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In biology, setae are any of a number of different bristle- or hair-like structures on living organisms. Annelid setae are stiff, they help, for example, earthworms to attach to the surface and prevent backsliding during peristaltic motion. These hairs make it difficult to pull a worm straight from the ground. Setae in oligochaetes are composed of chitin, they are classified according to the limb. Crustaceans have mechano- and chemosensory setae. Setae are present on the mouthparts of crustaceans and can be found on grooming limbs. In some cases, setae are modified into scale like structures. Setae on the legs of krill and other small crustaceans help them to gather phytoplankton, it allows them to be eaten. Setae on the integument of insects are unicellular, meaning that each is formed from a single epidermal cell of a type called a trichogen meaning "bristle generator", they are at first hollow and in most forms remain hollow. They grow through and project through a secondary or accessory cell of a type called a tormogen, which generates the special flexible membrane that connects the base of the seta to the surrounding integument.

Depending on their form and function, setae may be called hairs, chaetae, or scales. The setal membrane is not cuticularized and movement is possible; some insects, such as Eriogaster lanestris larvae, use setae as a defense mechanism, as they can cause dermatitis when they come into contact with skin. The pads on a gecko's feet are small hair-like processes that play a role in the animal's ability to cling to vertical surfaces; the micrometer-scale setae branch into nanometer-scale projections called spatulae. Gekko's seta: According to Kellar Autumn, "Two front feet of a tokay gecko can withstand 20.1 N of force parallel to the surface with 227 mm2 of pad area. The foot of a tokay bears 3600 tetrads of setae per mm2, or 14,400 setae per mm2 - Consequently, a single seta should produce an average force of 6-2 pN, an average shear stress of 0-090 N mm−l. However, single setae proved both much less sticky and much more sticky than predicted by whole animal measurements, under varying experimental conditions, implying that attachment and detachment in gecko setae are mechanically controlled."

In mycology, "setae" refer to dark brown, thick-walled, thorn-like cystidia found in corticioid and poroid fungi in the family Hymenochaetaceae. Though microscopic, the setae of some species may be sufficiently prominent to be visible with a hand lens. In botany, "seta" refers to the stalk supporting the capsule of a moss or liverwort, supplying it with nutrients; the seta is part of the sporophyte and has a short foot embedded in the gametophyte on which it is parasitic. Setae are not present in all mosses, but in some species they may reach 15 to 20 centimeters in height. In the diatom family Chaetocerotaceae, "seta" refers to the hairlike outgrowths of the valve, i.e. of the face of the cells. These setae have a different structure than the valve; such setae may prevent rapid sinking and protect the cells from grazing. Synthetic setae are a class of synthetic adhesives that detach at will, sometimes called resettable adhesives, yet display substantial stickiness; the development of such synthetic materials is a matter of current research.

Chaeta Synthetic setae Van der Waals force

Jana Aranya

Jana Aranya is a 1976 Bengali film directed by Satyajit Ray, based on the novel of the same name by Mani Shankar Mukherjee. It is the last among Ray's Calcutta trilogy series, the previous two being and Seemabaddha; the film portrays the economic difficulties faced by middle-class, urban youth in 1970s India. After achieving only moderate academic results and making numerous unsuccessful attempts to find a job, the central protagonist decides to start his own business as a middle-man—i.e. A self-employed salesman, he soon however finds himself involved in unethical behaviours, contrary to his upbringing. His friend Sukumar, having gone through similar ordeals but being unable to land a job, becomes a taxi-driver. One day, Somnath finds that in order to land a big order, he must propitiate a client by supplying him with a prostitute. Despite his hesitation and after trying several brothels, with the help of a more experienced operator, finds a girl for the purpose. However, she turns out to be his friend Sukumar's sister.

Embarrassed and at a loss, Somnath offers her money and requests her to leave. Her purpose is to earn money, not beg, she tells him. Somnath is remorseful. Pradip Mukherjee - Somnath Kalyan Sen - Mr. Bakshi Satya Bandyopadhyay - Somnath's Father Deepankar De - Bhombol Arati Bhattacharya - Mrs. Ganguli Gautam Chakraborty - Sukumar Lily Chakravarty - Kamala Bimal Chatterjee - Adok Bimal Deb - Jagabandhu Santosh Dutta - Hiralal Utpal Dutt - Bishuda Rabi Ghosh - Natabar Mittir Soven Lahiri - Goenka Padmadevi - Mrs. Biswas Aparna Sen - Somnath's ex-girlfriend Sudeshna Das - Kauna / Juthika The film is considered to be one of the darker and more cynical ones in Ray's filmography by Ray himself. On Rotten Tomatoes, the film holds a score of 88% based on 8 reviews with an average rating of 6.53/10. Jonathan Rosenbaum of The Chicago Reader considers it to have "the best performances of any Ray film I've seen and a milieu that may remind you of both Billy Wilder's The Apartment and John Cassavetes's Faces."

Time Out considers it to be "absorbing viewing". Leah Garchik of SF Gate compared the film to Michael Moore's Roger & Me, writing that "here Moore hits you over the head with his point, Ray's presentation is much more sophisticated and elegant." Despite criticizing the film's middle as being "bogged down", she praises the film's use of sound as being "remarkable. From the start, when Somnath is pictured taking his final exam, there's no background music; the film's silences are more attention-getting and mesmerizing than the most demanding background music." She concludes that the film "evokes an insidious amorality that he sees as an inevitable side effect of the huge pressures from within the family and outside to get ahead and make something of oneself." Bhaskar Chattopadhyay, writing for Firstpost, called it "Ray's most cynical, ruthless film". He writes that the "film’s most brutal scenes": "Ray and for the first time in his filmmaking career, bares his fangs and pokes us in the eye to show us what a strange and hopeless world we live in.

Shot beautifully in black and white, with the use of light to symbolically cover only one half of most faces in the night scenes, juxtaposing the ruthless streets and markets against a loving and caring sister-in-law at home who supports him no matter what, once again focusing on the human content more than the external glamour, Ray puts Somnath in a world of shocks and surprises, only to make him realise, that beginning right from education, to employment, to entrepreneurship, there is no country for an honest man." Times of India shared a similar view, calling the "film’s climax an out and out shocker in which Somnath faces a startling dilemma of epic proportions, just like Ray visualizes he fails to choose the right path, he is now neither noble, nor a hero.". A negative review came from Elliott Stein of Film Comment, he called it "predictable" and criticized the central performance from Mukherjee, calling him " a drab performer whose loss of innocence is uninvolving." Despite this, he praised some of the film's "near-Dickensian passages" and praised Rabi Ghosh's performance as the "“public relations” man who becomes the Brahmin’s mentor in petty capitalism."The film has been nominated for and won the following awards since its release: Best Direction New Delhi, 1975.

The Academy Film Archive preserved Jana Aranya in 1996. Jana Aranya on IMDb Jana Aranya @

Ronald Evans (rugby league)

Ronald "Ron" Evans known by the nickname of "Curly", was an English professional rugby league footballer who played in the 1950s and 1960s. He played at club level for Wakefield Trinity and Castleford as a scrum-half, i.e. number 7, Ron Evans' birth was registered in Pontefract district, West Riding of Yorkshire, England, he lived in Ferry Fryston, Castleford c. 2010, he died aged 77 in Castleford, West Yorkshire, his funeral service took place at Holy Cross Church, Castleford, at 12.15 pm on Monday 8 November 2010. Followed by an interment at Castleford Cemetery. Ron Evans made his début for Wakefield Trinity during November 1950, he played his last match for Wakefield Trinity during the 1955–56 season, he appears to have scored no drop-goals, but prior to the 1974–75 season all goals, whether. Ron Evans' marriage to Irene was registered during second ¼ 1955 in Pontefract district They had children. Ron Evans was the brother-in-law of the rugby league footballer Don Robinson. Obituary - Wakefield Express Search for "Evans" at Ronald Evans Memory Box Search at Ron Evans Memory Box Search at

Rockford Township, Wright County, Minnesota

Rockford Township is a township in Wright County, United States. The population was 3,444 at the 2000 census. Rockford Township was organized in 1858, named after its largest settlement, Minnesota. According to the United States Census Bureau, the township has a total area of 36.8 square miles. Rockford Township is located in Township 119 North of the Arkansas Base Line and Range 25 West of the 5th Principal Meridian; as of the census of 2000, there were 3,444 people, 1,138 households, 961 families residing in the township. The population density was 99.2 people per square mile. There were 1,159 housing units at an average density of 33.4/sq mi. The racial makeup of the township was 97.13% White, 0.41% African American, 0.29% Native American, 0.49% Asian, 0.64% from other races, 1.05% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.60% of the population. There were 1,138 households out of which 39.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 76.3% were married couples living together, 5.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 15.5% were non-families.

11.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 3.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.01 and the average family size was 3.26. In the township the population was spread out with 28.5% under the age of 18, 7.8% from 18 to 24, 28.6% from 25 to 44, 28.9% from 45 to 64, 6.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 103.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 103.5 males. The median income for a household in the township was $67,708, the median income for a family was $72,700. Males had a median income of $42,250 versus $31,087 for females; the per capita income for the township was $30,536. About 0.8% of families and 1.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including none of those under age 18 and 2.3% of those age 65 or over. Township website

Kursk Vostochny Airport

Kursk Vostochny Airport known as Khalino, is an interceptor aircraft base in Kursk Oblast, Russia located 7 km east of Kursk. It is a medium-sized base 4 miles northeast of Kursk. Several alert pads, with civilian tarmac on other side of airfield. Khalino was home to: 472 IAP from 4 October 1979 to 1998. Moved in from Orel, Orel Oblast, where it had been stationed from 1950 to 1979. Equipped with MiG-23P or S from 1979. Disbanded 1 May 1998; the 472nd IAP PVO was Military Unit No.61364. It is home to: 14 IAP flying MiG-29 aircraft, having been relocated from Zherdevka. Ru:472-й истребительный авиационный полк Kursk Airport Official website Airport information for UUOK at World Aero Data. Data current as of October 2006. Source: DAFIF. Airport information for UUOK at Great Circle Mapper. Source: DAFIF. Current weather for UUOK at NOAA/NWS Accident history for URS at Aviation Safety Network 472nd Fighter Aviation Regiment PVO

Experience and Judgment

Experience and Judgment is an album by vocalist and pianist Andy Bey recorded in 1973 and released on the Atlantic label. AllMusic awarded the album 4 stars and its review by Rob Theakson stating: "It's soul soothing music that's been played with great reverence by the rare soul and funk community for years and rightly so, as Bey captures the essence of the soul world brilliantly, fuses it into something, uniquely his own". Information based on the album’s Liner NotesAll compositions by Andy Bey except as indicated "Celestial Blues" - 3:24 "Experience" - 2:57 "Judgment" - 2:58 "I Know This Love Can't Be Wrong" - 4:22 "Hibiscus" - 4:39 "You Should've Seen the Way" - 2:31 "Tune Up" - 4:11 "Rosemary Blue" - 3:24 "Being Uptight" - 3:05 "A Place Where Love Is" - 4:38 "Trust Us to Find the Way" - 2:39 "The Power of My Mind" - 2:55 Information based on the Atlantic Records Jazz Disco Archives and the album’s Liner Notes. Andy Bey - vocals, acoustic piano Wilbur Bascomb - electric bass Selwart Clarke - violin, viola George Davis - additional guitar, guitar solo Bill Fischer - percussion, electric piano, harpsichord, additional keyboards Richard Resnicoff - guitar solo, additional guitar Buddy Williams - drums Jimmy Young - drums