The Seven Network is a major Australian commercial free-to-air television network. It is owned by Seven West Media Limited, is one of five main free-to-air television networks in Australia. Channel Seven's head office is in Sydney; as of 2019, the Seven Network is the second-highest rated television network and primary channel in Australia, behind the Nine Network and ahead of Network 10, the ABC and SBS. The Seven Network is the broadcaster of popular franchises and programs, including the AFL, the Cricket, the Olympics, Sunrise, My Kitchen Rules, Big Brother Australia, The Chase Australia, Australia's Got Talent, House Rules and Away, Better Homes & Gardens and Seven News. In 2011 the Seven Network won all 40 out of 40 weeks of the ratings season for total viewers. Seven is the first to achieve this since the introduction of the OzTAM ratings system in 2001; as of 2014, it is the second largest network in the country in terms of population reach. Seven's administration headquarters are in Eveleigh, completed in 2003.
National news and current affairs programming are based between flagship station ATN-7 in Sydney and HSV-7 in Melbourne. In 2009, Seven moved its Sydney-based production operations from Epping to a purpose-built high-definition television production facility at the Australian Technology Park in Eveleigh; the present Seven Network began as a group of independent stations in Sydney, Brisbane and Perth. HSV-7 Melbourne, licensed to The Herald and Weekly Times Ltd, was launched on 4 November 1956, the first station in the country to use the VHF7 frequency. ATN-7 Sydney, licensed to Amalgamated Television Services, a subsidiary of Fairfax, was launched on 2 December 1956; the two stations did not share resources, instead formed content-sharing partnerships with their VHF9 counterparts by 1957: ATN-7 partnered with Melbourne's GTV-9, while HSV-7 paired up with Sydney's TCN-9. TVW-7 Perth, licensed to TVW Limited, a subsidiary of West Australian Newspapers, publisher of The West Australian, began broadcasting two years on 16 October 1959, as the city's first commercial station.
BTQ-7 Brisbane followed on 1 November, signing on as Brisbane's second commercial television station. ADS-7 Adelaide was launched on 24 October 1959 as the final capital city VHF7 station; the station swapped frequencies with SAS-10 on 27 December 1987 as ADS-10 and SAS-7. HSV-7 began its relationship with the Victorian Football League in April 1957, when the station broadcast the first live Australian rules football match. Throughout this time, the stations operated independently of each other, with schedules made up of various simple, inexpensive, such as Pick a Box and spinoffs of popular radio shows. In the early 1960s, coaxial cable links, formed between Sydney and Melbourne, allowed the sharing of programmes and simultaneous broadcasts of live shows. In 1960, Frank Packer, the owner of Sydney's TCN-9, bought a controlling share of Melbourne's GTV-9, in the process creating the country's first television network and dissolving the ATN-7/GTV-9 and HSV-7/TCN-9 partnerships. Left without their original partners, ATN-7 and HSV-7 joined to form the Australian Television Network in 1963.
The new grouping was soon joined by other capital-city channel 7 stations, ADS-7 Adelaide and BTQ-7 Brisbane. The new network began to produce and screen higher-budget programs to attract viewers, most notably Homicide, a series which would continue for another 12 years to become the nation's longest running drama series. However, it was not until 1970 that a national network logo was adopted, albeit still with independently owned and operated stations with local advertising campaigns. Colour television was introduced across the network in 1975. Rupert Murdoch made an unsuccessful bid for the Herald and Weekly Times, owners of HSV-7, in 1979 going on to gain control of rival ATV-10. Fairfax, however bought a 14.9% share of the company in the same year. The 1980s saw the introduction of stereo sound, as well as a number of successful shows, most notably A Country Practice in 1981, Sons and Daughters, which began in 1982. Wheel of Fortune began its 25-year run in July 1981, produced from ADS-7's studios in Adelaide.
The 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow were shown live on the network the year before. Neighbours began on Seven in 1985, but low ratings in Sydney led to the cancellation of the new series at the end of the year, which moved to Network Ten and went on to achieve international success. Perth based businessman Robert Holmes à Court, through his business the Bell Group, bought TVW-7 from its original owners, West Australian Newspapers in 1982; the Herald and Weekly Times, owner of HSV-7 and ADS-7, was sold to Rupert Murdoch in December 1986 for an estimated A$1.8 billion. Murdoch's company, News Limited, sold off HSV-7 to Fairfax soon afterwards, for $320 million. Fairfax went on to axe a number of locally produced shows in favour of networked content from its Sydney counterpart, ATN-7. Cross-media ownership laws introduced in 1987 forced Fairfax to choose between its print and television operations – it chose the former, sold off its stations to Qintex Ltd. owned by businessman Christopher Skase.
Qintex had bought, subsequently sold off, stations in Brisbane and regional Queensland before taking control of the network. The next year, another new logo was introduced along with evening soap Home and Away and a relaunched Seven National News, now known as Seven News; the network became tr
Sir Richard Browne, 1st Baronet of Deptford was English ambassador to the court of France at Paris from 1641 to 1660. Browne was the son of Thomazine Gonson, his grandfather was Kt. Clerk of the Green Cloth from 1594 until his death in 1604. A tablet in the church at Deptford mentions that the family was a younger branch of the ancient Browne family of Hitchin and Horsley, Essex. Browne played the part of Diana in Robert White's'Masque of Cupid's Banishment' performed for Anne of Denmark at Deptford on 4 May 1617. Browne was sworn clerk-in-ordinary of the privy council on 27 January 1641, he was the resident English ambassador to the court of France at Paris from 1641 to 1660. He was at this post when the young John Evelyn met him in the autumn of 1646. By June 1647, Evelyn had secured permission to marry Richard's 12-year-old daughter Mary Browne, he was created a Baronet by Charles II in 1649. Being a Royalist he could not return to England to his family estate Sayes Court, in Deptford, opposite the Naval Dockyard.
John Evelyn purchased the Sayes Court estate in 1653. Browne died at Kent. George Edward Cokayne, The Complete Baronetage, 5 volumes, volume III, page 10. Hereinafter cited as The Complete Baronetage. Wroth, Warwick William. "Browne, Richard". In Stephen, Leslie. Dictionary of National Biography. 7. London: Smith, Elder & Co
Cleistanthus collinus is a plant species first described by Roxburgh, with its current name after Bentham and Hooker. The IUCN categorizes this species as vulnerable. No subspecies are listed in the Catalogue of Life. Cleistanthus collinus contains a plant poison called oduvan, Vadisaku and Gaja Madara. Ingestion of its leaves or a decoction of its leaves causes hypokalemia, metabolic acidosis and hypoxia due to distal renal tubular acidosis, ARDS and toxin induced vasodilatation respectively. Hypokalemia and acidosis also induces rhabdomyolysis resulting in myoglobinuric kidney failure and neuromuscular weakness, its effects are mediated by injury to the distal renal tubules, pulmonary epithelium and peripheral blood vessels due to glutathione depletion. Cleistanthin A and cleistanthin B are phytoconstituents of C. collinus. Cleistanthin A and cleistanthin B are arylnaphthalide lignans, they have been reported to be toxic substances responsible for poisoning. Cleistanthin A is present in Phyllanthus taxodiifolius.
Media related to Cleistanthus collinus at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Cleistanthus collinus at Wikispecies