Scenic design is the creation of theatrical, as well as film or television scenery. Scenic designers come from a variety of artistic backgrounds, but in recent years, are trained professionals, holding a B. F. A. or M. F. A. degrees in theater arts. Scenic designers design sets and scenery that aim to support the overall artistic goals of the production. A designer looks at the details searching for evidence through research to produce conceptual ideas that’s best toward supporting the content and values with visual elements; the subject of, “How do we generate creative ideas?” is a legitimate question. The most consuming part of expanding our horizons toward scenic concepts is much more than witnessing creativity, creative people, it starts with us opening our mind to the possibilities. To have an attitude toward learning and engaging in creativity and to be willing to be adventurous and curious. Our imagination is visual. Whether outside or inside, colorful trees or concerts, star lit skies or the architecture of a great building, scenic design is a process of discovery.
Discovering what will best clarify and support the setting, atmosphere, ambience, & world, being created. The scenic designer works with the director and other designers to establish an overall visual concept for the production and design the stage environment, they are responsible for developing a complete set of design drawings that include the following: basic ground plan showing all stationary scenic elements. All of these required drawing elements can be created from one accurate 3-D CAD model of the set design; the scenic designer is responsible for collaborating with the theatre director and other members of the production design team to create an environment for the production and communicating the details of this environment to the technical director, production manager, charge scenic artist and prop master. Scenic designers are responsible for creating scale models of the scenery, paint elevations and scale construction drawings as part of their communication with other production staff.
In Europe and Australia, scenic designers take a more holistic approach to theatrical design and will be responsible not only for scenic design but costume and sound and are referred to as theatre designers or scenographers or production designers. Notable scenic designers and present, include: Alban Piot, Adolphe Appia, Boris Aronson, Alexandre Benois, Alison Chitty, Antony McDonald, Barry Kay, Caspar Neher, Cyro Del Nero, Aleksandra Ekster, David Gallo, Edward Gordon Craig, Es Devlin, Ezio Frigerio, Christopher Gibbs, Franco Zeffirelli, George Tsypin, Howard Bay, Inigo Jones, Jean-Pierre Ponnelle, Jo Mielziner, John Lee Beatty, Josef Svoboda, Ken Adam, Léon Bakst, Luciano Damiani, Maria Björnson, Ming Cho Lee, Natalia Goncharova, Nathan Altman, Nicholas Georgiadis, Oliver Smith, Ralph Koltai, Neil Patel, Robert Wilson, Russell Patterson, Brian Sidney Bembridge, Santo Loquasto, Sean Kenny, Todd Rosenthal, Robin Wagner, Tony Walton, Roger Kirk. Scenic painting Scenographer Scenography Set construction Theatrical scenery Film sculptor Making the Scene: A History of Stage Design and Technology in Europe and the United States by Oscar G. Brockett, Margaret Mitchell, Linda Hardberger 365 pages.
Designing and Painting for the Theater by Lynn Pecktal. Detailing production design for theater and ballet, Designing and Drawing for the Theater is a foundational text that provides a professional picture and encyclopedic reference of the design process. Well illustrated with detailed lined drawings and photographs, the book conveys the beauty and craft of scenic and production design. Prague Quadrennial of Performance Design and Space - the largest scenography event in the world - presenting contemporary work in a variety of performance design disciplines and genres - costume, light, sound design, theatre architecture for dance, drama, site specific, multi-media performances, performance art, etc. Prague, CZ What is Scenography Article illustrating the differences between US and European theatre design practices. Special:WhatLinksHere/Julia Anastasopoulos
A scenery shop or scene shop is a specialized workshop found in many medium or large theaters, as well as many educational theatre settings. The primary function of a scene shop is to fabricate and assemble the flats, scenery wagons, other scenic pieces required for a performance. A scene shop is the location where most of the set painting is done, is sometimes used to make props; the individuals who work in a scene shop are carpenters, although, in bigger shops, it is common for metalworkers to be employed for steel-construction set pieces which require welding and other machining. It is common for the individuals working in a scene shop to be knowledgeable in a wide variety of technical skills, developed over time as required for specific construction needs. Commercial scene shops can be found in larger metropolitan areas, where they are capable of supplying scenic elements to a variety of clients, including theatre, film and corporate productions. Scenic studios sometimes make elements for museum booths, touring concerts, other custom fabrication tasks.
Although many scene shops are located in general purpose building, most are in purpose built spaces because scenic fabrication has some specific needs. They are in large, open rooms, to accommodate big elements that a show may call for, they are attached directly to a loading dock for delivery of materials and shipping of finished elements. If they are attached to a performance venue, it is common to have large doors providing access to the stage. Compressed air and dust collection systems are distributed around the shop. Many processes in a scene shop such as spray painting, welding, or hot-wire foam cutting produce dangerous gasses, so extra ventilation is installed. Ideally, fume collection systems are available to use near the actual workpiece. Power is available in floor pockets or dropped from the ceiling, in a variety of voltages, as some tools welders require high voltages. Scene shops have designated areas inside for paints, carpentry and sometimes prop construction. Circular saws Table saw Power drills Screwdrivers Hammers Miter saws Welder Cutoff grinder Power sander Showers
A scale model is most a physical representation of an object, which maintains accurate relationships between all important aspects of the model, although absolute values of the original properties need not be preserved. This enables it to demonstrate some behavior or property of the original object without examining the original object itself; the most familiar scale models represent the physical appearance of an object in miniature, but there are many other kinds. Scale models are used in many fields including engineering, film making, military command and hobby model building. While each field may use a scale model for a different purpose, all scale models are based on the same principles and must meet the same general requirements to be functional; the detail requirements vary depending on the needs of the modeler. To be a true scale model, all relevant aspects must be modeled, such as material properties, so the model's interaction with the outside world is reliably related to the original object's interaction with the real world.
In general a scale model must be designed and built considering similitude theory. However, other requirements concerning practical issues must be considered. Similitude is the art of predicting prototype performance from scale model observations; the main requirement of similitude is all dimensionless quantities must be equal for both the scaled model and the prototype under the conditions the modeler desires to make observations. Dimensionless quantities are referred to as Pi terms, or π terms. In many fields the π terms are well established. For example, in fluid dynamics, a well known dimensionless number called the Reynolds number comes up in scale model tests with fluid in motion relative to a stationary surface. Thus, for a scale model test to be reliable, the Reynolds number, as well as all other important dimensionless quantities, must be equal for both scale model and prototype under the conditions that the modeler wants to observe. An example of the Reynolds number and its use in similitude theory satisfaction can be observed in the scale model testing of fluid flow in a horizontal pipe.
The Reynolds number for the scale model pipe must be equal to the Reynolds number of the prototype pipe for the flow measurements of the scale model to correspond to the prototype in a meaningful way. This can be written mathematically, with the subscript m referring to the scale model and subscript p referring to the prototype, as follows: R e m = ρ m v m L m μ m = ρ p v p L p μ p = R e p where v is the mean velocity of the object relative to the fluid L is a characteristic linear dimension, μ is the dynamic viscosity of the fluid ρ is the density of the fluid. Observing the equation above it is clear to see that while the Reynolds numbers must be equal for the scale model and the prototype, this can be accomplished in many different ways, for example, in this problem by altering the scale of the dynamic viscosity of the model to work with the scale of the length; this means, the scales of different quantities, for example a material's elasticity in the scale model versus the prototype, are governed by equating the dimensionless quantities and the other quantity's scaling within the dimensionless quantity to ensure the dimensionless quantity of interest is of equal magnitude for the scale model and prototype.
With the above understanding of similitude requirements, it becomes clear the scale reported in scale models refers only to the geometric scale, S L, not the scale of the parameters important to consider in the scale model design and fabrication. In general the scale of any quantity i material density or viscosity, is defined as: S i = i p i m where i p is the quantity value of the prototype i m is the quantity value of the scale modelThis relationship must be applied to all quantities of interest in the prototype, observing similitude requirements—so the scale model can be built using dimensions and materials that make scale model testing results meaningful with respect to the prototype. One method to determine the dimensionless quantities of concern for a given problem is to use dimensional analysis. Practical concerns include the cost to construct the model, available test facilities to condition and observe the model, the availability of certain materials, who will build it. Practical requirements are very diverse depending on the purpose of the scale model and they all must be considered to have a successful scale model experience.
As an example an aerospace company needs to test a new wing shape. Acco
A colour scroller or colour changer is an electro-mechanical lighting accessory used in theater, film and concerts to change the colour projected by stage lighting instruments without the need of a person to be in the vicinity of the light. A colour scroller moves, it is attached to the gel frame holder at the transmitting end of a lighting fixture, so colour is introduced after the beam characteristics have been defined by the optics of the lighting instrument. Most scrollers are controlled via DMX512 protocol, but some models utilize the RDM protocol; when colour scrollers were first introduced around 1980, a number of companies produced them, including: Avolites, GAM Products, Morpheus Lights, Rosco Laboratories and Wybron Inc. Now the main manufacturers are: A. C. Lighting, Morpheus Lights and Rainbow; the most used type of scroller is the single string scroller. This type has only one string of colour anywhere from 2 to 33 frames long. Dual string scrollers allow for a form of CMY mixing; the Apollo MXR 2, Chroma-Q Cascade and the Wybron CXI use 2 gel strings to obtain a CMY mix.
One frame of clear gel is positioned at the center of each gel string with progressively denser frames of colour positioned to either side of it. The first string has progressively denser yellow and cyan frames and the second string has progressively denser yellow and magenta frames; this permits various YC, YM, CM combinations to be achieved as a "static" colour mix. There is a limited ability to transition "live" between mixed colours - although some transitions cannot be accomplished without passing through the clear center frame. There are "true" CYM mixing scrollers that utilize three independently controlled gel strings - namely, the colourFader system manufactured by Morpheus Lights of Las Vegas, NV. Independent control of the gel strings permits users to cross-fade "from any colour to any colour" directly; the "colourFader" system predated the dichroic systems used in most moving lights, to creat smooth colour transitions. The basic concept of both systems is identical. Colour density variation is achieved by starting with a full-density sheet of gel in either Cyan, Magenta or Yellow.
The saturation of that colour is varied by perforating the gel sheet in a manner that permits unfiltered white light to pass through in varying amounts, progressing from full white to the saturated colour. At the zero DMX "start" position on a colourFader scroll there is a piece of clear gel; as the DMX control value is increased the gel string moves to the coloured gel, which has perforated holes are that are large and plentiful - so the percentage of white light passing through those hole predominates over that of the gel colour, low-saturation colours are achieved. As DMX control value increases, it progresses the scroll further and the holes become smaller and less numerous - so the percentage of coloured material in the optical path increases relative to the white light pass-through, the result is progressively higher density colour transmission. At full DMX, a solid, unperforated sheet of gel is positioned in the optical path - for full saturation. Colour scrollers come in many different sizes and are mountable on nearly every type of conventional lighting instrument.
Sizes include: 4 Inch 6 to 7.5 Inch 8 to 10 inch 12 inch 15 inch 20-30 inch Large format scrollers for ETC Multi-PAR units Most colour scrollers use DMX512 addressing protocol. Each scroller unit is given an address. Earlier scroller models used binary DIP switches to set the address, however most scrollers include digital addressing systems. Once addressed, the unit is connected with other colour scrollers and run back to a power supply The power supply receives the DMX control signal from the Lighting control console and distributes control signal to each colour scroller unit along with 24 volts DC. Depending on the manufacturer, power supplies can power anywhere from 1 to 64 units; some colour scrollers are configured for "daisy chain" connection, by which 4-pin power/control cable feeds into and out of a number of scrollers. The number of units that can be daisy chained together is limited by a head-feet restriction. Head-feet is defined as the total sum of the lengths of cable from each device to a single power supply.
It is a way to account for the voltage drop in the power/signal cable caused the current drawn from each unit and the length of the cable. If you exceed the recommended "head feet" you may experience performance problems with all of the scrollers on the chain. Other scroller systems, such as the Morpheus colourFader, do not permit daisy chaining. Up to six standard colourFader units can be powered from a colourFader PS-6 power supply -, a simple unit, hung on a pipe in close proximity to the active colourFader units; because independent "Home runs" of 4-pin cable reliably carry po
AutoCAD is a commercial computer-aided design and drafting software application. Developed and marketed by Autodesk, AutoCAD was first released in December 1982 as a desktop app running on microcomputers with internal graphics controllers. Before AutoCAD was introduced, most commercial CAD programs ran on mainframe computers or minicomputers, with each CAD operator working at a separate graphics terminal. Since 2010, AutoCAD was released as a mobile- and web app as well, marketed as AutoCAD 360. AutoCAD is used in the industry, by architects, project managers, graphic designers, city planners and other professionals, it was supported by 750 training centers worldwide in 1994. AutoCAD was derived from a program that began in 1977, released in 1979 called Interact CAD referred to in early Autodesk documents as MicroCAD, written prior to Autodesk's formation by Autodesk cofounder Michael Riddle; the first version by Autodesk was released that December. AutoCAD supported CP/M-80 computers; as Autodesk's flagship product, by March 1986 AutoCAD had become the most ubiquitous CAD program worldwide.
The 2020 release marked the 34th major release of AutoCAD for Windows. The 2019 release marked the ninth consecutive year of AutoCAD for Mac; the native file format of AutoCAD is.dwg. This and, to a lesser extent, its interchange file format DXF, have become de facto, if proprietary, standards for CAD data interoperability for 2D drawing exchange. AutoCAD has included support for.dwf, a format developed and promoted by Autodesk, for publishing CAD data. ESRI ArcMap 10 permits export as AutoCAD drawing files. Civil 3D permits export as AutoCAD objects and as LandXML. Third-party file converters exist for specific formats such as Bentley MX GENIO Extension, PISTE Extension, ISYBAU, OKSTRA and Microdrainage. For example, jagged edges may appear. Several vendors provide online conversions for free such as Cometdocs.autoCAD use in all purposes. Auto CAD and AutoCAD LT are available for English, French, Spanish, Chinese Simplified, Chinese Traditional, Brazilian Portuguese, Czech and Hungarian, Albanian.
The extent of localization varies from full translation of the product to documentation only. The AutoCAD command set is localized as a part of the software localization. AutoCAD supports a number of APIs for automation; these include AutoLISP, Visual LISP, VBA. NET and ObjectARX. ObjectARX is a C++ class library, the base for: products extending AutoCAD functionality to specific fields creating products such as AutoCAD Architecture, AutoCAD Electrical, AutoCAD Civil 3D third-party AutoCAD-based applicationThere are a large number of AutoCAD plugins available on the application store Autodesk Exchange Apps. AutoCAD's DXF, drawing exchange format, allows exporting drawing information. Autodesk has developed a few vertical programs for discipline-specific enhancements such as: AutoCAD Advance Steel AutoCAD Architecture AutoCAD CIVIL 3D AutoCAD Electrical AutoCAD ecscad AutoCAD Map 3D AutoCAD Mech AutoCAD MEP AutoCAD Structural Detailing AutoCAD Utility Design AutoCAD P&ID AutoCAD Plant 3DSince AutoCAD 2019 several verticals are included with AutoCAD subscription as Industry-Specific Toolset.
For example, AutoCAD Architecture permits architectural designers to draw 3D objects, such as walls and windows, with more intelligent data associated with them rather than simple objects, such as lines and circles. The data can be programmed to represent specific architectural products sold in the construction industry, or extracted into a data file for pricing, materials estimation, other values related to the objects represented. Additional tools generate standard 2D drawings, such as elevations and sections, from a 3D architectural model. Civil Design, Civil Design 3D, Civil Design Professional support data-specific objects facilitating easy standard civil engineering calculations and representations. Softdesk Civil was developed as an AutoCAD add-on by a company in New Hampshire called Softdesk. Softdesk was acquired by Autodesk, Civil became Land Development Desktop renamed Land Desktop. Civil 3D was developed and Land Desktop was retired. AutoCAD LT is the lower cost version of AutoCAD, with reduced capabilities, first released in November 1993.
Autodesk developed AutoCAD LT to have an entry-level CAD package to compete in the lower price level. Priced at $495, it became the first AutoCAD product priced below $1000, it was sold directly by Autodesk and in computer stores unlike the full version of AutoCAD, which must be purchased from official Autodesk dealers. AutoCAD LT 2015 introduced Desktop Subscription from $360 per year. While there are hundreds of small differences between the full AutoCAD package and AutoCAD LT, there are a few recognized major differences in the software's features: 3D Capabilities: AutoCAD LT lacks the ability to create and render 3D models as well as 3D printing. Network Licensing: AutoCAD LT cannot be used on multiple machines over a network. Customization: AutoCAD LT does not support customization with LISP, ARX. NET and VBA. Management and automation capabilities with Sheet Set Manager and Action Recorder. CAD standards management tools. Marketed as AutoCAD WS, AutoCAD 360 is an account-based mobile and web application enabling re
Stage lighting accessories
Stage lighting accessories are components manufactured for conventional stage lighting instruments. Most conventional fixtures are designed to accept a number of different accessories designed to assist in the modification of the output; these accessories are intended to either provide common functionality not provided in a fixture, or to extend the versatility of a lighting instrument by introducing features. Other accessories have been designed to overcome limitations or difficulties some fixtures present in specific applications. All stage lighting accessories fall into one of three distinct categories: components installed inside the fixture, components affixed to the front of the fixture, or components mounted elsewhere on the exterior of a fixture. Barn doors, or a set of barn doors, are an attachment fitted to the front of a Fresnel lantern, a type of lantern used in films and theatres; the attachment has the appearance of a large set of barn doors, but in fact there are four leaves, two larger and widening on the outside, two smaller and getting narrower towards the outside.
They facilitate shaping of the beam of light from the fixture, prevent the distinctive scatter of light created by the Fresnel lens from spilling into areas where it is not wanted, such as the eyes of audience members. Barn doors are mounted with a ring; because of this, barn doors have a gel slot built into them, so the light can still be colored. Depending on the size and local practices, barn doors may be attached to the pipe or the instrument with their own safety cable. Barn doors are not used with "profile" or "ellipsoidal reflector" spotlights such as the Source Four because they have internal shutters which work more effectively. Barn doors are not effective at shaping the light of a PAR lights and a narrower lens would be a better way to do this. A top hat known as a stove pipe or snoot, is a device used in theatrical lighting to shield the audience's eyes from the direct source of the light, it is shaped like a top hat with a hole in the top, the brim being inserted into the gel frame holder on a lighting instrument.
The cylinder allows light to pass through but takes away the glint of a lighting instrument facing the audience. It reduces flare created by the light, useful when the unit is hung near the proscenium or other objects that the designer does not want to light. There are half-hats or "eyelashes", which function in a similar manner but have only half the cylinder, short hats, which are shorter in length. Top hats are manufactured for most modern-day lighting instruments with gel frames of varying sizes. Gel extenders are similar to top hats in appearance, being a tube placed over the end of a lighting fixture. Unlike top hats, gel extenders have a colour frame holder built into the end to allow color gel to be mounted. Gel extenders are available in a conical shape which does not constrict the beam of light output from the fixture at all. A colour frame or gel frame is a piece of folded material, made from either metal or cardboard, designed to hold colour media. Colour frames are placed directly outside the fixture in front of lens assembly.
Most fixtures include an integrated holder for the frame. Some accessories designed to mount in the gel frame holder, such as Barn Doors include an integrated replacement slot for frames. Comes in many different sizes for all types of lanterns including, fresnels and par cans A doughnut, or donut, is a thin metal or cardboard panel, similar in shape and appearance to a colour frame, but with a small diameter hole intended to reduce off-axis rays of light being projected from a fixture; this increases sharpness of the light by reducing the effect of imperfect lenses. Doughnuts are designed to fit into the colour frame holder directly outside the fixture in front of lens assembly; because they are thin, doughnuts can be placed in the same slot as a gel frame. Doughnuts are used in fixtures in order to sharpen the beam when a template is in place. A color scroller, color changer, or "scroller" is a lighting accessory used to change color gels on stage lighting instruments without the need of a person to be in the vicinity of the light.
It is attached in the gel frame holder on the outside of a lighting instrument in front of lens assembly. The "scroll" of colours inside the colour changer allows a single fixture to output several different colours, or no colour, to change between colours on command. Most scrollers are controlled via DMX512 protocol, but some newer models utilize the RDM protocol. A moving mirror attachment is an ellipsoidal spotlight accessory that allows you to remotely re-position the beam of light, so that a single luminaire in a fixed position can be used for multiple "specials" in dozens of locations. Two of the most prominent models are the Elipscan by the Rosco I-Cue. Beam Bender A beam bender is a large adjustable mirror, mounted into the color slot on the front of a lighting fixture, it is designed to allow a fixture to be mounted at right angles to the desired direction to be lit and have the output reflected accordingly. Drop in Boomerang A Boomerang known as a Color magazine is a series of colored filters on hinges.
A "Drop in Boomerang" is designed to mount into the color slot of a lighting fixture and provide the operator with several manually selected gels. Most this accessory is seen in conjunction with the followspot yoke, when a fixture is being used as a small replaceme
A prop, formally known as property, is an object used on stage or on screen by actors during a performance or screen production. In practical terms, a prop is considered to be anything movable or portable on a stage or a set, distinct from the actors, scenery and electrical equipment. Consumable food items appearing in the production are considered props; the earliest known use of the term "properties" in English to refer to stage accessories is in the 1425 CE morality play, The Castle of Perseverance. The Oxford English Dictionary finds the first usage of "props" in 1841, while the singular form of "prop" appeared in 1911. During the Renaissance in Europe, small acting troupes functioned as cooperatives, pooling resources and dividing any income. Many performers provided their own costumes, but special items—stage weapons, furniture or other hand-held devices—were considered "company property"; some experts however seem to think that the term comes from the idea that stage or screen objects "belong" to whoever uses them on stage.
There is no difference between props such as theatre, film, or television. Bland Wade, a properties director, says, "A coffee cup onstage is a coffee cup on television, is a coffee cup on the big screen." He adds, "There are different responsibilities and different vocabulary." The term "theatrical property" originated to describe an object used in a stage play and similar entertainments to further the action. Technically, a prop is any object that gives the scenery, actors, or performance space specific period, place, or character; the term comes from live-performance practice theatrical methods, but its modern use extends beyond the traditional plays and musical, novelty and public-speaking performances, to film and electronic media. Props in a production originate from off stage unless they have been preset on the stage before the production begins. Props are stored on a prop table backstage near the actor's entrance during production generally locked in a storage area between performances.
The person in charge of handling the props is called the "props master". Other positions include coordinators, production assistants and interns as may be needed for a specific project; the term has transferred to television, motion picture and video game production, where they are referred to by the phrase movie prop, film prop or prop. In recent years, the increasing popularity of movie memorabilia has added new meaning to the term "prop", broadening its existence to include a valuable after-life as a prized collector's item. Not available until after a film's premiere, movie props appearing on-screen are called "screen-used", can fetch thousands of dollars in online auctions and charity benefits. Many props are ordinary objects. However, a prop must "read well" from the house or on-screen, meaning it must look real to the audience. Many real objects are poorly adapted to the task of looking like themselves to an audience, due to their size, durability, or color under bright lights, so some props are specially designed to look more like the actual item than the real object would look.
In some cases, a prop is designed to behave differently from how the real object would for the sake of safety. Examples of special props are: A prop sack representing a burlap bag, might have another black fabric bag sewn, discreetly inside the burlap, giving it strength, hiding the contents and creating a visual void to the audience view. A prop mop, representing a string mop, but built out of a rectangular shape covered with fabric, so the mop can be slid across the stage to another actress as part of a musical number. A prop weapon that looks functional, but lacks the intentional harmfulness of the corresponding real weapon. In the theater, prop weapons are always either non-operable replicas, or have safety features to ensure they are not dangerous. Guns fire caps or noisy blanks, swords are dulled, knives are made of plastic or rubber. In film production functional weapons are used, but only with special smoke blanks with blank adapted guns instead of real bullets. Real cartridges with bullets removed are still dangerously charged which has caused several tragic instances when used on stage or film.
The safety and proper handling of real weapons used as movie props is the premiere responsibility of the prop master. ATF and other law enforcement agencies may monitor the use of real guns for film and television, but this is not necessary with stage props as these guns are permanently "plugged". Breakaway objects, or stunt props, such as balsa-wood furniture, or sugar glass whose breakage and debris look real but cause injury due to their light weight and weak structure. For such safe props often a stunt double will replace the main actor for shots involving use of breakaway props. Rubber bladed-weapons and guns are examples of props used by stuntmen to minimize injury, or by actors where the action requires a prop which minimizes injury. "Hero" props are the more detailed pieces intended for close inspection by the audience. The hero prop may have legible writing, moving parts, or other attributes or functions missing from a standard prop; the term is used on occasion for any of the items that a main character wou