Holdyn Jerian Grant is an American professional basketball player for the Orlando Magic of the National Basketball Association. He played college basketball with the University of Notre Dame and was considered one of the top college players in the nation for the 2014–15 season. After being selected with the 19th overall pick by the Washington Wizards in the 2015 NBA draft, his rights were sent to the Atlanta Hawks and moved again to the New York Knicks on draft night. After a high school career at prep power DeMatha Catholic High School, Grant came to Notre Dame to play for coach Mike Brey. After redshirting his freshman season, Grant was named to the Big East Conference All-Rookie team after averaging 12.3 points and 4.97 assists per game. In his second season with the Irish, Grant was named second-team All-Big East after averaging 13.3 points and 5.5 assists per game. After the 2012–13 season, Notre Dame moved from the Big East to the Atlantic Coast Conference. Based on his strong sophomore campaign, Grant was voted onto the preseason All-ACC team.
Grant had a strong start to the season, leading the Fighting Irish at 19.01 points per game during their 8–4 start. But on December 23, 2013 Grant was ruled academically ineligible for the rest of the season and forced to withdraw from Notre Dame. Grant chose to return to Notre Dame rather than declare his eligibility for the 2014 NBA draft. Grant returned to Notre Dame for the 2014–15 season. Grant helped the Fighting Irish to a 20–3 start and Grant had a breakout season as the leader of the team's efficient offense, he was named to the midseason watch lists for the John R. Wooden Award and the Oscar Robertson Trophy; the Grant-led Irish finished the year with an ACC Tournament championship. Grant was selected the 19th overall pick by the Washington Wizards in the 2015 NBA draft, his rights were subsequently traded to the Atlanta Hawks before being traded to the New York Knicks in exchange for Tim Hardaway, Jr. He joined the Knicks for the 2015 NBA Summer League where he averaged 11.8 points, 3.2 rebounds and 4.8 assists in five games.
On July 30, 2015, he signed his rookie scale contract with the Knicks. On December 2, he tied his season-high of 12 points in a win over his brother Jerami and the Philadelphia 76ers. On January 12, 2016, he had a season-best game with 16 points and 8 assists in a 120–114 win over the Boston Celtics. On June 22, 2016, Grant was traded, along with José Calderón and Robin Lopez, to the Chicago Bulls in exchange for Derrick Rose, future teammate Justin Holiday and a 2017 second-round draft pick; the following month, he helped the Bulls win the Las Vegas Summer League championship game and earned MVP honors for his 24 points, 10 rebounds, five assists. On November 15, 2016, he made his first start of the season and had 18 points and five steals in a 113–88 win over the Portland Trail Blazers. On November 26, he was assigned to Chicago's D-League affiliate, he was recalled on November 27, reassigned on December 9, recalled again on December 10. On April 10, 2017, he had 17 points and a career-high 11 assists in a 122–75 win over the Orlando Magic.
On November 26, 2017, Grant scored a career-high 24 points in a 100–93 loss to the Miami Heat. On December 29, 2017, he had 11 points, 12 assists and seven rebounds as a starter in a 119–107 win over the Indiana Pacers. On January 22, 2018, he had 22 points and 13 assists in a 132–128 double overtime loss to the New Orleans Pelicans. On July 7, 2018, Grant was traded to the Orlando Magic in a three-team deal. Jerian Grant is the son of former National Basketball Association player Harvey Grant, he has two brothers who play basketball professionally – oldest brother Jerai has played in several leagues around the world and younger brother Jerami plays for the Oklahoma City Thunder. Youngest brother Jaelin has followed his three older brothers to DeMatha, where he is completing his senior season, his uncle and father's identical twin Horace Grant was an NBA All-Star and won four championships with the Chicago Bulls and Los Angeles Lakers. Grant has two sons and Jrex Grant. Career statistics and player information from NBA.com, or Basketball-Reference.com Notre Dame Fighting Irish bio Jerian Grant at draftexpress.com Jerian Grant on Instagram Jerian Grant on Twitter
Naismith College Player of the Year
The Naismith College Player of the Year is an annual basketball award given by the Atlanta Tipoff Club to the top men's and women's collegiate basketball players. It is named in honor of the inventor of Dr. James Naismith. First awarded to male players in 1969, the award was expanded to include female players in 1983. Annually before the college season begins in November, a "watchlist" consisting of 50 players is chosen by the Atlanta Tipoff Club board of selectors, comprising head coaches and media members from across the United States. By February, the list of nominees is narrowed down to 30 players based on performance. In March, four out of the 30 players are placed in the final ballot; the final winners are selected in April by both the board of selectors and fan voting via text messaging. The winners receive the Naismith Trophy. Since its beginning in 1969, the trophy has been awarded to 23 female players. Lew Alcindor of the University of California, Los Angeles and Anne Donovan of Old Dominion University were the first winners, respectively.
Bill Walton of UCLA and Ralph Sampson of the University of Virginia have been the only men to win this award multiple times, with both winning three times. Eight women in all have won this award multiple times. Cheryl Miller of the University of Southern California and Breanna Stewart of the University of Connecticut are the only three-times winners, while seven others won it twice: Clarissa Davis of the University of Texas, Dawn Staley of the University of Virginia, Chamique Holdsclaw of the University of Tennessee, Diana Taurasi and Maya Moore of the University of Connecticut, Seimone Augustus of Louisiana State University, Brittney Griner of Baylor University. Davis and Moore are the only ones of either sex to have won multiple times in non-consecutive years. Two award winners were born in United States territories: Alfred "Butch" Lee, born in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Tim Duncan, born in the U. S. Virgin Islands; the only three award winners who have been born outside the jurisdiction of the United States were: Andrew Bogut, born in Melbourne, Australia.
Patrick Ewing, born in Kingston, Jamaica. Buddy Hield, born in Freeport, Bahamas. Three of these players were developed at least in the U. S. proper—Lee was raised in Harlem from early childhood, Ewing immigrated to the Boston area at age 12, Hield attended high school in suburban Wichita, Kansas. Duncan did not move to the U. S. proper until he arrived at Wake Forest University, Bogut lived in Australia until his arrival at the University of Utah. Duke has had the most male winners with eight, while Connecticut has had the most female winners, with ten awards won by six individuals; the award has been won by a freshman three times: Kevin Durant playing for Texas in 2007, in 2012 by Anthony Davis of Kentucky and Zion Williamson of Duke in 2019 List of U. S. men's college basketball national player of the year awards Naismith Prep Player of the Year Award Official website
Sheffield is a city in Franklin County, United States. The population was 1,172 at the 2010 census. Sheffield was platted in 1874, it was named for a personal friend of the founder's. Sheffield was incorporated in 1876. Sheffield is located at 42°53′37″N 93°13′1″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 5.58 square miles, of which, 5.55 square miles is land and 0.03 square miles is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 1,172 people, 480 households, 323 families residing in the city; the population density was 211.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 510 housing units at an average density of 91.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 98.2% White, 0.2% African American, 0.3% Native American, 0.5% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 0.1% from other races, 0.6% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.9% of the population. There were 480 households of which 27.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.5% were married couples living together, 5.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.3% had a male householder with no wife present, 32.7% were non-families.
29.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.36 and the average family size was 2.93. The median age in the city was 44.6 years. 23.5% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 47.4% male and 52.6% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 930 people, 369 households, 259 families residing in the city; the population density was 167.4 people per square mile. There were 397 housing units at an average density of 71.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 99.14% White, 0.32% Asian, 0.54% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.65% of the population. There were 369 households out of which 30.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.5% were married couples living together, 8.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.8% were non-families. 27.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 20.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.37 and the average family size was 2.86. 23.4% are under the age of 18, 6.8% from 18 to 24, 21.3% from 25 to 44, 22.9% from 45 to 64, 25.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 44 years. For every 100 females, there were 84.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 74.9 males. The median income for a household in the city was $38,594, the median income for a family was $48,472. Males had a median income of $31,544 versus $22,237 for females; the per capita income for the city was $16,980. About 3.6% of families and 5.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 0.9% of those under age 18 and 15.1% of those age 65 or over. It is part of the West Fork Community School District, formed in 2011 by the merger of the Sheffield-Chapin-Meservey-Thornton Community School District and the Rockwell-Swaledale Community School District. SCMT was formed in 2007 by the merger of the Sheffield-Chapin Community School District and the Meservey-Thornton Community School District.
Sheffield-Chapin, in turn, formed in 1960 from the merger of the Sheffield Community School District and the Chapin Community School District. Fred Schwengel – He represented Iowa's 1st congressional district for over a decade. City website Sheffield Press
Francis Stanley Kaminsky III is an American professional basketball player for the Charlotte Hornets of the National Basketball Association. He played four years of college basketball for the Wisconsin Badgers, where he set the Wisconsin single-game record for points, he was the unanimous men's National College Player of the Year in 2015. Kaminsky's father, Frank Jr. played basketball at Lewis University. His mother, played volleyball at Northwestern. Kaminsky, of Serbian ancestry, grew up in Woodridge, Illinois. In 1998, when he was 5 years old, his aunt and uncle worked for the Chicago Bulls and he had access to the practice facility when Michael Jordan, Dennis Rodman and Randy Brown were on the team. Kaminsky attended Benet Academy in Illinois, he was named first-team all-state by the Chicago Sun-Times and IBCA and second-team all-state by the AP after averaging 14.2 points, 8.7 rebounds, 4.2 blocks and 2.8 assists during his senior season. He led the Redwings to a 29-1 season after being defeated in the Sectional Semifinals by the East Aurora Tomcats that were led by Connecticut Huskies superstar and National Champion Ryan Boatright.
He was named all-area, all-conference and East Suburban Catholic Conference Player of the Year. Kaminsky's jersey number, 44, was retired in a ceremony at Benet Academy on November 18, 2017. Kaminsky played in 35 of 36 games as a freshman, he scored a season-high nine points against UMKC on November 22, 2011. Kaminsky played in 32 games, he finished the season averaging 1.8 rebounds per game. He led the team in free-throw percentage at 76.7%. He posted a season-high 19 points at Illinois on February 3, 2013. On November 19, 2013, Kaminsky broke the Wisconsin single-game scoring record with 43 points against North Dakota. Kaminsky shot 16 of 19 from the field, including six of six from 3-point range and five of six from the free throw line; the previous Wisconsin single-game record was 42 points, set by Michael Finley. At the conclusion of the regular season, Kaminsky was named to the First Team All-Big Ten. On March 29, 2014, Kaminsky scored 28 points and had 11 rebounds as Wisconsin defeated #1 seeded Arizona 64–63 in overtime during the NCAA Tournament to advance to the Final Four.
After the game, Kaminsky was named West Regional Most Outstanding Player. Ahead of the 2014 season, Kaminsky was named the Big Ten preseason player of the year; the Badgers were unanimously picked to win the Big Ten Championship. The Badgers and Kaminsky validated those predictions; the Badgers had a 36-3 record in games Kaminsky played. They won the Big Ten regular season title with the Big Ten tournament title. After becoming the first NCAA tournament 1-seed in school history, they made their way to their second consecutive Final Four. There, they avenged their previous season's loss to Kentucky, upsetting the 38-0 Wildcats 71-64 behind Kaminsky's 20 points and 11 rebounds. In the Badgers' first national championship game in 74 years, they lost a 9-point second-half lead and were defeated 68-63 by the Duke Blue Devils. Kaminsky finished with 12 rebounds. For the season, he finished with 18.8 PPG and 8.2 RPG, despite playing for a team that ranked 346th out of 351 in adjusted tempo. He led the nation in an efficiency-based stat.
Wisconsin boasted the highest adjusted offensive efficiency in KenPom history. Kaminsky was named consensus first-team All-American. On March 31, 2015, he was named the National Association of Basketball Coaches Player of the Year. On April 3 he was named Associated Press College Basketball Player of the Year, the first Wisconsin player to receive the award since its creation in 1961, he received the Oscar Robertson Trophy as the United States Basketball Writers Association College Player of the Year. On April 5, he was named the Naismith College Player of the Year. On April 10, he won both Kareem Abdul-Jabbar Center of the Year Award. On June 12 Kaminsky was named University of Wisconsin's Male Athlete of the Year. On June 25, 2015, Kaminsky was selected with the ninth overall pick by the Charlotte Hornets in the 2015 NBA draft. On December 2, he scored 16 points in a 116–99 loss to the Golden State Warriors, earning increased minutes with starting center Al Jefferson out injured. On December 23, he scored a career-high 23 points in a 102–89 loss to the Boston Celtics.
On December 30, he had his second 20-point outing of the season in a 122–117 loss to the Los Angeles Clippers. On April 10, 2016, he recorded 18 points and a career-high 11 rebounds in a 113–98 loss to the Washington Wizards. In Game 3 of the Hornets' first-round playoff series against the Miami Heat, Kaminsky scored 15 points in a 96–80 win. On November 21, 2016, Kaminsky tied a career high with 23 points on 9-of-11 shooting in a 105–90 loss to the Memphis Grizzlies. On February 1, 2017, he set a new career high with 24 points off the bench in a 126–111 loss to the Golden State Warriors, he topped that mark on February scoring 27 points in a 90 -- 85 loss to the Toronto Raptors. On February 25, he recorded 23 points and a career-high 13 rebounds in a 99–85 win over the Sacramento Kings. On November 20, 2017, Kaminsky scored a season-high 24 points in a 118–102 win over the Minnesota Timberwolves. On December 18, he scored 24 points in a 109–91 win over the New York Knicks. On April 10, 2018, he scored 24 points in a 119–93 win over the Indiana Pacers.
On November 21, 2018, after scoring just nine points over the Hornets' first 16 games of the 2018–19 season, Kaminsky had 11 points off the bench in a 127–109 win over the Pacers. He lost his spot in the rotation in 2018–19 under new coach James Borrego, a
Kyle Gregory Wiltjer is a Canadian-American professional basketball player for Unicaja of the Liga ACB. He spent two seasons with the Kentucky Wildcats before deciding to transfer to Gonzaga in 2013, he holds dual U. S. and Canadian citizenship, has committed himself to the Canadian national team. Wiltjer attended Jesuit High School in Beaverton, where he led the school to three consecutive Oregon state championships. Wiltjer played in the 2011 McDonald's All-American Game in Chicago, he played in the 2011 Nike Hoop Summit in his hometown of Portland and in the 2011 Jordan Brand Classic in Charlotte. Wiltjer was ranked as the No. 18 recruit in the class of 2011 in the ESPNU 100, the No. 25 recruit by Rivals.com, the No. 22 recruit by Scout.com. He chose to play basketball for the University of Kentucky Wildcats and coach John Calipari on August 28, 2010, he had considered Kansas, Texas, Georgia Tech, Wake Forest. Although he was a 5-star recruit according to all of the recruiting analysts, Kyle Wiltjer never started a game his freshman season at Kentucky, did not play as many minutes as fellow freshmen Anthony Davis, Michael Kidd-Gilchrist, Marquis Teague.
He averaged only 11.3 MPG and 4.8 PPG, although his 3-point percentage was an impressive 42.5%. The Kentucky Wildcats won the 2012 NCAA championship during Wiltjer's freshman year. Wiltjer began the 2012–13 season as a starter. In his third game of the season, against Lafayette, he accumulated 23 points, 2 assists, 4 rebounds. However, he would settle into an off-the-bench role, being named the SEC's Sixth Man of the Year. In April 2013, he had announced. However, he changed his mind, posting a letter on Kentucky's official athletic website on June 23 indicating that he would transfer in order to "compete the way I know I can.... Wherever that may be." A report indicated that Wiltjer had drawn interest from three of the four Division I programs in his home state of Oregon, Gonzaga and Texas. According to that report, "he left the door open to return to Kentucky if he can't find the right situation." On July 19, multiple media outlets reported. The transfer became official the next day, when Gonzaga received a signed copy of a financial aid agreement.
After sitting out the 2013–14 season due to NCAA transfer rules, he had two remaining seasons of eligibility. In February 2015 he scored a career-high 45 points against Pacific. Wiltjer led Gonzaga to its second Elite Eight appearance and a school record 35-3 record, he was named a Consensus Second-Team All-American, as well as First-Team All-WCC and WCC Newcomer of the Year. In his first season with Gonzaga he appeared in 38 games averaging 16.8 points per game, 6.2 rebounds per game and 1.9 assists per game in 27.6 minutes per game. After contemplating forgoing his remaining eligibility to enter the 2015 NBA draft, WIltjer decided to return to Gonzaga for his senior year. Entering his second season with Gonzaga, Wiltjer was named CBS Sports' preseason player of the year. Sports Illustrated projected Wiltjer as the preseason player of the year, scoring champion, the top-usage player in all of NCAA Division 1 basketball, he was named to the 35-man midseason watchlist for the Naismith Trophy on February 11.
After going undrafted in the 2016 NBA draft, Wiltjer joined the Houston Rockets for the 2016 NBA Summer League. On September 23, 2016, he signed with the Rockets. Wiltjer appeared in four of the Rockets' first 25 games of the 2016–17 season, scoring a total of three points. On December 14, 2016, he scored a season-high seven points in a 132–98 win over the Sacramento Kings. During his rookie season, Wiltjer had multiple assignments with the Rio Grande Valley Vipers, the Rockets' D-League affiliate. On June 28, 2017, the Los Angeles Clippers acquired Wiltjer, Patrick Beverley, Sam Dekker, Montrezl Harrell, Darrun Hilliard, DeAndre Liggins, Lou Williams and a 2018 Top 3 Protected first-round pick from the Houston Rockets in exchange for Chris Paul, he was waived by the Clippers on July 15, 2017. On August 15, 2017, Wiltjer signed with the Toronto Raptors. On October 7 he was waived by the Raptors. On October 21, he signed with the Toronto Raptors' NBA G League affiliate, the Raptors 905. On October 29, 2017, Wiltjer signed with Olympiacos Piraeus of the Greek Basket League and the EuroLeague.
On July 3, 2018, Wiltjer signed a one-year deal with Unicaja of the Liga ACB. As a member of the Canadian Under-18 junior national team, Wilter won a bronze medal at the 2010 FIBA Americas Under-18 Championship; as a member of the Canadian university national team, he played at the 2013 World University Games. With the senior Canadian national basketball team, Wiltjer played at the 2015 Pan American Games, where he won a silver medal. Note: The EuroLeague is not the only competition in which the player participated for the team during the season, he played in domestic competition, regional competition if applicable. 2011 McDonald's All-American team selection 2011 Jordan Brand Classic High School All-American team selection 2011 Nike Hoop Summit World team selection 2011 Gatorade Player of the Year - Oregon 2012 NCAA National Champion - Kentucky 2013 SEC Sixth Man of the Year 2015 WCC Newcomer of the year 2015 First-Team All-WCC 2015 USBWA Second-Team All-American Wiltjer's father, Greg, is a former Canadian professional basketball player.
His paternal half-sister and Greg's daughter, Jordan Adams, is a former professional player. Both Greg and Adams represented Canada. List of NCAA Division I men's basketball players with 145 games played – the only individual on this list to have played at more than on
Iowa State Cyclones men's basketball
The Iowa State Cyclones men's basketball team represents Iowa State University and competes in the Big 12 Conference of NCAA Division I. The team is coached by Steve Prohm, in his 4th year at Iowa State; the Cyclones play their home games at Hilton Coliseum on Iowa State's campus. From 1907 to 1928, the Cyclones played in the Missouri Valley Intercollegiate Athletic Association, managing a few winning records in-conference but no championships. In 1929, the Cyclones named Louis Menze as head coach. Over the next 19 years, Menze would lead the Cyclones to four conference championships. Two of these teams earned consideration for the eight-team NCAA Tournament. Three years the 1944 team beat Pepperdine to reach the semifinals in the tournament proper before losing its next game against eventual champion Utah, good for a spot in history as a Final Four participant. After Menze's last conference win in 1945 and subsequent resignation as coach in 1947, the Cyclones floated between the bottom and the middle of the conference for decades, their main claim to fame being two wins of the conference's annual "Holiday Tournament", played between Christmas and New Year's Day in Kansas City, in 1955 and 1959.
Neither these tournament wins, nor their regular season performances, qualified the Cyclones for postseason play in the 33 years between Menze's and Johnny Orr's stints in the head coaching position. However, the 1957 Cyclones were ranked #3 in the nation after handing Wilt Chamberlain's #1 Kansas its first loss. Gary Thompson outscored Chamberlain, while Don Medsker held Chamberlain to a career low in scoring and hit the game winner at the buzzer. No. 3 remains the school's highest-ever national ranking. From the introduction of the Big Eight's postseason tournament in 1977 until Johnny Orr's fifth season in 1985, the Cyclones did not advance past their first game. In 1971, Maury John left Drake University to move to Iowa State. John led Drake to the 1969 NCAA Final Four and the Elite Eight in 1970 NCAA Tournament and 1971 NCAA Tournament. John inherited an Iowa State team, 5-21 the previous season. John was excited about the new Hilton Coliseum and led Iowa State to a 12-14 record in 1971-1972 and a 16-10 record in 1972-1973, a 15 year best.
On Dec. 2, 1971, in the first game played at Hilton Coliseum, John led the Cyclones to a victory over Arizona 71-54. Said Cyclone announcer Eric Heft, a player for Coach John: "The place was sold out for the Arizona game and we doubled the capacity of season tickets from the season before. We didn't have all the fanfare you have today, it was my first game and Maury John's first game as the head Cyclone coach as well."In the 1973-74 season, Iowa State was off to a 4-1 start. But, John sat out the remainder of the 1973-74 season after a cancer diagnosis. Assistant Gus Guydon finished the season. In October 1973, John had seen a doctor after having health concerns. Two months on the day his Iowa State team lost at Drake, John was told he had an inoperable malignant tumor at the base of his esophagus. "It was a bolt out of the blue for someone who lived his life free of smoking or drinking," His son John said later. "There was high stress. But he was always healthy."John was optimistic about returning to Iowa State in 1974-75, but his health worsened and he resigned on July 30, 1974.
John said "It's going to be hard for me not to be on that bench. I won't have to sweat out all those games down on the floor, but truthfully, I'd rather be down there sweating them out." John died on October 15, 1974 at the age of 55. During a 28‐year coaching career, John had a 528-214 record. Johnny Orr came to Iowa State from Michigan in 1980. Iowa State's athletics director had called Orr to inquire about Michigan assistant Bill Frieder; when Orr learned of the salary Iowa State would offer Frieder, he negotiated the Iowa State head coaching job for himself. Orr is credited with building "Hilton Magic" and laying the foundation for Iowa State's success in men's basketball. A number of Cyclone greats played for Orr, including Jeff Grayer, Barry Stevens, walk-on Jeff Hornacek, Lafester Rhodes, Justus Thigpen, Victor Alexander, Fred Hoiberg, Julius Michalik, Loren Meyer, many of whom would go on to success in the NBA. Orr's first team, led by junior forward Robert Estes produced a lackluster 9–18 record.
Freshman forward Ron Harris, whom Orr considered his first prominent Cyclone recruit, contributed per-game averages of 13.7 points and 5.9 rebounds. Led by sophomore Ron Harris and freshman recruit Barry Stevens of Flint, Orr's 1981–82 team finished the season with a 10–17 overall record and a 5–9 record in Big Eight play. Harris gave the Cyclones 13.3 points per game. Senior Robert Estes added 10.3 points per game. The Cyclones improved to a 13–15 overall record in the 1982–83 season, but again finished 5–9 in conference play. Many of the Cyclone faithful regard sophomore Barry Stevens' buzzer-beating shot against 10th-ranked Missouri during the 1982–83 season as the foundational example of "Hilton Magic." Stevens tallied per-game averages of 5.2 rebounds for the season. Ron Harris contributed 14.3 points per game. Orr's 1983–84 team recorded the first winning season of his tenure at Iowa State—and the first winning season for Cyclone basketball since Lynn Nance's 1977–78 team finished 14–13—with a 16–13 overall mark and a 6–8 record in conference play.
The Cyclones played in the 1984 National Invitation Tou
Basketball is a team sport in which two teams, most of five players each, opposing one another on a rectangular court, compete with the primary objective of shooting a basketball through the defender's hoop while preventing the opposing team from shooting through their own hoop. A field goal is worth two points, unless made from behind the three-point line, when it is worth three. After a foul, timed play stops and the player fouled or designated to shoot a technical foul is given one or more one-point free throws; the team with the most points at the end of the game wins, but if regulation play expires with the score tied, an additional period of play is mandated. Players advance the ball by bouncing it while walking or running or by passing it to a teammate, both of which require considerable skill. On offense, players may use a variety of shots -- a dunk, it is a violation to lift or drag one's pivot foot without dribbling the ball, to carry it, or to hold the ball with both hands resume dribbling.
The five players on each side at a time fall into five playing positions: the tallest player is the center, the tallest and strongest is the power forward, a shorter but more agile big man is the small forward, the shortest players or the best ball handlers are the shooting guard and the point guard, who implements the coach's game plan by managing the execution of offensive and defensive plays. Informally, players may play three-on-three, two-on-two, one-on-one. Invented in 1891 by Canadian-American gym teacher James Naismith in Springfield, United States, basketball has evolved to become one of the world's most popular and viewed sports; the National Basketball Association is the most significant professional basketball league in the world in terms of popularity, salaries and level of competition. Outside North America, the top clubs from national leagues qualify to continental championships such as the Euroleague and FIBA Americas League; the FIBA Basketball World Cup and Men's Olympic Basketball Tournament are the major international events of the sport and attract top national teams from around the world.
Each continent hosts regional competitions for national teams, like FIBA AmeriCup. The FIBA Women's Basketball World Cup and Women's Olympic Basketball Tournament feature top national teams from continental championships; the main North American league is the WNBA, whereas strongest European clubs participate in the EuroLeague Women. In early December 1891, Canadian James Naismith, a physical education professor and instructor at the International Young Men's Christian Association Training School in Springfield, was trying to keep his gym class active on a rainy day, he sought a vigorous indoor game to keep his students occupied and at proper levels of fitness during the long New England winters. After rejecting other ideas as either too rough or poorly suited to walled-in gymnasiums, he wrote the basic rules and nailed a peach basket onto a 10-foot elevated track. In contrast with modern basketball nets, this peach basket retained its bottom, balls had to be retrieved manually after each "basket" or point scored.
Basketball was played with a soccer ball. These round balls from "association football" were made, at the time, with a set of laces to close off the hole needed for inserting the inflatable bladder after the other sewn-together segments of the ball's cover had been flipped outside-in; these laces could dribbling to be unpredictable. A lace-free ball construction method was invented, this change to the game was endorsed by Naismith; the first balls made for basketball were brown, it was only in the late 1950s that Tony Hinkle, searching for a ball that would be more visible to players and spectators alike, introduced the orange ball, now in common use. Dribbling was not part of the original game except for the "bounce pass" to teammates. Passing the ball was the primary means of ball movement. Dribbling was introduced but limited by the asymmetric shape of early balls. Dribbling was common by 1896, with a rule against the double dribble by 1898; the peach baskets were used until 1906 when they were replaced by metal hoops with backboards.
A further change was soon made, so the ball passed through. Whenever a person got the ball in the basket, his team would gain a point. Whichever team got; the baskets were nailed to the mezzanine balcony of the playing court, but this proved impractical when spectators in the balcony began to interfere with shots. The backboard was introduced to prevent this interference. Naismith's handwritten diaries, discovered by his granddaughter in early 2006, indicate that he was nervous about the new game he had invented, which incorporated rules from a children's game called duck on a rock, as many had failed before it. Frank Mahan, one of the players from the original