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Servant of God

"Servant of God" is a term used for individuals by various religions for people believed to be pious in the faith's tradition. In the Catholic Church, it designates an individual, being investigated by the Church for possible canonization as a saint. In the Eastern Orthodox Church, this term is used to refer to any Eastern Orthodox Christian; the Arabic name Abdullah, the Hebrew name Obadiah, the German name Gottschalk, the Sanskrit name Devadasa are all variations of "servant of God". The expression "servant of God" appears nine times in the Bible, the first five in the Old Testament, the last four in the New; the Hebrew Bible refers to "Moses the servant of Elohim". Judges 2:8 refers to Joshua as ‘eḇeḏ Yahweh; the New Testament describes Moses in this way in Revelation 15:3. Paul calls himself "a servant of God" in Titus 1:1, while James calls himself "a servant of God and the Lord Jesus Christ" in James 1:1. 1 Peter 2:16 describes "servants of God" being free to act within the bounds of God's will.

Following usage conventions established in the King James Bible, the word "servant" is never capitalized or used as a title of nobility. "Servant of God" is an expression used for a member of the Catholic Church whose life and works are being investigated in consideration for official recognition by the Pope and the Catholic Church as a saint in Heaven. The term "Servant of God" should not be confused with Servus Servorum Dei, one of the titles of the Pope; the term Servant of God is used in the first of the four steps in the canonization process. The next step is being declared Venerable, upon a decree of martyrdom by the honored; that is followed with the title of Blessed. After the confirmation of miracles resulting from the intercession of the honored, the final step is canonization, where the honored would receive the title of Saint; the process for canonization is under the jurisdiction of the Congregation for the Causes of Saints. An incomplete list can be found in the List of Servants of Candidates for sainthood.

Servant of God is not considered a canonical title in a strict sense by the Catholic Church, but only a technical term used in the process of beatification. Hence, any of the faithful can be named a "Servant of God" in a larger frame of meaning. A guru or sat guru in various traditions of Hinduism is given the name Dasa, or "servant of God". A teacher can be called uda ka das, which means "the servant of God". In Sanskrit, the word dasa means "servant," and this meaning is retained in all Indian languages where devotion to a personal God is practiced. In Tamil, dasa, servant, or "slave," are used to refer to devotees of Vishnu or Krishna. According to Gaudiya Vaishnava theology, as expressed in the Smriti statement dāsa-bhūto harer eva nānyasvaiva kadācana, living entities are eternally in the service of the Supreme Lord. Thus, designation for Vaishnavas was the status title dasa as part of their names, such as Hari dasa, Narayana dasa, Ram das, Gopal das, etc. List of Servants of God American Catholic Servants of God, Venerables and Saints Media related to Servants of God at Wikimedia Commons

Shear Genius (season 2)

The second season of Shear Genius premiered June 25, 2008 on Bravo. This season features 12 stylists competing in various challenges to be declared the winner of Shear Genius. Jaclyn Smith and Rene Fris returned as the mentor respectively. Sally Hershberger and Michael Carl were replaced by Kelly Atterton as judges; the stylist was crowned Shear Genius. The stylist won that episode's Elimination Challenge; the stylist did not win. The stylist was selected as one of the bottom entries in the Elimination Challenge, but was not eliminated; the stylist was in the bottom two for the Elimination Challenge. The stylist was out of the competition; the stylist neither lost that week's Elimination Challenge. In Episode 6, the judges didn't choose a winner for the elimination challenge. Charlie won the shortcut challenge and did not participate in the elimination challenge. In Episode 9, Nicole won the short cut challenge so she was given immunity at the elimination challenge. First Aired: June 25, 2008 Short Cut Challenge: Each stylist is to cut their client's hair while blindfolded.

They are given five minutes to discuss the style with their client first and forty-five minutes to cut. Clients are given safety glasses to wear during the challenge; the stylists are ranked in order by judge Kim Vo based on their technique. Dee Nicole Meredith Glenn Daniel Gail Charlie Matthew Paulo Parker Nekisa OshunWINNER: Dee Elimination Challenge: Based on the order from the Short Cut challenge, each stylist selects a model and their selected cartoon character; the characters represented are Wilma Flintstone, Judy Jetson, Betty Boop, Lucy van Pelt and Marge Simpson. They are given two hours to complete a style based on the cartoon character, are judged on creativity, technical skills, their interpretation of the style. Charlie and Daniel were in the top three, with Charlie third, Nekisa second and Daniel the winner. WINNER: Daniel CUT: OshunJudges: Jaclyn Smith, Kim Vo, Kelly Atterton, Neeko First Aired: July 2, 2008 Short Cut Challenge: Each stylist was to create a sexy short cut style from the various models within 45 minutes.

Nicole and Charlie are deemed the best by Tabatha, while Paulo and Nekisa end up as the bottom 2, with Nekisa being the worst cut. WINNER: Charlie Elimination Challenge: Each stylist was assigned one of The Real Housewives of Orange County stars, was to create a new look for the model that incorporated coloring changes while still putting their own touches in the style and respecting their client's wishes. To select clients, each stylist selected a numbered orange prior to the challenge at their house, these were matched with numbered oranges held by the Housewives. WINNER: Charlie CUT: ParkerJudges: Jaclyn Smith, Kim Vo, Kelly Atterton, Tabatha Coffey First Aired: July 9, 2008 Short Cut Challenge: Each stylist was to create a technical masterpiece on their clients, whose hair ranged from thirty to over sixty inches, they had to create these masterpieces without cutting any hair from their client's hair. The stylists had a selection of accessories to choose from, had to incorporate at least one accessory into their hairstyle.

The accessories included pearl necklace strands, marble pens and tiaras. The winner would have the advantage of having first client choice, determining the order in which his or her fellow stylists would choose their respective clients. Matthew and Charlie do the best in the challenge, Matthew wins. Nekisa and Nicole do the worst in the challenge, Nekisa is deemed the worst cut because of the absence of an accessory in her hairstyle. WINNER: Matthew Elimination Challenge: The stylists had to choose a red carpet dress, in the order that Matthew decided for them to choose. After this they had to create a hairdo; the hair designs were judged at an actual red carpet. This would allow to see if the hair would hold up for an actual event, or if it would fall short of being Shear Genius. WINNER: Charlie CUT: MatthewJudges: Jaclyn Smith, Kim Vo, Mark Townsend, Alison Sweeney First Aired: July 16, 2008 Short Cut Challenge The stylists were tasked with not only working upon their own client, but upon the clients of the other stylists.

After a certain amount of time, the stylists would be asked to stop working on their client, the client would be juggled to a different stylist as instructed. The stylists could either pick up off of where the previous stylist left off, or choose to start something new. To determine their first client, the stylists were given scissor boxes with different colored combs in them, the client with the matching comb of the stylist would be the stylists' first client. Dee and Daniel were chosen as the top 2 with the best end results. Meredith and Nekisa were the bottom 2 and Meredith was called the worst. WINNER: Dee Elimination Challenge: The stylists are challenged to create a hairstyle for a client, that the client can replicate at home by themselves; the stylists are given time to teach their client the hairstyle. The next day, the clients come back to the Shear Genius salon and re-create to their best ability, the hair-do their respective stylist gave them the previous day; the stylists are not allowed to help the clients whatsoever.

Glenn and Dee do the best while


Calligraphy is a visual art related to writing. It is the design and execution of lettering with a broad-tipped instrument, brush, or other writing instrument. A contemporary calligraphic practice can be defined as "the art of giving form to signs in an expressive and skillful manner". Modern calligraphy ranges from functional inscriptions and designs to fine-art pieces where the letters may or may not be readable. Classical calligraphy differs from typography and non-classical hand-lettering, though a calligrapher may practice both. Calligraphy continues to flourish in the forms of wedding invitations and event invitations, font design and typography, original hand-lettered logo design, religious art, graphic design and commissioned calligraphic art, cut stone inscriptions, memorial documents, it is used for props and moving images for film and television, for testimonials and death certificates and other written works. The principal tools for a calligrapher are the brush. Calligraphy pens round, or pointed.

For some decorative purposes, multi-nibbed pens—steel brushes—can be used. However, works have been created with felt-tip and ballpoint pens, although these works do not employ angled lines. There are some styles such as Gothic script, that require a stub nib pen. Writing ink is water-based and is much less viscous than the oil-based inks used in printing. Certain specialty paper with high ink absorption and constant texture enables cleaner lines, although parchment or vellum is used, as a knife can be used to erase imperfections and a light-box is not needed to allow lines to pass through it. Light boxes and templates are used to achieve straight lines without pencil markings detracting from the work. Ruled paper, either for a light box or direct use, is most ruled every quarter or half inch, although inch spaces are used; this is the case with litterea unciales, college-ruled paper acts as a guideline well. Common calligraphy pens and brushes are: Quill Dip pen Ink brush Qalam Fountain pen Chinese calligraphy is locally called shūfǎ.

The calligraphy of East Asian characters is an important and appreciated aspect of traditional East Asian culture. In ancient China, the oldest Chinese characters existing are Jiǎgǔwén characters carved on ox scapulae and tortoise plastrons, because the dominators in Shang Dynasty carved pits on such animals' bones and baked them to gain auspice of military affairs, agricultural harvest, or procreating and weather. During the divination ceremony, after the cracks were made, the characters were written with a brush on the shell or bone to be carved.. With the development of Jīnwén and Dàzhuàn "cursive" signs continued. Mao Gong Ding is one of the most famous and typical Bronzeware scripts in the Chinese calligraphy history, it has 500 characters on the bronze, the largest number of bronze inscription we have discovered so far. Moreover, each archaic kingdom of current China had its own set of characters. In Imperial China, the graphs on old steles—some dating from 200 BC, in Xiaozhuan style—are still accessible.

About 220 BC, the emperor Qin Shi Huang, the first to conquer the entire Chinese basin, imposed several reforms, among them Li Si's character unification, which created a set of 3300 standardized Xiǎozhuàn(小篆) characters. Despite the fact that the main writing implement of the time was the brush, few papers survive from this period, the main examples of this style are on steles; the Lìshū style, more regularized, in some ways similar to modern text, have been authorised under Qin Shi Huangdi. Between clerical script and traditional regular script, there is another transition type of calligraphy works called Wei Bei, it had ended before Tang Dynasty. Kǎishū style —still in use today—and attributed to Wang Xizhi and his followers, is more regularized, its spread was encouraged by Emperor Mingzong of Later Tang, who ordered the printing of the classics using new wooden blocks in Kaishu. Printing technologies here allowed a shape stabilization; the Kaishu shape of characters 1000 years ago was similar to that at the end of Imperial China.

But small changes have been made, for example in the shape of 广, not the same in the Kangxi Dictionary of 1716 as in modern books. The Kangxi and current shapes have tiny differences, while stroke order is still the same, according to old style. Styles which did not survive include Bāfēnshū, a mix made of Xiaozhuan style at 80%, Lishu at 20%; some variant Chinese characters were locally used for centuries. They were understood but always rejected in official texts; some of these unorthodox variants, in addition to some newly created characters, compose the Simplified Chinese character set. Traditional East Asian writing uses the Four Treasures of the Study: the ink brushes known as máobǐ to write Chinese characters, Chinese ink and inkstone, known as the Four Friends of the Study in Korea. In addition to these four tools, desk pads and paperweights are used; the shape, size and hair type of the ink brush, the color, color density and water density of the ink, as well as the paper's water absorption

Myanmar National Education Law 2014

Myanmar National Education Law, enacted on 30 September 2014, is designed to reform the country's outdated education system. Drafted in March 2014, the bill was passed after being sent back to the floor by President Thein Sein with 25 proposed changes, 19 of which were accepted. From the beginning of its drafting process, the law faced criticism from students and teachers unions as well as various civil society groups. Concerns over the law turned into protests, which were cracked down by the government. Section 1 includes definition of terms used in the law; as laid out in Section 2, the main objectives of the law are to train students to become critical thinkers. Section 3 of the law covers the fundamental policies of the law that include providing education for students with disabilities. Section 4 outlines the formation of National Education Commission that will consist of ministers from related sectors, experts from nationality groups and relevant individuals; the duties of the committee include providing guidelines on implementation of the objectives and the policies of the law.

Article 7 of the Section 4 states that the commission should not interfere with the management of institutions of higher education but only assist with policy-related issues for their development. Section 5 states that public education will be divided into primary education, vocational education and higher education; the section talks about formal and informal education as well as self-learning education. Section 6 covers the different types of schools that include public schools, private schools, monastic schools, volunteer schools, regional schools, government-funded schools, special schools and emergency mobile schools. Section 7 is about curriculum and it states that National Education Commission has to ensure curriculums used in the country have boundaries and standards and guarantee autonomy of curriculum formations if it meets these standards. Ministry of Education will set the standards of National Education Curriculum with approval from the Commission. Schools can teach in either Burmese or English or both languages and if necessary, an ethnic language and Burmese can be used in primary education.

It mentions that in States and Regions, ethnic language and literature program can be implemented through state and regional governments starting from elementary level and upgraded step by step. Section 8 details educational duties and benefits and explain the roles of parent or guardian and local and regional administration. Section 9 focuses on quality of teachers. Section 10 covers monitoring and accessing the education quality and states that in every level of education there must be a quality assessment scheme. Section 11 is on management and administrative duties of education. In Article 56, it states the Ministry of Education, relevant ministries and Higher Education Committee will work together to manage related institutions of higher education based on this law and existing laws. Section 12 covers budget and Section 13, Article 66 states that existing schools before the implementation of the law must operate according to the law by five years of its enactment. Section 14 covers more general issues including that the law does not govern schools that only teach religion.

In March 2014, Education Promotion and Implementation Committee drafted the National Education Bill, which went through both houses of Hluttaw on July 30, 2014. While the bill was waiting for the approval from President and teachers unions as well as the civil society groups raised concerns over whether the bill was drafted democratically, they claimed that though the government held meetings to seek advice from the public, it ignored their recommendations. Thein Sein sent back the bill to the parliament with some 25 proposed changes. On September 26, the parliament accepted 19 of the proposed changes but denied 6 one of, to delay the full implementation of the law to 2027 and it became enacted on September 30; the next step is for Hluttaw to pass by-laws in the coming months to supplement the enacted law. Opponents of the law claimed, they were unsatisfied that minority ethnic languages would not be taught at institutes of higher education. They stated that under the new law, universities would not be independent from Ministry of Education and most of all, they point out that the law will not recognize the formation of student and teacher unions.

On the other hand, members of Hluttaw responded that institutions of higher education would remain independent from central control. Khin Maung Yi, the secretary of the Joint Bill Committee, asserted that unive

Israel Angell

Israel Angell was a Continental Army officer of the American Revolutionary War. He was born to Naomi Angell in Providence, Rhode Island, he was a descendant of one of the original settlers in Rhode Island. He developed an early interest in scientific matters, he had seventeen children. Angell was successively promoted, he was appointed a major of Colonel Daniel Hitchcock's Regiment at the outbreak of the American Revolution. He served with the regiment in the Siege of Boston; when the Continental Army was reorganized on January 1, 1776, Hitchcock's Regiment was re-designated as the 11th Continental Infantry. Late in 1776, Hitchcock was appointed as a brigade commander and Angell assumed command of the regiment; the regiment was re-designated as the 2nd Rhode Island Regiment on January 1, 1777 and Angell was promoted to lieutenant colonel of the regiment. A few days he was promoted to colonel in command of the regiment following the death of Colonel Hitchcock on January 13, 1777. Angell served at Valley Forge in the Winter of 1777 to 1778, in the following battles: Siege of Boston Battle of Brandywine Battle of Red Bank Battle of Monmouth Battle of Rhode Island Battle of Springfield He was distinguished in the Battle of Springfield, where he withheld a key bridge from British troop advances.

He received recognition correspondence for this act of heroism from George Washington and Nathanael Greene. He served at various places in Rhode Island and New Jersey and along highlands of the Hudson River, most notably at Peekskill and West Point, he retired from the army on January 1, 1781, after the two Rhode Island regiments were consolidated into a single regiment known as the Rhode Island Regiment. He settled in Rhode Island as farmer and cooper, he lived in Smithfield, Rhode Island. He married Martha Angell, his 2nd marriage was to Susanne Wright. His 3rd marriage was to Sarah Wood. Angell had 17 children. Colonel Angell died on May 14, 1832 at the age of 91, he was buried in Johnston, Rhode Island. In 1918 his remains were moved to the North Burial Ground in Providence, Rhode Island and a large plaque was placed their in his honor by the Rhode Island Society of the Sons of the American Revolution, he is the highest ranking Rhode Island officer who served in the Continental Army, buried in Rhode Island.

Johnson, Allen, ed. Dictionary of American Biography. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1936. Feature article about Israel Angell's service in the Revolutionary War and his final grave site by the Varnum Continentals Historical Organization in East Greenwich, RI. Israel Angell at Find a Grave Diary of Colonel Israel Angell, commanding the Second Rhode Island continental regiment during the American revolution, 1778-1781.

2012 Gambian parliamentary election

Parliamentary elections were held in the Gambia on 29 March 2012. The ruling Alliance for Patriotic Reorientation and Construction won 43 of the 48 elected seats. 48 of the 53 members of the unicameral National Assembly were directly elected, with an additional five members appointed by the President. Due to the over 50% illiteracy rate in the country, voters would drop glass marbles into coloured drums based on the candidate they chose. Upon the marble hitting the bottom of each drum, a bell would sound to prevent voter fraud through multiple voting. There were 86 candidates for 48 elected seats. 25 seats were won unopposed by the APRC. Six opposition parties boycotted the elections, saying they were rigged in favour of the APRC, after a request to postpone the election was rejected; the UDP's Ousainou Darboe said. They operate from the offices of the regional governors and from the offices of the various local authorities to operate." The grouping called for ECOWAS to intervene. The grouping said that APRC had "an abuse of incumbency complete merger between party and state" allowed for the ruling party to use state resources such as the media for "political advantage."Hamat Bah's National Reconciliation Party decided to participate in the elections.

Bah made the decision on the premise that he could win back the seat lost after the founding of the National Alliance for Democracy and Development and was subsequently barred by a court ruling. Electoral observers were present from the African Union, Commonwealth of Nations and the Organisation of Islamic Conference. Economic Community of West African States, said it would not agree to monitor the election because, according to them, the election was not "free and transparent." ECOWAS criticised the AU for sending an observer mission. List of NAMs elected in the 2012 Gambian parliamentary election