosis and systems of control, Strange joined forces with Stoner, Peter DiLemma, Urban Blitz to provide a link between the early 1970s progressive rock and glam rock of David Bowie and Roxy Music and the 1970s punk rock of the Sex Pistols and The Clash. Strange cited The Velvet Underground and writer William S. Burroughs as major influences on the band's music, which fused avant-garde hard rock with warped quasi-classical tones. In March 1975 the band started playing gigs at a pub in Twickenham, south-west London, where they were spotted by a talent scout for music manager Bryan Morrison, who had managed Pink Floyd, Syd Barrett and Marc Bolan.

Morrison was impressed. Morrison and his partner Justin de Villeneuve launched an intensive publicity campaign to promote the band, which included an appearance on the BBC's prime time UK television The Twiggy Show, they were the opening act at the three-day Great British Music Festival at Olympia in London on 31 December 1975. The band signed to Polydor Records for the Europe; the Doctors of Madness were BBC Radio John Peel Show featured artists on 25 November 1976, received British television exposure during 1975/76 on the Twiggy Show and the Janet Street-Porter Show. The Doctors of Madness toured extensively in Great Britain and continental Europe, gigging in France, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Switzerland and Sweden, their early stage shows, in which Strange appeared with dyed-blue hair and Stoner wore skeletal-style make-up, incorporated costumes, make-up, projected backdrop images, strobe lights, theatrical spot-lighting and taped sound effects. Stoner recalled that they had wanted to create "a outrageous image to match the songs Richard was writing".

Strange spoke of a cinematic style of song-writing, "where the images come in and out, not making much sense on a rational level, more on a sensory one... sleazy and outrageous."Support acts during their heyday included The Sex Pistols, The Jam, Joy Division and Simple Minds. Richard'Kid' Strange was best man at Dave Vanian's wedding; the band's tour manager and sound engineer was Dave'Hobbs' Hilsden, who Strange called'Obbsy'. Hilsden was subsequently sound engineer, road manager and crew boss for Motorhead for 30 years until his death in 2015. Between 1975 and 1977, the Doctors of Madness recorded three albums for Polydor records: Late Night Movies, All Night Brainstorms, produced by John Punter, it was decided to give the band's third album a more'punk' feel, the tracks on Sons of Survival were recorded as high-volume live performances in the studio. "Bulletin" from Sons of Survival, backed by "Waiting" from Late Night Movies, All Night Brainstorms, was released as a single in late 1977. A posthumous Doctors of Madness compilation, was released by Polydor in 1981, the band having split in late 1978.

The band's first three albums were re-released on CD by Ozit Records. Early in 1978 after the release of Sons of Survival, Urban Blitz left the band because of musical and personal differences, he was replaced by singer Dave Vanian of punk rock band The Damned, who had temporarily split. The Doctors of Madness were known informally as'the Doctors'. After the release of Sons of Survival in 1978, Strange experimented with renaming the band'The Doctors'. Kid Strange and Peter DiLemma continued as a trio, minus violinist, before disbanding after disappointing sales of the latest album and withdrawal of record company support, they played their final gig at The Music Machine in Camden, North London, on 26 October 1978, with TV Smith of The Adverts as a guest. In years, Richard Strange continued to promote and perform Doctors of Madness music while pursuing an extensive international career as a solo artist. In 2003 he performed in Japan, backed by ex-Pogues multi-instrumentalist David Coulter and Sister Paul, a Japanese Doctors of Madness tribute band based in Tokyo.

Recognition of Doctors of Madness influence on the emergence of British punk rock was documented in the book An Unauthorised Guide to Punk Rock: The Early English Scene, which included the Deviants, the Doctors of Madness, David Bowie, the Sex Pistols and the Clash. The band's reappraisal as an important influence in British punk rock had prompted the re-release of their albums on CD in 2002; the original line-up of the Doctors of Madness - Kid Strange, Peter DiLemma and Urban Blitz - reunited in London in October 2014 for a one-off performance at the South Bank Centre as part of Richard Strange's "Language is a Virus from Outer Space", a multi-media centenary celebration of satirical US writer

Virgilijus Vladislovas Bulovas

Virgilijus Vladislovas Bulovas is a Lithuanian engineer and political figure. Bulovas is a former member of the Seimas and twice served on the Government of Lithuania as the Minister of the Interior. Bulovas was born to a family of a military officer in Kaunas, Lithuania, on 6 November 1939. In 1941, after Soviet occupation, his father was deported to Siberia where he would die. Bulovas graduated from the Kaunas Polytechnics Institute in 1960, with a degree in electrical engineering, specializing in computers, he worked at the Institute until 1992, was awarded a doctorate degree in 1972 and became a docent in 1976. He authored more than 50 scientific and educational papers. Bulovas had been a member of the Communist Party of Lithuania since 1963. Upon independence he joined the ranks of Democratic Labour Party of Lithuania and, in the elections in 1992, was elected as the member of the Sixth Seimas through its electoral list. In 1996 Bulovas was appointed the Minister of the Interior in the Government of Laurynas Stankevičius and served until the next elections to the Seimas.

In 1997, he was appointed the Ambassador to Kazakhstan. Bulovas returned to the Ministry of the Interior in 2001, as a deputy-minister and secretary under Juozas Bernatonis. In 2003 he succeeded Bernatonis as the Minister of the Interior in the Government of Algirdas Brazauskas