Asiatic–Pacific Campaign Medal
The Asiatic–Pacific Campaign Medal is a United States military award of the Second World War, awarded to any member of the United States Armed Forces who served in the Asiatic-Pacific Theater from 1941 to 1945. The medal was created on November 6, 1942 by Executive Order 9265 issued by President Franklin D. Roosevelt; the medal was designed by Thomas Hudson Jones. There were 21 Army and 48 Navy-Marine Corps official campaigns of the Pacific Theater, denoted on the suspension and service ribbon of the medal by service stars which were called "battle stars"; the Arrowhead device is authorized for those campaigns which involved participation in amphibious assault landings. The Fleet Marine Force Combat Operation Insignia is authorized for wear on the medal for Navy service members who participated in combat while assigned to a Marine Corps unit; the flag colors of the United States and Japan are visible in the ribbon. The Asiatic–Pacific Campaign Medal was first issued as a service ribbon in 1942.
A full medal was authorized in 1947, the first of, presented to General of the Army Douglas MacArthur. The European Theater equivalent of the medal was known as the European-African-Middle Eastern Campaign Medal. Boundaries of Asiatic-Pacific Theater; the eastern boundary is coincident with the western boundary of the American Theater. The western boundary is from the North Pole south along the 60th meridian east longitude to its intersection with the east boundary of Iran south along the Iran boundary to the Gulf of Oman and the intersection of the 60th meridian east longitude south along the 60th meridian east longitude to the South Pole. Authorized Army military campaigns for the Pacific Theater are as follows: Authorized Navy military campaigns for the Pacific Theater are as follows: For members of the U. S. military who did not receive campaign credit, but still served on active duty in the Pacific Theater, the following “blanket” campaigns are authorized for which the Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal is awarded without service stars.
Antisubmarine December 7, 1941 – September 2, 1945 Ground Combat: December 7, 1941 – September 2, 1945 Air Combat: December 7, 1941 – September 2, 1945 Service Star Arrowhead device Awards and decorations of the United States military Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal - Criteria and Images Navy Authorized Pacific Theater Engagements US Army TACOM, Clothing and Insignia PSID, Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal
Afghanistan Campaign Medal
The Afghanistan Campaign Medal is a military award of the United States military, created by Executive Order 13363 of President George W. Bush on November 29, 2004, became available for general distribution in June 2005; the medal was designed by the U. S. Army Institute of Heraldry; the Afghanistan Campaign Medal is awarded to any member of the United States military who has performed duty within the borders of Afghanistan for a period of thirty consecutive days or sixty non-consecutive days. The medal is retroactive to October 24, 2001, is active until a date to be determined. Personnel who have been engaged in combat with an enemy force, or personnel who have been wounded in combat within Afghanistan, may receive the ACM regardless of the number of days spent within the country; the medal is awarded posthumously to any service member who dies in the line of duty within Afghanistan, including from non-combat injuries such as accidents and mishaps. The medal is bronze in 1 1⁄4 inches in diameter.
It depicts above a range of mountains a map of Afghanistan. Around the top is the inscription "AFGHANISTAN CAMPAIGN." On the reverse, a radiating demi-sun superimposed by an eagle’s head couped. Inscribed across the bottom half of the reserve side are the three lines "FOR SERVICE IN AFGHANISTAN", enclosed by a laurel wreath; the following are the established campaign phases for the Afghanistan Campaign Medal: The Afghanistan Campaign Medal is authorized the following devices: Arrowhead device - For qualified Army and Air Force service members. Campaign stars - For each campaign phase that a service member participates in for 1 or more days, a 3⁄16 inch bronze campaign star is worn on the suspension and service ribbon of the medal, with a 3⁄16 inch silver star being worn in lieu of five bronze stars. Fleet Marine Force Combat Operation Insignia - The ICM may be awarded with the Fleet Marine Force Combat Operation Insignia for qualified Navy service members such as hospital corpsmen assigned to Marine Corps units that participate in combat during the assignment.
Examples of campaign stars worn on the ACM service ribbon: The Afghanistan Campaign Medal replaces the Global War on Terrorism Expeditionary Medal for service in Afghanistan and personnel who received the GWOT-EM for Afghanistan service may elect to exchange the medal for the ACM. Both medals may not be received for the same period of service in Afghanistan and any current Afghanistan service will only be recognized with the Afghanistan Campaign Medal. War in Afghanistan Awards and decorations of the United States military United Kingdom Afghanistan medal
Marine Corps Expeditionary Medal
The Marine Corps Expeditionary Medal is a military award of the United States Marine Corps. It was established on 8 May 1919 as the Marine Corps Expeditionary Ribbon. A full-sized medal was authorized on 1 March 1921 by Presidential Order of Warren G. Harding; the Marine Corps Expeditionary Medal is therefore one of the oldest medals of the United States military, still issued to active duty personnel. To be awarded the Marine Corps Expeditionary Medal, a Marine must have engaged in a landing on foreign territory, participated in combat operations against an opposing force, or participated in a designated operation for which no other service medal is authorized. After 1961, some commands permitted eligible personnel to choose between the Marine Corps Expeditionary Medal, or the Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal, depending on the nature of the operation in question; the medal was designed by Walker Hancock and features a 1920s-era Marine in full combat gear, advancing with one foot in the water and one foot on land, bayonet at the ready, with the word "Expeditions".
On the reverse of both the Marine Corps Expeditionary Medal and Navy Expeditionary Medal, in the center of the bronze medallion an eagle is shown alight upon an anchor. The eagle is grasping sprigs of laurel. Above the eagle are the words UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS or UNITED STATES NAVY presented as an arch. Above the laurel are the words FOR SERVICE presented horizontally; the eagle is the American bald eagle and represents the United States, the anchor alludes to Marine Corps or Navy service, the laurel is symbolic of victory and achievement. Subsequent awards of the Marine Corps Expeditionary Medal were denoted by award numerals. After 1921, multiple awards were denoted by bronze service stars; the Fleet Marine Force Combat Operation Insignia is authorized for navy personnel who were on duty with and attached to a Marine Corps unit that participated in combat. The Wake Island Device is authorized for any personnel who were awarded the Marine Corps Expeditionary Medal as part of the defense of Wake Island during the opening days of World War II.
Under the "deemed to merit special recognition and for which service no campaign medal has been awarded" clause, both the Marine Corps Expeditionary Medal and Navy Expeditionary Medal have been awarded for classified operations with proper adjudication by the Secretary of the Navy Special Awards Board. The MCEM and NEM "can be authorized and awarded to individuals or units who have participated in classified operations not in connection with larger operations in which the public is aware.” The SECNAV INSTRUCTION 1650.1H - NAVY AND MARINE CORPS AWARDS MANUAL details the process via the Special Awards Board for issuing classified awards. Anecdotal reports from former service members cite a wide variety of classified operations for which the MCEM and NEM have been awarded, ranging from Marine Corps units clandestinely deployed in Africa, to helicopter gun-crews or force protection units assisting SEAL-DEVGRU or DeltaForce teams worldwide, classified submarine movements during the Cold War. In cases where the Marine Corps Expeditionary Medal or Navy Expeditionary Medal has been awarded for classified operations, the name of the operation is omitted from public documentation including from the individual service member’s DD214 personnel record with only the name of the award and issue date provided.
Both the Marine Corps Expeditionary Medal and Navy Expeditionary Medal have been fraudulently worn by military service members convicted under the UCMJ and civilians fraudulently claiming to have been awarded the MCEM or NEM along with other medals such as the Purple Heart. It has been reported that L. Ron Hubbard, founder of the Church of Scientology, fraudulently claimed being awarded the Marine Corps Expeditionary Medal. Awards and decorations of the United States military
Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal
The Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal is a military award of the United States Armed Forces, first created in 1961 by Executive Order of President John Kennedy. The medal is awarded to members of the U. S. Armed Forces who, after July 1, 1958, participated in U. S. military operations, U. S. operations in direct support of the United Nations, or U. S. operations of assistance for friendly foreign nations. The Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal is issued as 1-1/4 inches in diameter; the obverse side of the medal consists of an eagle, with wings addorsed and inverted, standing on a sword loosened in its scabbard, super- imposed on a radiant compass rose of eight points, all within the circumscription "ARMED FORCES" above and "EXPEDITIONARY SERVICE" below with a sprig of laurel on each side. On the reverse side of the medal is the shield from the United States Coat of Arms above two laurel branches separated by a bullet, all within the circumscription "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA"; the ribbon is 1 3/8 inches wide and consists of the following stripes: 3/32 inch Green.
Ribbon devicesA bronze service star is authorized for participation in subsequent U. S. Military operations authorized for award of the AFEM. A silver service star is worn in lieu of five bronze service stars; the Arrowhead device is authorized for United States Army and United States Air Force personnel who are awarded the medal through participation in an airborne or amphibious assault. The Fleet Marine Force Combat Operation Insignia is authorized for U. S. Navy service members assigned to Marine Corps units that participate in combat during the assignment; the Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal may be authorized for three categories of operations: U. S. military operations. S. military operations in direct support of the United Nations. S. operations of assistance for friendly foreign nations. The medal shall be awarded only for operations for which no other U. S. campaign medal is approved, where a foreign armed opposition or imminent threat of hostile action was encountered. Since its original conception in 1961, the Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal has been awarded for United States participation in over forty five designated military campaigns.
The first campaign of the AFEM was the Cuban Missile Crisis and the award was issued for military service between October 1962 and June 1963. Following this original issuance, the AFEM was made retroactive to 1958 and issued for actions in Lebanon, Republic of the Congo and Matsu, for duty in Berlin between 1961 and 1963. During the early years of the Vietnam War, the Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal was issued for initial operations in South Vietnam and Cambodia; the Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal was intended to replace the Marine Corps Expeditionary Medal and Navy Expeditionary Medal, but this never occurred and both services continue to award their service expeditionary medals and the AFEM, though not concurrently for the same action. In 1965, with the creation of the Vietnam Service Medal, the AFEM was discontinued for Vietnam War service; as the Vietnam Service Medal was retroactively authorized, those personnel who had received the AFEM were granted the option to exchange the Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal for the Vietnam Service Medal.
In 1968, the AFEM was awarded for Naval operations in defense of the USS Pueblo, seized by North Korea, as well as for Korean Service, awarded for Thailand and Cambodia operations in 1973. Because of these awards during the Vietnam War period, some military personnel have been awarded both the Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal & the Vietnam Service Medal; some military advisers involved in the 1973 Arab–Israeli War were awarded the medal for their involvement in the supply and training of the IDF on the use and deployment of anti-tank weapons. In 2003, with the creation of the Global War on Terrorism Expeditionary Medal, the AFEM was discontinued for Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait. After 18 March 2003, some personnel became eligible for the Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal, as well as the Global War on Terrorism Expeditionary Medal. Only one medal may be awarded and individuals or units that deployed to the Gulf for Operation Southern Watch, immediately transitioned to Operation Iraqi Freedom, are not eligible for both medals.
Beginning in 1992 an effort was begun to phase out the AFEM in favor of campaign specific medals and the newly created Armed Forces Service Medal. The Armed Forces Service Medal was originally intended to be a replacement for the Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal, however the two awards are considered separate awards with different award criteria; the primary difference between the two is that the Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal is awarded for combat operations and combat support missions. After the close of the Vietnam War, the Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal was issued for various military operations in Panama and Libya Operation El Dorado Canyon; the medal is authorized for several United Nations actions, such as peacekeeping efforts in Somalia. The medal is authorized for NATO peacekeeping operations in Bosnia and Croatia; the AFEM has been issued for numerous operations in the Persian Gulf, most notably Operation Earnest Will, which began in 1987 and lasted until the eve of Operation Desert Shield.
Armed Forces Service Medal
The Armed Forces Service Medal is a military award of the United States military, created on January 11, 1996 by President Bill Clinton under Executive Order 12985. The AFSM is a deployed service medal, presented to those service members who engage in "significant activity" for which no other U. S. campaign or service medal is authorized. The Armed Forces Service Medal is a round bronze medal 1 1⁄4 in in diameter; the obverse of the medal bears a demi-torch, as held by the Statue of Liberty, with rays radiating from behind the torch. Encircling at the top is the inscription ARMED FORCES SERVICE MEDAL; the reverse bears the eagle found on the United States Department of Defense seal. Below is a laurel wreath with the inscription IN PURSUIT OF DEMOCRACY at the top; the suspension and ribbon of the medal are 1 3⁄8 in wide and consists of the following edge stripes from outside edge to the center: 1⁄16 in goldenlight, 1⁄8 in jungle green, 1⁄8 in green, 1⁄8 in mosstone green, 1⁄8 in goldenlight. The center stripe is 1⁄4 in wide in bluebird.
The Armed Forces Service Medal is the non-combat parallel of the Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal, awarded for combat operations and other combat support missions. The AFSM may be awarded to service members who, on or after June 1, 1992: Participate, or have participated, as members of U. S. military units, in a designated U. S. military operation deemed to be a significant activity. Encounter no foreign armed opposition or imminent hostile action; the term "significant activity" is determined by theater commanders and is deemed to be participation in a U. S. military operation considered to hold a high degree of scope and international significance that the operation warrants the presentation of a permanent service medal. Service members must have been permanently assigned, attached, or detailed to a unit that deployed to participate in a designated U. S. operation within the area of eligibility for 30 consecutive days or for 60 non-consecutive days. Aircrew members must have participated as a regular assigned crew member on an aircraft flying into, out of, within, or over the area of eligibility in direct support of the designated military operation for 30 consecutive days or 60 no-consecutive days.
One day of service is credited for the first sortie flown on any day. Additional sorties flown on the same day receive no further credit; the AFSM may be authorized for U. S. military operations for which no other U. S. campaign or service medal is appropriate such as: Peacekeeping operations Prolonged humanitarian operations U. S. military operations in direct support of the United Nations or the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, for operations of assistance to friendly foreign nations. The award is only appropriate if the NATO, UN, or foreign operation involves a concurrent U. S. military support operation. The AFSM is not authorized for participation in international exercises. For operations in which personnel of only one military department participate, the AFSM will be awarded only if there is no other suitable award available to the department. Additional awards and devices One award of the Armed Forces Service Medal is authorized for each designated military operation. Only one AFSM is awarded for multiple deployments for the same designated operation.
Subsequent awards are denoted by wearing a bronze service star on the AFSM suspension and service ribbon. A silver service star is worn in lieu of five bronze service stars; as an exception to Department of Defense policy, the Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal and the Armed Forces Service Medal may be awarded concurrently for Operations Joint Guard and Joint Endeavor. Humanitarian Service Medal "Armed Forces Service Medal". Air Force Personnel Center. United States Air Force. Retrieved 21 February 2017
World War I Victory Medal (United States)
The World War I Victory Medal was a United States World War I service medal designed by James Earle Fraser. Award of a common allied service medal was recommended by an inter-allied committee in March 1919; each allied nation would design a'Victory Medal' for award to their military personnel, all issues having certain common features, including a winged figure of victory on the obverse and the same ribbon. The Victory Medal was intended to be established by an act of Congress; the bill authorizing the medal never passed, thus leaving the military departments to establish it through general orders. The War Department published orders in April 1919, the Navy in June of the same year; the Victory Medal was awarded to military personnel for service between April 6, 1917, November 11, 1918, or with either of the following expeditions: American Expeditionary Forces in European Russia between November 12, 1918, August 5, 1919. American Expeditionary Forces Siberia between November 23, 1918, April 1, 1920.
The front of the bronze medal features a winged Victory holding a sword on the front. The back of the bronze medal features "The Great War For Civilization" in all capital letters curved along the top of the medal. Curved along the bottom of the back of the medal are six stars, three on either side of the center column of seven staffs wrapped in a cord; the top of the staff is winged on the side. The staff is on top of a shield that says "U" on the left side of the staff and "S" on the right side of the staff. On left side of the staff it lists one World War I Allied country per line: France, Serbia, Montenegro and Greece. On the right side of the staff the Allied country names read: Great Britain, Brazil, Portugal and China. To denote battle participation and campaign credit, the World War I Victory Medal was authorized with a large variety of devices to denote specific accomplishments. In order of seniority, the devices authorized to the World War I Victory Medal were as follows: The Citation Star to the World War I Victory Medal was authorized by the United States Congress on February 4, 1919.
A 3⁄16 inch silver star was authorized to be worn on the ribbon of the Victory Medal for any member of the U. S. Army, cited for gallantry in action between 1917 and 1920. In 1932, the Citation Star was redesigned and renamed the Silver Star Medal and, upon application to the United States War Department, any holder of the Silver Star Citation could have it converted to a Silver Star medal; the Navy Commendation Star to the World War I Victory Medal was authorized to any person, commended by the Secretary of the Navy for performance of duty during the First World War. A 3⁄16 inch silver star was worn on the World War I Victory Medal, identical in appearance to the Army's Citation Star. Unlike the Army's version, the Navy Commendation Star could not be upgraded to the Silver Star medal; the following battle clasps, inscribed with a battle's name, were worn on the medal to denote participation in major ground conflicts. For general defense service, not involving a specific battle, the "Defensive Sector" Battle Clasp was authorized.
The clasp was awarded for any battle, not recognized by its own battle clasp. The World War I Victory Medal bears the clasps of the battles the U. S. Army participated in across the ribbon. Not all battles are shown on the bar clasps. Only the battles designated as battles that would have bars issued were shown on the medal; the famous Battle of Chateau Thierry to hold the Chateau and the bridge as a joint effort between the US Army and the US Marines against the German machine gunners did not get awarded clasps. Navy battle clasps were issued for naval service in support of Army operations and had identical names to the Army battle clasps. There was a slight variation of the criteria dates for the Navy battle clasps; the Defensive Sector Clasp was authorized for Navy personnel who had participated in naval combat but were not authorized a particular battle clasp. For sea-related war duty, the Navy issued the following operational clasps, which were worn on the World War I Victory Medal and inscribed with the name of the duty type, performed: Unlike the army, the navy only allowed one clasp of any type to be worn on the ribbon.
Members of the marine or medical corps who served in France but was not eligible for a battle clasp would receive a bronze Maltese cross on their ribbons. For non-combat service with the army during the First World War, the following service clasps were authorized to be worn with the World War I Victory Medal; each service claps was inscribed with a region name where support service was performed. The U. S. Army issued the following service clasps: The U. S. Navy issued similar service clasps to the Army for service in the following regions during the following periods: Since battle and service clasps could only be worn on the full-sized World War I Victory Medal, 3/16 inch bronze service stars were authorized for wear on the award ribbon; this was the common method of campaign and battle display when wearing the World War I Victory Medal as a ribbon on a military uniform. Medals issued to U. S. Marines were issued with a Maltese cross device affixed to the ribbon; the World War I Victory Medals were awarded after the end of World War I, so they were mailed to the servicemen instead of awarded in person.
For example, the boxes containing the Victory Medals for United States Army World War I veterans were mailed out by the depot officer at the General Supply Depot, U. S. Army, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in April 1921. An outer
Operation Enduring Freedom
Operation Enduring Freedom was the official name used by the U. S. government for the Global War on Terrorism. On October 7, 2001, in response to the September 11 attacks, President George W. Bush announced that airstrikes targeting Al Qaeda and the Taliban had begun in Afghanistan. Operation Enduring Freedom refers to the War in Afghanistan, but it is affiliated with counterterrorism operations in other countries, such as OEF-Philippines and OEF-Trans Sahara. After 13 years, on December 28, 2014, President Barack Obama announced the end of Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan. Continued operations in Afghanistan by the United States' military forces, both non-combat and combat, now occur under the name Operation Freedom's Sentinel. Operation Enduring Freedom most refers to the U. S.-led combat mission in Afghanistan, a NATO military alliance between the United States, United Kingdom and Afghanistan. OEF is affiliated with counter-terrorism operations in other countries targeting Al Qaeda and remnants of the Taliban, such as OEF-Philippines and OEF-Trans Sahara through government funding vehicles.
Operation Enduring Freedom – Afghanistan, 7 October 2001 – 31 December 2014. Succeeded by Operation Freedom's Sentinel. Operation Enduring Freedom – Philippines, 15 January 2002 – 24 February 2015 Operation Enduring Freedom – Horn of Africa Operation Enduring Freedom – Pankisi Gorge Operation Enduring Freedom – Trans Sahara Operation Enduring Freedom – Caribbean and Central America Operation Enduring Freedom – Kyrgyzstan, 18 December 2001 – 3 June 2014 The U. S. government used the term "Operation Enduring Freedom – Afghanistan" to describe the War in Afghanistan, from the period between 7 October 2001 and 31 December 2014. Continued operations in Afghanistan by the United States' military forces, both non-combat and combat, now occur under the name Operation Freedom's Sentinel; the operation was called "Operation Infinite Justice", but as similar phrases have been used by adherents of several religions as an exclusive description of God, it is believed to have been changed to avoid offense to Muslims who are the majority religion in Afghanistan.
In September 2001, U. S. President George W. Bush's remark that "this crusade, this war on terrorism, is going to take a while", which prompted widespread criticism from the Islamic world, may have contributed to the renaming of the operation; the term "OEF-A" refers to the phase of the War in Afghanistan from 2001 to 2014. Other operations, such as the Georgia Train and Equip Program, are only loosely or nominally connected, such as through government funding vehicles. All the operations, have a focus on counterterrorism activities. Operation Enduring Freedom – Afghanistan, a joint U. S. U. K. and Afghan operation, was separate from the International Security Assistance Force, an operation of North Atlantic Treaty Organization nations including the U. S. and the U. K; the two operations ran in parallel. In response to the attacks of 11 September, the early combat operations that took place on 7 October 2001 to include a mix of strikes from land-based B-1 Lancer, B-2 Spirit and B-52 Stratofortress bombers, carrier-based F-14 Tomcat and F/A-18 Hornet fighters, Tomahawk cruise missiles launched from both U.
S. and British ships and submarines signaled the start of Operation Enduring Freedom – Afghanistan. The initial military objectives of OEF-A, as articulated by President George W. Bush in his 20 September Address to a Joint Session of Congress and his 7 October address to the country, included the destruction of terrorist training camps and infrastructure within Afghanistan, the capture of al-Qaeda leaders, the cessation of terrorist activities in Afghanistan. In January 2002, over 1,200 soldiers from the United States Special Operations Command Pacific deployed to the Philippines to support the Armed Forces of the Philippines in their push to uproot terrorist forces on the island of Basilan. Of those groups included are Abu Sayyaf Group, al-Qaeda and Jemaah Islamiyah; the operation consisted of training the AFP in counter-terrorist operations as well as supporting the local people with humanitarian aid in Operation Smiles. In October 2002, the Combined Task Force 150 and United States military Special Forces established themselves in Djibouti at Camp Lemonnier.
The stated goals of the operation were to provide humanitarian aid and patrol the Horn of Africa to reduce the abilities of terrorist organizations in the region. Similar to OEF-P, the goal of humanitarian aid was emphasized, ostensibly to prevent militant organizations from being able to take hold amongst the population as well as reemerge after being removed; the military aspect involves coalition forces searching and boarding ships entering the region for illegal cargo as well as providing training and equipment to the armed forces in the region. The humanitarian aspect involves building schools and water wells to enforce the confidence of the local people. Since 2001, the cumulative expenditure by the U. S. government on Operation Enduring Freedom has exceeded $150 billion. The operation continues, with military direction coming from United States Central Command. Seizing upon a power vacuum after the Soviets withdrew from Afghanistan after their invasion, the Taliban had the role of government from 1996–2001.
Their extreme interpretation of Islamic law prompted them to ban music, television and dancing, enforce harsh judicial penalties. Amputation was an accepted form of punishment for stealing, public exe