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Seven Laws of Noah

The Seven Laws of Noah referred to as the Noahide Laws or the Noachide Laws, are a set of imperatives which, according to the Talmud, were given by God as a binding set of laws for the "children of Noah" – that is, all of humanity. According to Jewish tradition, non-Jews who adhere to these laws because they were given by Moses are said to be followers of Noahidism and regarded as righteous gentiles, who are assured of a place in Olam Haba, the final reward of the righteous; the Seven Laws of Noah include prohibitions against worshipping idols, cursing God, murder and sexual immorality, eating flesh torn from a living animal, as well as the obligation to establish courts of justice. The seven Noahide laws as traditionally enumerated are the following: Not to worship idols. Not to curse God. To establish courts of justice. Not to commit murder. Not to commit adultery, bestiality, or sexual immorality. Not to steal. Not to eat flesh torn from a living animal. According to the Talmud, the rabbis agree.

However, they disagree on which laws were given to Adam and Eve. Six of the seven laws are exegetically derived from passages in Genesis, with the seventh being the establishing of courts; the earliest complete rabbinic version of the seven laws can be found in the Tosefta: According to the Genesis flood narrative, a deluge covered the whole world, killing every surface-dwelling creature except Noah, his wife, his sons and their wives, the animals taken aboard Noah's Ark. According to this, all modern humans are descendants of Noah, thus the name Noahide Laws is referred to the laws that apply to all of humanity. After the flood, God sealed a covenant with Noah with the following admonitions: Flesh of a living animal: "However, flesh with its life-blood, you shall not eat." Murder and courts: "Furthermore, I will demand your blood, for your lives, I shall demand it from any wild animal. From man too, I will demand of each person's brother the blood of man, he who spills the blood of man, by man his blood shall be spilt.

The Book of Jubilees dated to the 2nd century BCE, may include an early reference to Noahide Law at verses 7:20–28: And in the twenty-eighth jubilee Noah began to enjoin upon his sons' sons the ordinances and commandments, all the judgments that he knew, he exhorted his sons to observe righteousness, to cover the shame of their flesh, to bless their Creator, honour father and mother, love their neighbour, guard their souls from fornication and uncleanness and all iniquity. For owing to these three things came the flood upon the earth... For whoso sheddeth man's blood, whoso eateth the blood of any flesh, shall all be destroyed from the earth; the Jewish Encyclopedia article on Saul of Tarsus states: According to Acts, Paul began working along the traditional Jewish line of proselytizing in the various synagogues where the proselytes of the gate and the Jews met. The article "New Testament" states: For great as was the success of Barnabas and Paul in the heathen world, the authorities in Jerusalem insisted upon circumcision as the condition of admission of members into the church, until, on the initiative of Peter, of James, the head of the Jerusalem church, it was agreed that acceptance of the Noachian Laws—namely, regarding avoidance of idolatry and the eating of flesh cut from a living animal—should be demanded of the heathen desirous of entering the Church.

David Novak presents a range of theories regarding the origin of the Noachide laws, including the Bible, Hittite law, the Maccabean period, the Roman period. According to the Talmud, the Noahide Laws apply to all humanity. In Judaism, בני נח B'nei Noah refers to all of humankind; the Talmud states: "Righteous people of all nations have a share in the world to come". Any non-Jew who lives according to these laws is regarded as one of "the righteous among the gentiles"; the rabbis agree. However, they disagree on which laws were given to Adam and Eve. Six of the seven laws are exegetically derived from passages in Genesis; the Talmud adds extra laws beyond the seven listed in the Tosefta which are attributed to different rabbis, such as the grafting of trees and sorcery among others, Ulla going so far as to make a list of 30 laws. The Talmud expands the scope of the seven laws to cover about 100 of the 613 mitzvoth. In practice Jewish law makes it difficult to apply the death penalty. No record exists of a gentile having been put to death for violating the seven laws.

Some of the categories of capital punishment recorded in the Talmud are recorded as having never been carried out. It is thought that the rabbis included discussion of them in anticipation of the coming messianic age; the Talmud lists the punishment for blaspheming the Ineffable Name of God as death. The sons of Noah are to be executed by decapitation for most crimes, considered one of the lightest capital punishments, by stoning if he has intercourse with a Jewish betrothed woman, or by strangulation if the Jewish woman has completed the marriage ceremonies, but had not yet consummated the marriage. In Jew

John Henry Smith

John Henry Smith was a member of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles and the First Presidency of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. He was a prominent politician in Utah and played an important role in the transition from Utah as a territory to a state of the United States. From 1867 until 1869 Smith served as a counselor in the bishopric of the Provo 4th Ward, which at that time covered all Provo north of Center Street and east of 1st East. In 1874 and 1875, Smith served as a missionary in Europe, he spent most of this mission in England in and around the city of Birmingham. From 1875 to 1880, Smith was the bishop of the Salt Lake 17th Ward. In October 1880, LDS Church president John Taylor called Smith to be a member of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles. On October 27 of that year, he was ordained an apostle by Wilford Woodruff, who at that time was the quorum president. Smith served in that capacity until the death of First Presidency member John R. Winder in 1910. John Henry Smith served in this capacity until his death the next year.

Smith was a prominent Republican in Utah politics. In 1882, he was elected a member of the Utah Territorial Legislature. Smith was unanimously elected by the 107 delegates to be the Chair of the Utah Constitutional Convention, held between March 4 and May 8, 1895; the result of the Convention was a draft Constitution for the proposed State of Utah, accepted by the United States Congress in 1896 when Utah became a state of the United States. Born in Carbunca, Smith was the son of Sarah Ann Libby and LDS Church apostle and First Presidency member, George A. Smith, he came west to Utah in a company co-led by his father in 1849, arriving in Salt Lake City on October 27, 1849. His mother died in 1851. Smith was the father of 19 children. One of his sons was George Albert Smith, who became an LDS apostle and served as the church's 8th president. Smith and George Albert Smith are the only father and son pair to have been members of the Quorum of the Twelve at the same time, serving together from 1903 to 1910.

Smith was the father of Nicholas G. Smith. Smith's first wife, Sarah Farr, was the daughter of Lorin Farr, mayor of Ogden, Utah. Smith's second wife, Josephine Groesbeck, spent 1888 until 1896 in exile in Manassa, Colorado, to avoid being called as a witness in a criminal unlawful cohabitation trial against Smith. Smith was buried at Salt Lake City Cemetery. Andrew Jenson, Latter-day Saint Biographical Encyclopedia, vol. 1, p. 141. White, Jean Bickmore, ed. Church and Politics: The Diaries of John Henry Smith, Signature Books, ISBN 0-941214-85-0

Sir John Frederick, 5th Baronet

Sir John Frederick, 5th Baronet, was a British politician who sat in the House of Commons between 1774 and 1807. Frederick was the son of Sir John Frederick, 4th Baronet of Burwood Park and his wife Susanna Hudson, he was born on 18 March 1750, educated at Westminster School from 1760 to 1765 and at Trinity College, Oxford in 1767. From 1769 to 1772 he made the Grand Tour of Europe. In 1774 Frederick was returned as Member of Parliament for Newport, Cornwall in the interest of Humphry Morice, he married Mary Garth, daughter of Richard Garth of Morden, Surrey on 15 October 1778. By 1780 Morice had sold his borough and Frederick was not returned in 1780, he sought another seat and was returned for Christchurch at a by-election in 1781. On the death of his father on 9 April 1783 he succeeded to the Baronetcy, he was re-elected for Christchurch again in 1784. In 1790 he was elected MP for his home county Surrey and held the seat until 1807. Frederick died on 16 January 1825 and was buried at Walton-on-Thames where there is unusual pyramid shaped monument to him and his wife.

Kidd, Williamson, David. Debrett's Baronetage. New York: St Martin's Press, 1990. Leigh Rayment's list of baronets Walton on Thames St Mary’s Parish Church Monuments


Narjis bint Yashoua was the wife of Imam Hasan al-Askari and the mother of the final Imam of Twelver Shia Islam. Her name has been recorded as Narjis, Katrina and Anna in books. More sources have described her as a "Roman princess" who pretended to be a slave so that she might travel from her kingdom to Arabia. Mohammad Ali Amir-Moezzi, in Encyclopedia of Iranica, suggests that the last version is "undoubtedly legendary and hagiographic". According to Ibn Babawayh's account, Narjis saw Mary, the mother of Jesus, Fatimah, the daughter of Muhammad, in her dreams and asked for her hand in marriage with Hasan al-Askari; the first scholar to reveal information about Narjis as the mother of twelfth Imam was Al-Masudi. According to his account, she was a Roman princess named Narjis. Ibn Babawayh was the first scholar to discuss the nationality of Narjis on the authority of Muhammad bin Bahr al-Shaybani, who attributed his narration to Bishr bin Sulayman al-Nakhkhas. According to Ibn Babawayh and Allamah Majlesi in al-Ghaibah, she was a Christian convert to Islam.

Narjis was the granddaughter of a Roman Caesar, a descendant of the Apostle Simon. Mohammad Ali Amir-Moezzi, in Encyclopedia of Iranica, suggests that the last version is "undoubtedly legendary and hagiographic". However, nowadays all twelvers consider her to be a Roman princess. Saiyra, Narges Khatoon, Katrina and Magdalena are names attributed to her in the sources. According to the Sibt ibn al-Jawzi and Ibn Talhah, Sunni narrators, she had been known as Susan. According to Ibn Babawayh's account, Narjis saw Mary, the mother of Jesus, Fatimah, the daughter of Muhammad, in her dreams on fourteen nights, they asked her to become Muslim and travel to Medina by masquerading as a captive of the Muslim army. According to Al-Ghaybah, after conversion to Islam upon the request of Mary and Fatima, she had another dream in which she visited Hasan al-Askari, the eleventh Shia Imam; the Imam tells her that her grandfather will shortly send an army to fight against Muslims and that she should turn herself in as a captive without being identified.

According to Donaldson, Ali al-Hadi, Hasan al-Askari's father, wrote a letter and handed it to his friend Bashar ibn Sulaiman with 220 dinars in a red pouch. He asked Bashar to go to Baghdad where slaves were sold to inquire of Amr ibn Yazid about a slave girl who would shout in the Eastern Byzantine Language: "Ακόμη και αν έχετε τον πλούτο και τη δόξα του Σολομώντα, του γιου του Δαβίδ, δεν θα απευθυνθώ σε σας. Έτσι μην σπαταλάτε τα χρήματά σας"! "Even if you have the wealth and glory of Solomon, son of David, I will not turn to you. So save your wealth!" Ali al-Hadi had predicted that the slave seller would respond that in any case he would have to sell the slave girl but she would respond: "Don't rush and let me select the buyer". Bashar narrates; the girl cried. She asks Amr ibn Yazid to sell her to the writer of the letter, "for if you refuse I will kill myself". Bashar narrates that on their way to Samarra, the girl kisses the letter rubbing it on her face and body; when Bashar asks her about the reason, she replies: "May the offspring of the Prophet dispel your doubts".

After a while she reveals to Bashar her escape from her father's palace. After joining Ali al-Hadi, he invites his sister, Hakimah Khātūn, says to her about Narjis: "she is the wife of Hasan al-Askari and mother of al-Qa'im. According to the views of scholars Muhammad Khawja Bukhari in his book Fasl al-Khitab, Hamidah the daughter of Muhammad al-Jawad, the ninth Shia Imam, the aunt of Hasan al-Askari, used to pray a lot to witness the son of Hasan al-Askari. On the eve of the 15th Sha'ban in 255 AH she met Hasan al-Askari; when she decided to return, Hasan al-Askari asked her to stay with them in order to witness the birth of the child whom she wished so much to see. Hamidah narrates. Hakima went to her. After a few moments, Narjis delivered the child. Hakima brought him to Hasan al-Askari, he took the child in his arms and he stroked his back and his eyes. He said aloud Adhan in his right ear and Iqama in his left ear. There were no signs of birth in Narjis. Hakimah Khatun has said that the "pregnancy of Narjis was like pregnancy of Moses and Jesus without any signs for the protection of the child".

That is because the Abbasid decided to kill the expected child, known as the savior. After the birth of the child, Hasan al-Askari revealed the child to his forty close followers and the child was hidden. According to Kohlberg, after the death of Hasan al-Askari, some Shia followers believed he was the Qa'im and Hujjat-Allah Mahdi was not his son, alleging he did not have any child; the group believed that he had not died and had gone into occultation. Another part of historians studying the pedigrees of some Central Asian "shejere" saints, believe that the 12th Imam was not the only son of Imam Hasan al-Askari. In the 11th Imam had Sayyid Muhammad and Sayyid Ali Akbar. One descendant of Sayyid Ali Akbar was Saint Ishan Imlo of Bukhara. Ishan Imlo – Bukhara "saint of the last time," as he is called in Bukhara, as it is believed that after him the Saints had no more; the average Asian Muslims revere him as the last of the Saints. Ishan Imlo. According to the source, died in 1162 AH, the mausoleum is in a cemetery in Bukhara.

The existence of any descendant of Imam Hasan al-Askari

J.M. Daniel House and School

The J. M. Daniel House and the J. M. Daniel School-District No. 3 are historic sites in or near Hamlet, Nebraska which were separately listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1985. They were both built by J. M Daniel; the house, built in 1876, has been known as Estelle Post Office and Store. They are stone buildings. St. John's Evangelical Lutheran German Church and Cemetery listed on the National Register in Hayes County Media related to J. M. Daniel House at Wikimedia Commons Media related to J. M. Daniel School-District No. 3 at Wikimedia Commons

Homo sapiens idaltu

Homo sapiens idaltu called Herto Man, is the name given to a number of early modern human fossils found in 1997 in Herto Bouri, Ethiopia. They date to around 160,000 years ago. Palaeoanthropologists determined that the skeletal finds belong to an extinct subspecies of Homo sapiens who lived in Pleistocene Africa; the subspecies H. s. idaltu falls under the umbrella of Anatomically modern humans. The recognition of H. s. idaltu as a valid subspecies of the anatomically modern human lineage would justify the description of contemporary humans with the subspecies name H. s. sapiens, though physical anthropologist Chris Stringer does not consider idaltu distinct enough within H. sapiens to warrant its own subspecies designation, instead classifies it as anatomically modern H. sapiens. Palaeoanthropologist Tim D White and others consider the fossils represent the probable immediate ancestors of anatomically modern humans; the fossilized remains of Homo sapiens idaltu were discovered at Herto Bouri near the Middle Awash site of Ethiopia's Afar Triangle in 1997 by Tim White, Giday WoldeGabriel and Berhane Asfaw, but were first unveiled in 2003.

Herto Bouri is a region of Ethiopia under volcanic layers. According to radioisotope dating, the layers are between 160,000 years old. Three well preserved crania are accounted for, the best preserved being from an adult male having a brain capacity of 1,450 cm3; the other crania include a six-year-old child. The Herto remains differ from those of chronologically forms of early Homo sapiens; these specimens represent the direct ancestors of modern Homo sapiens sapiens which, according to the "recent African origin" or "out of Africa" model, developed shortly after this period in Eastern Africa. "The many morphological features shared by the Herto crania and AMHS, to the exclusion of penecontemporaneous Neanderthals, provide additional fossil data excluding Neanderthals from a significant contribution to the ancestry of modern humans." A 2005 potassium-argon dating of volcanic tuff associated with the Omo remains showed them to date from around 195,000 years ago. This makes the fossils the earliest known remains of anatomically modern humans, older than the idaltu specimens.

Anthropologist Chris Stringer argued in a 2003 article in the journal Nature that "the skulls might not be distinctive enough to warrant a new subspecies name". 160,000-year-old fossilized skulls uncovered in Ethiopia are oldest anatomically modern humans, Robert Sanders, UC Berkeley, 11 June 2003. Missing link in human evolution found in Africa BBC report and image of the reconstructed skull discovered at Herto Homo sapiens idaltu - Nature Journal Article Fossil Hominids - Middle Awash Research Project Origins - Discovery of Earliest Homo Sapien Skulls backs'Out of Africa' Theory - Homo sapiens idaltu Bradshaw Foundation