Sturgis, South Dakota
Sturgis is a city in Meade County, South Dakota, United States. The population was 6,627 as of the 2010 census, it is named after Union General Samuel D. Sturgis. Sturgis is notable as the location of one of the largest annual motorcycle events in the world, held on the first full week of August. Motorcycle enthusiasts from around the world migrate to this town during the Sturgis Motorcycle Rally. Sturgis is noted for hosting WCW's Hog Wild/Road Wild events in 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999. Sturgis was founded in 1878, it was named Scooptown, because many of the residents "scooped up" their pay from nearby Fort Meade. Its name was changed to Sturgis in honor of the Civil War Union General Samuel D. Sturgis. In 1889, Sturgis was designated as the county seat of the newly formed Meade County; as part of the vast Ellsworth Air Force Base complex, the land north of Sturgis was dotted with 50 Minuteman missile silos. The L5 is 3.5 miles from the center of the town. Towards the end of the summer of 2015, the Full Throttle Bar, one of the largest and well known bars in Sturgis, burned down.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 3.99 square miles, all land. As of the census of 2010, there were 6,627 people, 2,916 households, 1,687 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,660.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 3,154 housing units at an average density of 790.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 93.9% White, 0.2% African American, 2.3% Native American, 0.4% Asian, 0.6% from other races, 2.6% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.6% of the population. There were 2,916 households of which 28.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.3% were married couples living together, 12.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.4% had a male householder with no wife present, 42.1% were non-families. 37.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.21 and the average family size was 2.89.
The median age in the city was 41.2 years. 23.9% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 48.1% male and 51.9% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 6,442 people, 2,738 households, 1,708 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,723.6 people per square mile. There were 2,989 housing units at an average density of 799.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 94.80% White, 0.20% African American, 2.48% Native American, 0.31% Asian, 0.33% from other races, 1.88% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.75% of the population. There were 2,738 households out of which 30.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.0% were married couples living together, 11.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.6% were non-families. 33.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.29 and the average family size was 2.91.
In the city, the population was spread out with 25.0% under the age of 18, 7.9% from 18 to 24, 25.4% from 25 to 44, 22.5% from 45 to 64, 19.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.1 males. As of 2000 the median income for a household in the city was $30,253, the median income for a family was $38,698. Males had a median income of $25,856 versus $18,582 for females; the per capita income for the city was $16,763. About 11.0% of families and 12.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.7% of those under age 18 and 6.8% of those age 65 or over. Bear Butte State Park Fort Meade Fort Meade Cavalry Museum Sturgis Motorcycle Museum & Hall of Fame Black Hills National Cemetery Fort Meade National Cemetery South Dakota Centennial Trail Wonderland Cave Loud American Roadhouse Fort Meade Recreation Area and National Back Country Byway Poker Alice House the bordello of the frontier gambler Alice Ivers Tubbs, known as Poker Alice Public Sculptures: Kinship at the Sturgis Community Center General Samuel D. Sturgis at the Hills and Plains Park at the east entrance to town Jesus in the Garden at the First United Methodist Church Memorial Garden St. Francis of Assisi at the St. Francis of Assisi Catholic Church STURGIS spelled out in letters Raymond W. Carpenter, United States Army Major General and acting Director of the Army National Guard Francis H. Case, former resident and politician Scott DesJarlais, former resident and politician J.
C. "Pappy" Hoel, Credited with starting the Sturgis Motorcycle Rally Carroll Hardy, born in Sturgis, former Major League Baseball player Alice Ivers Duffield Tubbs Huckert, better known as Poker Alice, frontier gambler, lived her years in Sturgis but died in Rapid City Marty Jackley, Attorney General of South Dakota, born in Sturgis Herbert A. Littleton, former resident, posthumous receiver of the Medal of Honor Megan Mahoney, former resident, basketball player Paige McPherson, Olympic bronze medalist in taekwondo Larry Rhoden, born in Sturgis, South Dakota state senator Rex Terry, born in Sturgis and South Dakota politician Judd Hoos, rock band is based out of Sturgis, SD City of Sturgis Sturgis Chamber of Commerce Sturgis, South Dakota at Curlie
Wyatt Berry Stapp Earp was an American Old West lawman and gambler in Cochise County, Arizona Territory, a deputy marshal in Tombstone. He worked in a wide variety of trades throughout his life and took part in the famous Gunfight at the O. K. Corral, during which lawmen killed three outlaw Cochise County Cowboys, he is erroneously regarded as the central figure in the shootout, although his brother Virgil was Tombstone city marshal and deputy U. S. marshal that day and had far more experience as a sheriff, constable and soldier in combat. Earp was a professional gambler and buffalo hunter, he owned several saloons, maintained a brothel, mined for silver and gold, refereed boxing matches, he spent his early life in Iowa. In 1870, he married Urilla Sutherland who contracted typhoid fever and died shortly before their first child was to be born. During the next two years, Earp was arrested for stealing a horse, escaped from jail, was sued twice, he was arrested and fined three times in 1872 for "keeping and being found in a house of ill-fame".
His third arrest was described at length in the Daily Transcript, which referred to him as an "old offender" and nicknamed him the "Peoria Bummer", another name for loafer or vagrant. By 1874, he arrived in the boomtown of Kansas where his reputed wife opened a brothel. On April 21, 1875, he was appointed to the Wichita police force and developed a solid reputation as a lawman, but he was fined and dismissed from the force after getting into a fistfight with a political opponent of his boss. Earp left Wichita, following his brother James to Dodge City, Kansas where he became an assistant city marshal. In the winter of 1878, he went to Texas to track down an outlaw, he met John "Doc" Holliday whom Earp credited with saving his life. Earp moved throughout his life from one boomtown to another, he left Dodge City in 1879 and moved with brothers James and Virgil to Tombstone, where a silver boom was underway. The Earps clashed with an informal community of outlaws known as the Cowboys. Wyatt and their younger brother Morgan held various law-enforcement positions which put them in conflict with Tom McLaury, Frank McLaury, Ike Clanton, Billy Clanton who threatened to kill the Earps on several occasions.
The conflict escalated over the next year, culminating in the gunfight at the O. K. Corral on October 26, 1881 in which the Earps and Doc Holliday killed three of the Cowboys. In the next five months, Virgil was ambushed and maimed, Morgan was assassinated. Wyatt, Warren Earp, Doc Holliday, others formed a federal posse which killed three of the Cowboys whom they thought responsible. Wyatt was never wounded in any of the gunfights, unlike his brothers Virgil and Morgan or his friend Doc Holliday, which only added to his mystique after his death. Earp was always looking for a quick way to make money. After leaving Tombstone, he went to San Francisco where he reunited with Josephine Marcus, she became his common-law wife, they joined a gold rush to Idaho where they owned mining interests and a saloon. They open a saloon during a real estate boom in San Diego, California. Back in San Francisco, Wyatt raced horses again, but his reputation suffered irreparably when he refereed the Fitzsimmons vs. Sharkey boxing match and called a foul which led many to believe that he fixed the fight.
They moved to Yuma, Arizona before joining the Nome Gold Rush in 1899. He and Charlie Hoxie paid $1,500 for a liquor license to open a two-story saloon called the Dexter and made an estimated $80,000; the couple left Alaska and opened another saloon in Tonopah, the site of a new gold find. Around 1911, Earp began working several mining claims in Vidal, retiring in the hot summers with Josephine to Los Angeles, he made friends among early Western actors in Hollywood and tried to get his story told, but he was portrayed only briefly in one film produced during his lifetime: Wild Bill Hickok. Earp died on January 13, 1929, he was known as a Western lawman and boxing referee. He had a notorious reputation for both his handling of the Fitzsimmons–Sharkey fight and his role in the O. K. Corral gunfight; this only began to change after his death when the flattering biography Wyatt Earp: Frontier Marshal was published in 1931. It created his reputation as a fearless lawman. Since Earp has been the subject of numerous films, television shows and works of fiction which have increased both his fame and his notoriety.
Long after his death, he admirers. His modern-day reputation is that of deadliest gunman of his day. Wyatt Berry Stapp Earp was born on March 19, 1848, the fourth child of Nicholas Porter Earp and his second wife, Virginia Ann Cooksey, he was named after his father's commanding officer in the Mexican–American War, Captain Wyatt Berry Stapp, of the 2nd Company Illinois Mounted Volunteers. Some evidence supports Wyatt Earp's birthplace as 406 South 3rd Street in Monmouth, though the street address is disputed by Monmouth College professor and historian William Urban. Wyatt had seven siblings: James, Martha, Baxter Warren and Adelia. In March 1849 or in early 1850, Nicholas Earp joined about 100 other people in a plan to relocate to San Bernardino County, where he intended to buy farmland. Just 150 miles west of Monmouth on the journey, their daughter Martha became ill; the family stopped and Nicholas bought a n
Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party referred to as the GOP, is one of the two major political parties in the United States. The GOP was founded in 1854 by opponents of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which had expanded slavery into U. S. territories. The party subscribed to classical liberalism and took ideological stands that were anti-slavery and pro-economic reform. Abraham Lincoln was the first Republican president in the history of the United States; the Party was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System and Fourth Party System. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt formed the Progressive Party after being rejected by the GOP and ran unsuccessfully as a third-party presidential candidate calling for social reforms. After the 1912 election, many Roosevelt supporters left the Party, the Party underwent an ideological shift to the right; the liberal Republican element in the GOP was overwhelmed by a conservative surge begun by Barry Goldwater in 1964 that continued during the Reagan Era in the 1980s. After the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, the party's core base shifted, with the Southern states becoming more reliably Republican in presidential politics and the Northeastern states becoming more reliably Democratic.
White voters identified with the Republican Party after the 1960s. Following the Supreme Court's 1973 decision in Roe v. Wade, the Republican Party made opposition to abortion a key plank of its national party platform and grew its support among evangelicals. By 2000, the Republican Party was aligned with Christian conservatism; the Party's core support since the 1990s comes chiefly from the South, the Great Plains, the Mountain States and rural areas in the North. The 21st century Republican Party ideology is American conservatism, which contrasts with the Democrats' liberal platform and progressive wing; the GOP supports lower taxes, free market capitalism, a strong national defense, gun rights and restrictions on labor unions. The GOP was committed to protectionism and tariffs from its founding until the 1930s when it was based in the industrial Northeast and Midwest, but has grown more supportive of free trade since 1952. In addition to advocating for conservative economic policies, the Republican Party is conservative.
Founded in the Northern states in 1854 by abolitionists, modernizers, ex-Whigs and ex-Free Soilers, the Republican Party became the principal opposition to the dominant Democratic Party and the popular Know Nothing Party. The party grew out of opposition to the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise and opened Kansas Territory and Nebraska Territory to slavery and future admission as slave states; the Northern Republicans saw the expansion of slavery as a great evil. The first public meeting of the general anti-Nebraska movement, at which the name Republican was suggested for a new anti-slavery party, was held on March 20, 1854 in a schoolhouse in Ripon, Wisconsin; the name was chosen to pay homage to Thomas Jefferson's Republican Party. The first official party convention was held on July 1854 in Jackson, Michigan. At the 1856 Republican National Convention, the party adopted a national platform emphasizing opposition to the expansion of slavery into U. S. territories. While Republican candidate John C.
Frémont lost the 1856 United States presidential election to James Buchanan, he did win 11 of the 16 northern states. The Republican Party first came to power in the elections of 1860 when it won control of both houses of Congress and its candidate, former congressman Abraham Lincoln, was elected President. In the election of 1864, it united with War Democrats to nominate Lincoln on the National Union Party ticket. Under Republican congressional leadership, the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution—which banned slavery in the United States—passed the Senate in 1864 and the House in 1865; the party's success created factionalism within the party in the 1870s. Those who felt that Reconstruction had been accomplished, was continued to promote the large-scale corruption tolerated by President Ulysses S. Grant, ran Horace Greeley for the presidency; the Stalwart faction defended Grant and the spoils system, whereas the Half-Breeds pushed for reform of the civil service. The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act was passed in 1883.
The Republican Party supported hard money, high tariffs to promote economic growth, high wages and high profits, generous pensions for Union veterans, the annexation of Hawaii. The Republicans had strong support from pietistic Protestants, but they resisted demands for Prohibition; as the Northern postwar economy boomed with heavy and light industry, mines, fast-growing cities, prosperous agriculture, the Republicans took credit and promoted policies to sustain the fast growth. The GOP was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System. However, by 1890 the Republicans had agreed to the Sherman Antitrust Act and the Interstate Commerce Commission in response to complaints from owners of small businesses and farmers; the high McKinley Tariff of 1890 hurt the party and the Democrats swept to a landslide in the off-year elections defeating McKinley himself. The Democrats elected Grover Cleveland in 1884 and 1892; the election of William McKinley in 1896 was marked by a resurgence of Republican dominance that lasted until 1932.
McKinley promised that high tariffs would end the severe hardship caused by the Pa
Livestock is defined as domesticated animals raised in an agricultural setting to produce labor and commodities such as meat, milk, fur and wool. The term is sometimes used to refer to those that are bred for consumption, while other times it refers only to farmed ruminants, such as cattle and goats. Horses are considered livestock in the United States; the USDA uses livestock to some uses of the term “red meat”, in which it refers to all the mammal animals kept in this setting to be used as commodities. The USDA mentions pork, veal and lamb are all classified as livestock and all livestock is considered to be red meats. Poultry and fish are not included in the category; the breeding and slaughter of livestock, known as animal husbandry, is a component of modern agriculture, practiced in many cultures since humanity's transition to farming from hunter-gatherer lifestyles. Animal husbandry practices have varied across cultures and time periods. Livestock were not confined by fences or enclosures, but these practices have shifted to intensive animal farming, sometimes referred to as "factory farming".
Now, over 99% of livestock are raised on factory farms. These practices increase yield of the various commercial outputs, but have led to negative impacts on animal welfare and the environment. Livestock production continues to play a major economic and cultural role in numerous rural communities. Livestock as a word was first used between 1650 and 1660, as a merger between the words "live" and "stock". In some periods, "cattle" and "livestock" have been used interchangeably. Today, the modern meaning of cattle is domesticated bovines. United States federal legislation defines the term to make specified agricultural commodities eligible or ineligible for a program or activity. For example, the Livestock Mandatory Reporting Act of 1999 defines livestock only as cattle and sheep, while the 1988 disaster assistance legislation defined the term as "cattle, goats, poultry, equine animals used for food or in the production of food, fish used for food, other animals designated by the Secretary."Deadstock is defined in contradistinction to livestock as "animals that have died before slaughter, sometimes from illness".
It is illegal in many countries, such as Canada, to sell or process meat from dead animals for human consumption. Animal-rearing originated during the cultural transition to settled farming communities from hunter-gatherer lifestyles. Animals are domesticated when their living conditions are controlled by humans. Over time, the collective behaviour and physiology of livestock have changed radically. Many modern farm animals are unsuited to life in the wild; the dog was domesticated early. Goats and sheep were domesticated in multiple events sometime between 11,000 and 5,000 years ago in Southwest Asia. Pigs were domesticated by 8,500 BC in the Near 6,000 BC in China. Domestication of the horse dates to around 4000 BC. Cattle have been domesticated since 10,500 years ago. Chickens and other poultry may have been domesticated around 7000 BC; the term "livestock" is may be defined narrowly or broadly. Broadly, livestock refers to any breed or population of animal kept by humans for a useful, commercial purpose.
This can mean semidomestic animals, or captive wild animals. Semidomesticated refers to animals which are only domesticated or of disputed status; these populations may be in the process of domestication. Traditionally, animal husbandry was part of the subsistence farmer's way of life, producing not only the food needed by the family but the fuel, clothing and draught power. Killing the animal for food was a secondary consideration, wherever possible its products, such as wool, eggs and blood were harvested while the animal was still alive. In the traditional system of transhumance and livestock moved seasonally between fixed summer and winter pastures. Animals can be kept intensively. Extensive systems involve animals roaming at will, or under the supervision of a herdsman for their protection from predators. Ranching in the Western United States involves large herds of cattle grazing over public and private lands. Similar cattle stations are found in South America and other places with large areas of land and low rainfall.
Ranching systems have been used for sheep, ostrich, emu and alpaca. In the uplands of the United Kingdom, sheep are turned out on the fells in spring and graze the abundant mountain grasses untended, being brought to lower altitudes late in the year, with supplementary feeding being provided in winter. In rural locations and poultry can obtain much of their nutrition from scavenging, in African communities, hens may live for months without being fed, still produce one or two eggs a week. At the other extreme, in the more developed parts of the world, animals are intensively managed. In between these two extremes are semi-intensive family run farms where livestock graze outside for much of the year, silage or hay is made to cove
Frederick Russell Burnham
Frederick Russell Burnham DSO was an American scout and world-traveling adventurer. He is known for his service to the British South Africa Company and to the British Army in colonial Africa, for teaching woodcraft to Robert Baden-Powell in Rhodesia, he helped inspire the founding of the international Scouting Movement. Burnham was born on a Dakota Sioux Indian reservation in Minnesota where he learned the ways of American Indians as a boy. By the age of 14, he was supporting himself in California, while learning scouting from some of the last of the cowboys and frontiersmen of the American Southwest. Burnham had little formal education, never finishing high school. After moving to the Arizona Territory in the early 1880s, he was drawn into the Pleasant Valley War, a feud between families of ranchers and sheepherders, he escaped and worked as a civilian tracker for the United States Army in the Apache Wars. Feeling the need for new adventures, Burnham took his family to southern Africa in 1893, seeing Cecil Rhodes's Cape to Cairo Railway project as the next undeveloped frontier.
Burnham distinguished himself in several battles in Rhodesia and South Africa and became Chief of Scouts. Despite his U. S. citizenship, his military title was British and his rank of major was formally given to him by King Edward VII. In special recognition of Burnham's heroism, the King invested him into the Companions of the Distinguished Service Order, giving Burnham the highest military honors earned by any American in the Second Boer War, he had become friends with Baden-Powell during the Second Matabele War in Rhodesia, teaching him outdoor skills and inspiring what would become known as Scouting. Burnham returned to the United States, where he became involved in national defense efforts, oil and the Boy Scouts of America. During World War I, Burnham was selected as an officer and recruited volunteers for a U. S. Army division similar to the Rough Riders, which Theodore Roosevelt intended to lead into France. For political reasons, the unit was disbanded without seeing action. After the war and his business partner John Hays Hammond formed the Burnham Exploration Company.
Burnham joined several new wilderness conservation organizations, including the California State Parks Commission. In the 1930s, he worked with the BSA to save the big horn sheep from extinction; this effort led to the creation of Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refuges in Arizona. He earned the BSA's highest honor, the Silver Buffalo Award, in 1936, remained active in the organization at both the regional and national level until his death in 1947. To symbolise the friendship between Burnham and Baden-Powell, the mountain beside Mount Baden-Powell in California was formally named Mount Burnham in 1951. Burnham was born on May 11, 1861, on a Dakota Sioux Indian reservation in Minnesota, to a missionary family living near the small pioneer town of Tivoli, about 20 miles from Mankato, his father, the Reverend Edwin Otway Burnham, was a Presbyterian minister educated and ordained in New York. His mother Rebecca Russell Burnham had spent most of her childhood in Iowa, having emigrated with her family from Westminster, England at the age of three.
In the Dakota War of 1862, Chief Little Crow and his Sioux warriors attacked the nearby town New Ulm, Minnesota. She fled for her life. Once the Sioux attack had been repulsed, she returned to find their house burned down, but the baby Frederick was safe, fast asleep in the basket with the corn husks; the young Burnham attended schools in Iowa. There he met Blanche Blick, whom he married; the Burnham family moved from Minnesota to Los Angeles, California in 1870, in search of easier living conditions soon after Edwin was injured in an accident while rebuilding the family homestead. Two years Edwin died, leaving the family destitute. Burnham's mother and 3-year-old younger brother Howard returned to Iowa to live with her parents. For the next few years, Burnham worked as a mounted messenger for the Western Union Telegraph Company in California and Arizona Territory. On one occasion his horse was stolen from him by a famous Californio bandit. At 14, he began his life as a scout and Indian tracker in the Apache Wars, during which he took part in the United States Army expedition to find and capture or kill the Apache chief Geronimo.
In Prescott, Arizona, he met an old scout named Lee. Lee taught Burnham how to track Apache by detecting the odor of burning mescal, a species of aloe they cooked and ate. With careful study of the local air currents and canyons, trackers could follow the odor to Apache hiding places from as far away as 6 miles. During the Apache uprisings, the young Burnham learned much from Al Sieber, the Chief of Scouts, his assistant Archie McIntosh, Chief of Scouts in Crook's last two campaigns. Burnham learned much about scouting from these Indian trackers, who were advanced in age and fading from the frontier, including the vital lesson that "it is imperative that a scout should know the history, religion, social customs, superstitions of whatever country or people he is called on to work in or among." But the scout, to have the greatest infl
Belle Fourche, South Dakota
Belle Fourche is a city in and the county seat of Butte County, South Dakota, United States. The population was 5,594 at the 2010 census; the city is near the geographic center of the 50 U. S. states. Belle Fourche was named by French explorers coming from New France, referring to the confluence of what is now known as the Belle Fourche and Redwater Rivers and the Hay Creek. Beaver trappers worked these rivers until the mid-19th century, Belle Fourche became a well known fur trading rendezvous point. During and after the gold rush of 1876, farmers and ranchers alike settled in the fertile valleys, growing food for the miners and their work animals. At the same time, the open plains for hundred of miles in all directions were being filled by huge herds of Texas and Kansas cattle. Towns sprang up to serve the ever-changing needs of the ranchers. In 1884, the Marquis de Mores, a French nobleman and contemporary of Theodore Roosevelt, established a stagecoach line between Medora, North Dakota, Deadwood, South Dakota.
The Belle Fourche way station included a saloon. Knowing the cattle barons and the railroad would need a point at which to load the herds of cattle onto freight cars for shipment to the packing plants in the Midwest, Seth Bullock provided a solution and became the parent, in effect, of Belle Fourche, the city. After serving in the Montana legislature in 1871–1873, he had come to the Black Hills to cash in on selling supplies to the Deadwood miners, arriving August 2, 1876, the day Wild Bill Hickok was murdered. During the next 14 years, Bullock acquired land as homesteaders along the Belle Fourche River "proved up" and sold out; when the railroad came to the Hills and refused to pay the prices demanded by the nearby township of Minnesela, he was ready. Seth offered the railroad free right-of-way and offered to build the terminal if the railroad would locate it at a point on his land, near where the present Belle Fourche Livestock Exchange exists. In 1890, the first train load of cattle headed east.
By 1895, Belle Fourche was shipping 2,500 carloads of cattle per month in the peak season, making it the world's largest livestock-shipping point. This was the start of the agriculture center of the Tri-State area for which Belle Fourche would become known. After winning a competition with Minnesela over the railroad which now goes through Belle Fourche, Bullock's town went on to win the county seat in the election of 1894. Still, cowboys stole the county books. Belle Fourche today serves a large trade area of farms; the wool and bentonite industries have been important to the growth of Belle Fourche. The city serves as gateway to the northern Black Hills. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 8.60 square miles, of which, 8.53 square miles is land and 0.07 square miles is water. In 1959, the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey designated a point 20 miles north of Belle Fourche as the geographic center of the United States, it is the center of the nation because the admission of Alaska and Hawaii to the United States moved the location of the official center of the nation.
The geographic center of the 48 contiguous U. S. states is Kansas. As of the census of 2010, there were 5,594 people, 2,322 households, 1,461 families residing in the city; the population density was 655.8 inhabitants per square mile. There were 2,511 housing units at an average density of 294.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 93.6% White, 0.2% African American, 2.1% Native American, 0.3% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 1.3% from other races, 2.6% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.1% of the population. There were 2,322 households of which 32.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.0% were married couples living together, 12.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.0% had a male householder with no wife present, 37.1% were non-families. 32.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 13% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.36 and the average family size was 2.96. The median age in the city was 36.1 years.
26.2% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 48.9% male and 51.1% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 4,565 people, 1,854 households, 1,186 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,446.9 people per square mile. There were 2,122 housing units at an average density of 672.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 95.03% White, 0.15% African American, 1.91% Native American, 0.33% Asian, 1.27% from other races, 1.31% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.70% of the population. There were 1,854 households out of which 32.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.2% were married couples living together, 10.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.0% were non-families. 30.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 3.04. In the city, the population was spread out with 27.2% under the age of 18, 8.2% from 18 to 24, 25.5% from 25 to 44, 21.8% from 45 to 64, 17.3% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.5 males
The Rough Riders was a nickname given to the 1st United States Volunteer Cavalry, one of three such regiments raised in 1898 for the Spanish–American War and the only one to see action. The United States Army was small and understaffed in comparison to its status during the American Civil War thirty years prior; as a measure towards rectifying this situation President William McKinley called upon 125,000 volunteers to assist in the war efforts. The regiment was called "Wood's Weary Walkers" in honor of its first commander, Colonel Leonard Wood; this nickname served to acknowledge that despite being a cavalry unit they ended up fighting on foot as infantry. Wood's second in command was former Assistant Secretary of the Navy, Theodore Roosevelt, a man who had pushed for American involvement in the Cuban War of Independence; when Colonel Wood became commander of the 2nd Cavalry Brigade, the Rough Riders became "Roosevelt's Rough Riders." That term was familiar in 1898, from Buffalo Bill who called his famous western show "Buffalo Bill's Wild West and Congress of Rough Riders of the World."
The Rough Riders were made of college athletes, ranchers and other outdoorsmen. With these men being from southwestern ranch country, they were quite skilled in horsemanship; the volunteers were gathered in four areas: Arizona, New Mexico and Texas. They were gathered from the southwest because the hot climate region that the men were used to was similar to that of Cuba where they would be fighting. "The difficulty in organizing was not in selecting, but in rejecting men." The allowed limit set for the volunteer cavalry men was promptly met. They gathered a diverse bunch of men consisting of cowboys, gold or mining prospectors, gamblers, Native Americans and college boys—all of whom were able-bodied and capable on horseback and in shooting. Among these men were police officers and military veterans who wished to see action again, most of whom had retired. Men who had served in the regular army during campaigns against Native Americans or during the Civil War would serve as higher ranking officers, since they had the knowledge and experience to lead and train the men.
The unit thus would not be without experience. Leonard Wood, an Army doctor who served as the medical adviser for both the President and Secretary of War, was appointed colonel of The Rough Riders, with Roosevelt serving as lieutenant colonel. One famous spot where volunteers were gathered was in San Antonio, Texas, at the Menger Hotel Bar; the bar is still open and serves as a tribute to the Rough Riders, containing much of their, Theodore Roosevelt's, uniforms and memorabilia. Before training began, Lieutenant Colonel Roosevelt used his political influence as Assistant Secretary of the Navy to ensure that his volunteer regiment would be properly equipped to serve as any regular Army unit; the Rough Riders were armed with Model 1896 Carbines in caliber.30 US. "They succeeded in getting their cartridges, Colt Single Action Army revolvers, shelter-tents, horse gear... and in getting the regiment armed with the Krag–Jørgensen carbine used by the regular cavalry." The Rough Riders used Bowie knives.
A last-minute gift from a wealthy donor were a pair of modern tripod mounted, gas-operated M1895 Colt–Browning machine guns in 7mm Mauser caliber. In contrast, the uniforms of the regiment were designed to set the unit apart: "The Rough Rider uniform was a slouch hat, blue flannel shirt, brown trousers and boots, with handkerchiefs knotted loosely around their necks, they looked as a body of cowboy cavalry should look." This "rough and tumble" appearance contributed to earning them the title of "The Rough Riders." Training was standard for a cavalry unit. They worked on basic military drills and habits involving conduct and etiquette; the men proved eager to learn what was necessary, the training went smoothly. It was decided that the men would not be trained to use the saber as cavalry did, as they had no experience with it. Instead, they used their revolvers as primary and secondary weapons. Although the men, for the most part, were experienced horsemen, the officers refined their techniques in riding, shooting from horseback, practicing in formations and in skirmishes.
Along with these practices, the high-ranking men studied books filled with tactics and drills to better themselves in leading the others. During times which physical drills could not be run, either because of confinement on board the train, ship, or during times where space was inadequate, there were some books that were read further as to leave no time wasted in preparation for war; the competent training that the volunteer men received prepared them best as possible for their duty. They were not handed weapons and given vague directions to engage in a disorderly brawl. On May 29, 1898, 1060 Rough Riders and 1258 of their horses and mules made their way to the Southern Pacific railroad to travel to Tampa, Florida where they would set off for Cuba; the lot awaited orders for departure from Major General William Rufus Shafter. Under heavy prompting from Washington D. C. General Shafter gave the order to dispatch the troops early before sufficient traveling storage was available. Due to this problem, only eight of the twelve companies of The Rough Riders were permitted to leave Tampa to engage in the war, many of the horses and mules were left behind.
Aside from Lieutenant-Colonel Roosevelt's first hand mention of deep, heartfelt sorrow from the men left behind, this situation resulted in a premature weakening of the men. One fourth of them who received training had been lost, most dying of malaria and yellow feve