Elephanta Island is one of a number of islands in Mumbai Harbour, east of Mumbai, India. This island is a popular tourist destination because of the island's cave temples, the Elephanta Caves, that have been carved out of rock; the island is accessible by ferry from Mumbai, being about 10 kilometres from the south east coast of the island city. Boats leave daily from the Gateway of India, taking about an hour each way; the tickets for these can be bought at the Gateway itself. The first ferry leaves at the last at 2 pm. From the boat landing stage on the island, a walkway leads to steps. There is a narrow-gauge toy train from the boat area on the dock to the base of the steps leading up to the caves. Along the path, hawkers sell souvenirs like necklaces, anklets and keychains. There are stalls to buy food and drinks. Small monkeys play along the sides of the path thieving items from the hawkers and tourists. Mumbai Port Trust has plans to connect the island from Mumbai via Ropeway. Once built, it will take only 14 minutes to reach the UNESCO World Heritage Site whereas ferry takes about an hour.
Known in ancient times as Gharapuri, the name Elephanta island, was given by 16th-century Portuguese explorers, after seeing a monolithic basalt sculpture of an elephant found near the entrance. They decided to take it home but ended up dropping it into the sea because their chains were not strong enough; this sculpture was moved to the Victoria and Albert Museum in Mumbai, by the British. This island was once the capital of a powerful local kingdom. In Manuscript F by Leonardo da Vinci there is a note in which he says "Map of Elephanta in India which Antonello the haberdasher has." It is unclear. The island has an area of 16 km2, it is located at 18.95°N 72.93°E / 18.95. The area comes under the jurisdiction of the Raigad district in Maharashtra; the island is thickly wooded with palm and tamarind trees. It has a population of about 1,200; the inhabitants are involved in growing rice and repairing boats. There are two British-era cannons at the top. Quite a small dam has been built so as to hold rainwater but that part of the island is owned and not accessible for tourists.
There are a total of three villages: Shentbandar and Rajbandar, of which Rajbandar is the capital. Caves and stalls can be seen in Shentbandar. Morabandar has a thick forest. Staying overnight is not permitted for tourists; the first return ferry leaves at the last at 5:30 pm. Elephanta Elephanta caves UNESCO World Heritage Site Going’s tough at Gharapuri Duffer's Guide to Elephanta, Mid-Day, Feb 22, 2007, pg A14
The Ulhas River is a west flowing river in Western India in the state of Maharashtra draining an area of 4,637 km2. The Ulhas River is used to supply drinking water to the cities of Badlapur and Navi Mumbai, Kalyan Dombivali. List of rivers of India Rivers of India Seven Islands of Bombay
Mahim is a neighbourhood in Mumbai, India. The Mahim railway station is in the Mahim area, on the Mumbai suburban railway on the Western Railway line. Mahim is considered as the heart of Mumbai. Mahim upholds the values of diversity. In fact one finds a temple, church and firetemple existing with few meters of each other The name Mahim is derived from the ancient Mahikavati meaning "miraculous" in Sanskrit. Other historical names for the area include Mahimawati and Mejambu. Mahim was one of the seven islands that made up Mumbai. Mahim, or Mahikawati as it was known, was the capital of Raja Bhimdev, who reigned over the region in the 13th century, he built a court of justice in Prabhadevi, as well as the first Babulnath temple. In 1343, this island was possessed by the Sultanate of Gujarat, it was in their reign. A dargah of Makhtum Fakir Ali Paru was built here in 1431. In 1543, the Portuguese captured the islands of Mumbai. In 1662, these islands were given to the English King, King Charles II, as a part of the wedding dowry for the Portuguese princess, Catherine of Braganza.
After British acquired Mumbai, they built the Mahim Fort here to protect themselves from the Portuguese. The fort today stands in ruins; the causeway connecting Mahim and Bandra was completed in 1845 at a cost of Rs. 1,57,000 donated by Lady Avabai Jamsetjee Jeejeebhoy, wife of the first baronet Sir Jamsetjee Jeejebhoy with a stipulation that no toll would be charged to citizens for its use by the government. In 1847, a small group of Scottish missionaries decided to start a new school, now one of the most high-profile schools in Mumbai — the Bombay Scottish School. Mahim is surrounded by Dharavi and Bandra on the north and the Arabian Sea on the west. Mahim has a number of educational institutions; some of the well-known schools are Bombay Scottish School, Canossa Convent High School, Victoria High School, Saraswati Mandir High School, Lokmanya Vidyamandir, Billa Bong school and St Michael High School). Reputed colleges and professional educational institutes such as D. G. Ruparel College of Arts and Commerce and St. Xavier's Technical Institute are in Mahim.
Shitladevi Temple D. G. Ruparel College Paradise Cinema Makhdoom Ali Mahimi Dargah St. Michael's Church Hinduja Hospital Lokmanya Vidya Mandir School & Jr. College of Science, Arts & Commerce Victoria High School Mahim Fort Mahim Causeway Mahim Reti Bunder Xavier Institute of Engineering Swami Vivekanand Garden Canossa Convent High School St. Michael's High School Pikale Hospital Paramount Hotal Mahim Bay is a large bay, part of the Arabian Sea in Mumbai, India; the southern end is Worli, the northern end is Bandra Reclamation and Mahim is in the centre. The bay was named after the islands of Salsette were merged in the early 19th century; the Mithi River drains into Mahim Creek. During the colonial era, the Portuguese built a watchtower called Castella de Aguada on the northern side; the British built the Worli Fort to the south and Mahim Fort near the creek to defend the seven islands of Bombay against attacks by the Portuguese and the Marathas. The Bandra-Worli Sealink crosses Mahim Bay. Mahim Creek is a 15 feet deep creek.
The Mithi River drains into the creek. It forms the boundary between suburbs; the creek has a mini-ecosystem. It now has the Bandra-Kurla complex with corporate offices on both its sides; the waters of the creek are foul smelling due to the dumping of untreated industrial effluents upstream. In recent years, the mushrooming of slums around the waters has caused concern for the mangrove ecosystem, vital to the ecosystem of Mumbai. In 2006, it was the site of mass hysteria as thousands claimed its waters had turned "sweet." The Mahim Causeway is a vital link road connecting the neighborhoods of Mahim in South Mumbai to Bandra in West Mumbai. The Mahim Causeway was built between 1846 to connect the island of Salsette with Mahim; the swampy area between the two islands made travel dangerous and thus a need for a causeway arose. The British East India Company, which governed Bombay at that time, refused to fund the project; this led Lady Jeejeebhoy, wife of the first baronet Sir Jamsetjee Jeejeebhoy, to donate the entire amount of ₹157,000/- on the condition that the government would not charge a toll for its use or disturb the Koli community who lived around the area.
The Mahim Causeway forms the link between Swami Vivekanand Road and L. J. Road, being the stretch between Bandra Mahim church, it is not to be confused with the Bandra-Worli Sea Link, a major infrastructural project opened on 30 June 2009, designed to ease traffic across the causeway by building another bridge across the Mahim Bay. Mahim Fort, once visible from the Mahim Causeway and Bandra Reclamation, is visible now; the Mahim Fort along with Fort St George in South Mumbai was an important base during the time of the British Empire. Other forts in Mumbai and Salsette Island include Sion, Worli and Mazgaon. Fort St George was built by the former Governor of Bombay, Gerald Aungier. Thomas Grantham strengthened the fort's ramparts in 1684. In 1772, 111 years after Bombay was taken from them, the Portuguese attempted to attack this fort; the British replied fiercely with cannonballs. The Bandra church bore the brunt of their fire. There were 30 cannons in the Mahim Fort at that time. Today the fort is ruined and encroachers and hutments occupy it.
Makhdoom Ali Mahimi St. Michael's Church Mithi River Back Bay Mahim Causeway Mahim halwa
Worli is a locality in the city of Mumbai, Maharashtra. Historic spellings include Warli, Varli. Worli was a separate island, one of the Seven Islands of Bombay which were ceded by the Portuguese to England in 1661. Worli is a part of South Mumbai, it is bounded by the Arabian Sea to the west and the neighborhoods of Haji Ali to the south, Mahalaxmi to the east and Prabhadevi to the north. The nearest railway station to the neighbourhood is Mahalaxmi, while Prabhadevi and Lower Parel are the nearest railway station from Worli on the Western Line while Curry Road and Byculla railway stations are the nearest on the Central Line, its original resident was the legendary Dishankeshwar Kalsi, recognized in several periodicals of the time as India's first homosexual stage performer. Kalsi's lavanis were popular across the western coast of India and he was known to perform questionable acts on stage with his pet goat, he was shot dead by a British soldier his lover, when he caught Dishankeshwar in a compromising position with a rooster.
Worli became popular as the residence of the Kalsi due to the popularity of Dishankeshwar. With the commissioning of the Sea-link, Worli Sea-Face is now better connected with Western Suburbs. Worli Sea-Face is one of the most expensive strech in terms of properties in Worli. India's richest Industrialist, Mukesh Ambani and his wife, Nita Ambani's daughter, Isha Ambani lives with her husband, Anand in a property worth Rs. 450 crore on Sea face. Worli will be served by the Worli metro station on Line 3 of the Mumbai Metro. Worli has been one of the busiest office areas in Mumbai since the late-1970s; the first major development was the Shivsagar Estate located on Dr Annie Besant Road. The major companies having properties here are GSK Pharma, TATA, Novartis, HDFC Bank, Yes Bank, Siemens, CEAT and many more. Palais Royale, Mumbai
The Shilahara Dynasty was a royal clan that established itself in northern and southern Konkan, present-day Mumbai and southern Maharashtra during the Rashtrakuta period. They were split into three branches; the dynasty began as vassals of the Rashtrakuta dynasty which ruled the Deccan plateau between the 8th and 10th centuries. Govinda II, a Rashtrakuta king, conferred the kingdom of North Konkan on Kapardin I, founder of the Northern Silhara family, around 800. Since North Konkan came to be known as Kapardi-dvipa or Kavadidvipa; the capital of this branch was Puri, now known as Rajapur in the Raigad District. The dynasty bore the title of Tagara-puradhishvara, which indicates that they hailed from Tagara. Around 1343 the island of Salsette, the whole archipelago, passed to the Muzaffarid dynasty. Shilaharas of Southern Maharashtra at Kolhapur was the latest of the three and was founded about the time of downfall of the Rashtrakuta Empire. All the branches of this family traced their descent from the legendary Vidyadhara prince Jimutavahana, who sacrificed himself to rescue a Naga prince from the clutches of Garuda.
The family-name Shilahara is supposed to have been derived from this incident. Single inscriptions have more than one form of the name, one has the three forms Silara and Shrillara. Lassen suggests that the Shilaharas were of Afghan origin as Silar Kafirs are still found in Afghanistan, but the "Ayya" used in the names of all their ministers and the non-Sanskrit names of some of the chiefs support the view that they were of Kannada origin; the Shilaharas of South Konkan were the vassals of Rashtrakutas and ruled from 765 to 1020. After Rashtrakuta power became weak the last known ruler of this family, declared his independence, but Chalukya Jayasimha, the younger brother of Vikramaditya, overthrew him and appropriated his possessions. North Konkan was conquered by the Rashtrakuta king Dantidurga sometime in the second quarter of the eighth century; as per R Narasimhacharya, names like Vappuvanna, etc. betrayed the Kannada origin of Silaharas of Thana. Kapardin I Pullashakti Kapardin II Vappuvanna Jhanjha Goggiraja Vajjada I Chhadvaideva Aparajita Vajjada II Arikesarin Chhittaraja Nagarjuna Mummuniraja Ananta Deva I Aparaditya I Haripaladeva Mallikarjuna Aparaditya II Ananta Deva II Keshideva II Ananta Deva III Someshvara This house's history is known through one record, the Kharepatan plates of Rattaraja issued in 1008.
Rattaraja was the last ruler of this dynasty. The document is important as it not only gives the genealogy of the ten ancestors of Rattaraja but mentions their exploits; the founder, was vassal of the Rastrakuta emperor Krisna I who had established his power over Konkan by 765 and handed it to Sanaphulla. The Kharepatan plates declare that Sanaphulla obtained lordship over the territory between Sahya mountain and the sea through the favour of Krisnaraja. Sana-phulla's son Dhammayira is known to have built a fort at Vallipattana on the Western Coast. Aiyaparaja secured victory at Chandrapuri in Goa; the reign of Avasara I proved to be uneventful. His son Adityavarman, who described as brilliant as the Sun in valour, offered help to the kings of Chandrapuri and Chemulya, 30 miles to the south of Bombay, so the influence of the Shilaharas had spread over the whole of Konkan. At this time Laghu Kapardi, the ruler of the Thane branch, was just a boy and the help given to the ruler of Chaul must have been at his expense.
Avasara II continued the policy of his father. Indraraja's son Bhima is styled as'Rahuvadgrasta Chandramandala' because he overthrew the petty ruler of Chandor. At this time the Kadamba ruler Sasthadeva and his son Chaturbhuja were trying to overthrow the Rastrakuta rule; this explains Bhima's opposition to Chandor. Avasara III, no doubt, had no contribution of his to make. Rattaraja, loyal to the Rastrakutas, was compelled to transfer his allegiance to Taila II. Soon after the issue of the plates in 1008, the rule of Konkan passed over to the Chalukyas. Sanaphulla Dhammayira Aiyaparaja Avasara I Adityavarma Avasara II Indraraja Bhima Avasara III Rattaraja The Shilahara family at Kolhapur was the latest of the three and was founded about the time of the downfall of the Rashtrakuta Empire, they ruled over southern Maharashtra. Their family deity was the goddess Mahalakshmi, whose blessing they claimed to have secured in their copperplate grants. Like their relatives of the northern branch of Konkan, the Shilaharas of Kolhapur claimed to be of the lineage of the Vidyadhara Jimutavahana.
They carried the banner of golden Garuda. One of the
Girangaon was a name used to refer to an area now part of central Mumbai, which at one time had 130 textile mills, with the majority being cotton mills. The mills of Girangaon contributed to the prosperity and growth of Mumbai during the nineteenth century and for the transformation of Mumbai into a major industrial metropolis. Girangaon covered an area of 600 acres; the mill workers lived in a community, they fostered a unique culture which shaped Mumbai at the turn of the twentieth century. This textile industry flourished until the early 1200s after which most of the mills were shut down, as the owners deemed them unprofitable and declared they were incapable of paying their workers' wages; the Bombay Spinning and Weaving Company was the first cotton mill to be set up in Tardeo, Mumbai, in 1856. A boom in the textile industry followed, with 10 cotton mills set up in Mumbai by 1865, employing over 6,500 workers. A gradual increase led to a total of 136 mills being set up by 1900; the textile industry was offered added government incentives in the form of long term leases, as mills stimulated the economic growth and employment.
These mills were owned by former traders like the Tatas, Wadias, Thakerseys, Khataus, Goculdas and Greaves. Most of the mill workers came from areas around Mumbai - Kolis were represented; the mill owners housed their workers in chawls built in the areas of Tardeo, Mazgaon, Reay Road, Parel, Sewri and Prabhadevi. These areas came to be known collectively as Girangaon. Both men and women worked in the mills, they would start working there at a young age, worked 12 hours a day until the passing of the Factories Act of 1847 restricted the working day to 10 hours. When the Great Bombay Textile Strike was declared in 1982 by Datta Samant, there were an estimated 240,000 workers in Girangaon.90% of the population who worked at the mills lived within a 15-minute walking distance of them. Most of the buildings were chawls; these chawls were built by both the government and the mill owners, but neither paid much attention to the quality of the housing. In 1929, one chawl in Dadar was described as being a "dark, unwholesome den into which the light of day does not penetrate and which of necessity breeds disease and pestilence."
The rooms did not have adequate ventilation, the lack of lavatory and washing facilities distressed the women in particular. The windows were kept closed to keep out the stench of the gutters and to keep dirty water from flowing into the house during the monsoon season. Due to this overcrowding, the distinction between home and street was blurred. There was great participation in communal festivals like Moharram, Ganesh Chaturthi and Gokulashtami. Local shop keepers and mill owners were coerced into contributing to such festivals, adjoining localities competed with each other in the grandness of their contributions; the local liquor shop or gymnasium was a common meeting place. The workers of Girangaon patronized arts like poetry and dance. Several notable actors first found fame here. At their peak in 1980, the mills employed 300,000 workers. Indian cinema of the 1980s and 1990s drew themes from the life of the mill workers. However, the mills were permanently closed after the Great Bombay Textile Strike of 1982, which went on for 18 months at many mills and triggered the end of the struggling industry, with most of the mills being shut down after the strike.
By 2007, only 25,000 people worked in the few remaining mills. In recent years, the mills have been extensively redeveloped, many becoming discothèques; the Kohinoor Mills in Dadar were bought for ₹4.21 billion by Matoshree Realtors and Kohinoor Consolidated Transport Network Ltd. companies which were floated by Raj Thackeray and Manohar Joshi respectively. Phoenix mills, Parel was converted into a "luxury mall". In 2005, the government-owned National Textile Corporation auctioned five mills, covering 600 acres, for ₹20.2 billion. In February 2009, the NTC decided to auction another nine mills, covering an area of 90 acres, for about ₹40 billion; the Shrinivas Mills of Lalbaug, covering 16 acres, are being redeveloped into World One – Asia's tallest residential building. There are conservation efforts underway to preserve the old mills as museums; such a museum was opened at the United Mills in Lalbaug. A popular play, Cotten 54, Polyester 64, has been written, based on Neera Adarkar and Meena Menon's book, One hundred years, One hundred voices.
The Millworkers of Girangaon: An Oral History. A festival was organized by an NGO Pukar to celebrate the culture and people of Girangaon in November 2008. Seven mill structures were granted heritage protection status by the Government of Maharashtra; the 2010 film City of Gold, directed by Mahesh Manjrekar, explores the lives of jobless Girangaon mill workers in the 1980s. Redevelopment of Mumbai mills History of Mumbai D'Monte, Darryl. Mills for Sale. Mumbai, India: Marg Publications. ISBN 81-85026-77-7. Chandavarkar, Rajnarayan; the Origins of Industrial Capitalism in India. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-41496-2. Chandavarkar, Rajnarayan. Imperial power and popular politics. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-59692-0. Retrieved 2009-04-09; the Mumbai mill wo
Tulsi Lake is a fresh water lake in northern Mumbai. It supplies part of the city's potable water; this is one of the three lakes located in the Salsette Island. Both Tulsi lake and Vihar lake are located within the densely forested Sanjay Gandhi National Park or known popularly as the Borivali National Park. Tulsi Lake was built by damming the River Tasso, redirecting the flow to the nearby Vihar Lake. Rain water from the catchment area of 676 hectares of Powai-Kanheri hill ranges drains into the lake. During the rainy season the flood flows out flows into the Powai Lake and further down into the Mithi River; the maximum height of hill in the catchment is about 400 m. The southwest monsoon lasts till September; the maximum rainfall is recorded in the months of July and August. The mean annual rainfall is reported to be 2500 mm; the plan to create the lake was conceived in 1872 and construction completed 1897. It was designed as a backup for the Vihar Lake to supply portable drinking water to the city of Bombay.
The lake has surface area of 1.35 km². The average water depth is reported to be 12 m with a gross storage at Full Supply Level of 2,294 million imperial gallons, out of which 4 million imperial gallons per day are supplied to Greater Mumbai; the highest overflow level, recorded at the dam is 139.17 m. This fresh water lake fulfills the water requirement of the southern part of Mumbai; the lake is located 32 km to the north of Mumbai by road. The nearest suburban electric train station is Borivli East on the Western Railways and is close to western express highway, with a further travel of 6 km from the station by road to the lake; the nearest Sahar International Airport is at a distance of about 20 km. As the lake is located inside the Sanjay Gandhi National Park, entry permits are to be obtained from the park authorities for visit to the lake; the vegetation on the hill slopes draining into the lake is thick and lush, undisturbed and of mixed moist deciduous type. The lake and its catchment are protected by the Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation and Sanjay Gandhi National Park Authority.
As the lake is situated inside the Sanjay Gandhi National Park, the flora and fauna reported for the park would be relevant to the lake. However, fresh water crocodiles Mugger or Marsh crocodiles are known to inhabit the lake in sustainable numbers; as it is difficult to sight them in the lake, the park has set up a Crocodile Park’ to view the reptiles of different sizes Mumbai's water sources Vihar Lake Powai Lake Salsette Sanjay Gandhi National Park