The serpentine subgroup are greenish, brownish, or spotted minerals found in serpentinite rocks. They are used as a source of magnesium and asbestos, as a decorative stone; the name is thought to come from the greenish color being that of a serpent. The serpentine group describes a group of common rock-forming hydrous magnesium iron phyllosilicate minerals, resulting from the metamorphism of the minerals that are contained in ultramafic rocks, they may contain minor amounts of other elements including chromium, cobalt or nickel. In mineralogy and gemology, serpentine may refer to any of 20 varieties belonging to the serpentine group. Owing to admixture, these varieties are not always easy to individualize, distinctions are not made. There are three important mineral polymorphs of serpentine: antigorite and lizardite; the serpentine group of minerals are polymorphous, meaning that they have the same chemical formulae, but the atoms are arranged into different structures, or crystal lattices. Chrysotile, which has a fiberous habit, is one polymorph of serpentine and is one of the more important asbestos minerals.
Other polymorphs in the serpentine group may have a platy habit. Antigorite and lizardite are the polymorphs with platy habit. Many types of serpentine have been used for jewellery and hardstone carving, sometimes under the name false jade or Teton jade, their olive green colour and smooth or scaly appearance is the basis of the name from the Latin serpentinus, meaning "serpent rock," according to Best. They have their origins in metamorphic alterations of pyroxene. Serpentines may pseudomorphously replace other magnesium silicates. Alterations may be incomplete. Where they form a significant part of the land surface, the soil is unusually high in clay. Antigorite is the polymorph of serpentine that most forms during metamorphism of wet ultramafic rocks and is stable at the highest temperatures—to over 600 °C at depths of 60 km or so. In contrast and chrysotile form near the Earth's surface and break down at low temperatures well below 400 °C, it has been suggested that chrysotile is never stable relative to either of the other two serpentine polymorphs.
Samples of the oceanic crust and uppermost mantle from ocean basins document that ultramafic rocks there contain abundant serpentine. Antigorite contains water in about 13 percent by weight. Hence, antigorite may play an important role in the transport of water into the earth in subduction zones and in the subsequent release of water to create magmas in island arcs, some of the water may be carried to yet greater depths. Soils derived from serpentine are toxic to many plants, because of high levels of nickel and cobalt; the flora is very distinctive, with specialised, slow-growing species. Areas of serpentine-derived soil will show as strips of shrubland and open, scattered small trees within otherwise forested areas. Most serpentines are opaque to translucent, soft and susceptible to acids. All are massive in habit, never being found as single crystals. Lustre may be greasy or silky. Colours range from white to grey, yellow to green, brown to black, are splotchy or veined. Many are intergrown such as calcite and dolomite.
Occurrence is worldwide. Serpentines find use in industry for a number of purposes, such as railway ballasts, building materials, the asbestiform types find use as thermal and electrical insulation; the asbestos content can be released to the air when serpentine is excavated and if it is used as a road surface, forming a long term health hazard by breathing. Asbestos from serpentine can appear at low levels in water supplies through normal weathering processes, but there is as yet no identified health hazard associated with use or ingestion. In its natural state, some forms of serpentine react with carbon dioxide and re-release oxygen into the atmosphere; the more attractive and durable varieties are termed "noble" or "precious" serpentine and are used extensively as gems and in ornamental carvings. The town of Bhera in the historic Punjab province of the Indian subcontinent was known for centuries for finishing a pure form of green serpentine obtained from quarries in Afghanistan into lapidary work, ornamental sword hilts, dagger handles.
This high-grade serpentine ore was known as sang-i-yashm or to the English, false jade, was used for generations by Indian craftsmen for lapidary work. It is carved, taking a good polish, is said to have a pleasingly greasy feel. Less valuable serpentine ores of varying hardness and clarity are sometimes dyed to imitate jade. Misleading synonyms for this material include "Suzhou jade", "Styrian jade", "New jade". New Caledonian serpentine is rich in nickel; the Māori of New Zealand once carved beautiful objects from local serpentine, which they c
Sir Robert Hitcham was a Member of Parliament and Attorney General under King James I. Robert was born of lowly origin in Levington, near Ipswich, educated at the Free School at Ipswich and Pembroke College, studying law, he was admitted to Gray's Inn on 3 November 1589 from Barnard's Inn and was called to the Bar in 1595. He became a Member of Parliament for West Looe, Cornwall from 1597 to 1598, he held a number of posts including: Attorney-General to Anne of Denmark, Queen Consort to James I. He was knighted on 29 June 1604 by King James I. On 14 May 1635 he purchased Framlingham Castle, Suffolk from Theophilus Howard, 2nd Earl of Suffolk for the sum of £14,000, he died on 15 August 1636 and now lies in a tomb in the Church of St Michael the Archangel, Framlingham. His will stated that the castle, save for the outer walls, be demolished and the stone used to build a poor house; the inner buildings were duly demolished and a poor house, Sir Robert Hitcham's Almshouses, was built in its place.
He endowed a school for local children, the foundation of the current Framlingham Sir Robert Hitcham primary school. His left money in his will to fund a school in both Debenham & Coggeshall. With the school in Debenham being named after him, he bequeathed the site of the castle to the Master and Scholars of Pembroke College, Cambridge. Some of the land he left was given by the College as the site for Framlingham College, a school built as a memorial to Prince Albert. Hitcham's Cloister in Pembroke College was named after him as is the Hitcham House at Thomas Mills High School
Alexandrovskaya Volost was an administrative division of Alexandrovsky Uyezd of Arkhangelsk Governorate, of Murmansk Governorate of the Russian SFSR, which existed in 1920–1927. The creation of the volost was proposed on April 22, 1920, when the soviet of the town of Alexandrovsk suggested that several colonies of Teriberskaya Volost should be incorporated into a new volost; the proposal was formally approved by the Murmansky Uyezd Executive Committee on June 1, 1920. The administrative center of the new volost was in Alexandrovsk. On May 3, 1920, the Alexandrovskaya Volost Executive Committee divided the territory of the volost into six selsoviets: Alexandrovsky Belokamensky Gryazno-Gubsky Platonovsky Toros-Ostrovsky Tyuva-Gubsky However, the Murmansky Uyezd Executive Committee only approved the creation of two, motivating the decision by the sparseness of the population in the volost. On June 4, 1920, the Alexandrovskaya Volost Executive Committee enacted another decision creating the approved two selsoviets, but in December 1920 it became clear that it was insufficient, due to high dispersion of the population and lack of reliable communications.
On December 9, 1920, the Alexandrovskaya Volost Executive Committee created three more selsoviets, bringing the total number of selsoviets to five. This decision was approved by the Murmansky Uyezd Executive Committee on December 18, 1920: Belokamensky Gryazno-Gubsky Menkinsky referred to as Minkinsky Toros-Ostrovsky referred to as Sayda-Gubsky Tyuvsky Selsoviet referred to as Tyuva-Gubsky By the April 20, 1921 Decision of the Plenary Session of Murmansky Uyezd Executive Committee, the localities of Ara and Port-Vladimir were transferred from Novozerskaya to Alexandrovskaya Volost; the selo of Ura became the administrative center of Ursky Selsoviet. The volost became a part of Murmansk Governorate at the time of its establishment on June 13, 1921. On March 15, 1926, its administrative center the town of Alexandrovsk was demoted in status to that of a rural locality; the volost was abolished on August 1, 1927 along with the rest of the volosts of Murmansk Governorate when the latter was transformed into Murmansk Okrug and transferred to the newly created Leningrad Oblast.
The territory of the former Alexandrovskaya Volost was divided: Alexandrovsky, Gryazno-Gubsky, Toros-Ostrovsky, Tyuva-Gubsky, Ura-Gubsky Selsoviets became a part of Alexandrovsky District while Minkinsky Selsoviet became a part of Kolsko-Loparsky District. Архивный отдел Администрации Мурманской области. Государственный Архив Мурманской области.. Административно-территориальное деление Мурманской области. Справочник. Мурманск: Мурманское издательско-полиграфическое предприятие "Север"