Sophia is a central idea in Hellenistic philosophy and religion, Gnosticism, orthodox Christianity, Esoteric Christianity, and Christian mysticism. Sophiology is a concept regarding wisdom, as well as a theological concept regarding the wisdom of the biblical God. Sophia is honored as a goddess of wisdom by Gnostics, as well as by some Neopagan, New Age, following his teacher, understands philosophy as φιλοσοφία. This understanding of philosophia permeates Platos dialogues, especially the Republic, in that work, the leaders of the proposed utopia are to be philosopher kings, rulers who are friends of sophia or Wisdom. Sophia is one of the four cardinal virtues in Platos Protagoras, the Pythian Oracle reportedly answered the question of who is the wisest man of Greece. Socrates defends this verdict in his Apology to the effect that he, at least and this contrasted with the attitude of contemporaneous Greek Sophists, who claimed to be wise and offered to teach wisdom for pay. The Greek noun sophia is the translation of wisdom in the Greek Septuagint for Hebrew חכמות Ḥokmot, Wisdom is a central topic in the sapiential books, i. e.
In Christian theology, wisdom describes an aspect of God, or the theological concept regarding the wisdom of God. Jesus directly mentions Wisdom in the Gospel of Matthew, The Son of man came eating and drinking, and they say, Behold a man gluttonous, and a winebibber, but wisdom is justified by her deeds. St. Paul refers to the concept, notably in 1 Corinthians, where is the disputer of this world. Hath not God made foolish the wisdom of this world, Paul sets worldly wisdom against a higher wisdom of God, But we speak the wisdom of God in a mystery, even the hidden wisdom, which God ordained before the world unto our glory. The Epistle of James distinguishes between two kinds of wisdom, one is a false wisdom, which is characterized as earthly, devilish and is associated with strife and contention. In Eastern Orthodoxy humility is the highest wisdom and is to be more than any other virtue. Not only does humility cultivate the Holy Wisdom, but it is the quality that grants people salvation. The Hagia Sophia or Holy Wisdom church in Constantinople was the center of the Eastern Orthodox Church for nearly a thousand years.
In the Divine Liturgy of the Orthodox Church, the exclamation Sophia, or in English Wisdom. will be proclaimed by the deacon or priest at certain moments, especially before the reading of scripture, to draw the congregations attention to sacred teaching. The concept of Sophia has been championed as a key part of the Godhead by some Eastern Orthodox religious thinkers and these included Vladimir Solovyov, Pavel Florensky, Nikolai Berdyaev, and Sergei Bulgakov whose book Sophia, The Wisdom of God is in many ways the apotheosis of Sophiology. For Bulgakov, the Sophia is co-existent with the Trinity, operating as the aspect of God in concert with the three masculine principles of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit
Other Greek cities set up democracies, most following the Athenian model, but none are as well documented as Athens. It was a system of democracy, in which participating citizens voted directly on legislation. The longest-lasting democratic leader was Pericles, after his death, Athenian democracy was twice briefly interrupted by oligarchic revolutions towards the end of the Peloponnesian War. It was modified somewhat after it was restored under Eucleides, the most detailed accounts of the system are of this fourth-century modification rather than the Periclean system, Democracy was suppressed by the Macedonians in 322 BC. The Athenian institutions were revived, but how close they were to a real democracy is debatable. Solon and Ephialtes contributed to the development of Athenian democracy and he broke up the power of the nobility by organizing citizens into ten groups based on where they lived rather than on their wealth. The word democracy combines the elements dêmos and krátos, and thus means literally people power, in the words monarchy and oligarchy, the second element comes from archē, meaning beginning, and hence first place or power, sovereignty.
One might expect the term demarchy to have adopted, by analogy. However, the word demarchy had already taken and meant mayoralty. We are not certain that the democracy was extant when systems that came to be called democratic were first instituted. The word is attested in Herodotus, who some of the earliest surviving Greek prose. Around 460 BC an individual is known with the name of Democrates, a name possibly coined as a gesture of democratic loyalty, Athens was not the only polis in Ancient Greece that instituted a democratic regime. Aristotle cites many other cities as well, yet, it is only with reference to Athens that we can attempt to trace some of specific sixth century events that led to the institution of democracy at the end of the century. Before the first attempt at government, Athens was ruled by a series of archons or chief magistrates. The members of these institutions were generally aristocrats, who ruled the polis for their own advantage, in 621 BC Draco codified a set of notoriously harsh laws that were a clear expression of the power of the aristocracy over everybody else.
This did not stop the aristocratic families feuding amongst themselves to obtain as much power as possible, the enfranchisement of the local laboring classes was succeeded by the development of chattel slavery, the enslavement of, in large part, foreigners. Solon, the mediator, reshaped the city by absorbing the traditional aristocracy in a definition of citizenship which allotted a political function to every resident of Attica. Athenians were not slaves but citizens, with the right, at the very least, under these reforms, the position of archon was opened to all with certain property qualifications, and a Boule, a rival council of 400, was set up
Solon was an Athenian statesman and poet. He is remembered particularly for his efforts to legislate against political and his reforms failed in the short term, yet he is often credited with having laid the foundations for Athenian democracy. He wrote poetry for pleasure, as propaganda, and in defense of his constitutional reforms. Ancient authors such as Herodotus and Plutarch are the source of information, yet they wrote about Solon long after his death. Fourth century orators, such as Aeschines, tended to attribute to Solon all the laws of their own, Solon was born in Athens around 638 B. C. His family was distinguished in Attica as they belonged to a noble or Eupatrid clan although only possessing moderate wealth, Solons lineage, could be traced back to Codrus, the last King of Athens. According to Diogenes Laërtius, he had a brother named Dropides who was an ancestor of Plato, according to Plutarch, Solon was related to the tyrant Peisistratos for their mothers were cousins. Solon was eventually drawn into the pursuit of commerce.
When Athens and Megara were contesting for the possession of the Salamis Island, after repeated disasters, Solon was able to increase the morale and spirits of his body of troops on the strength of a poem he wrote about the islands. Supported by Peisistratos, he defeated the Megarians either by means of a trick or more directly through heroic battle around 595 B. C. The Megarians however refused to give up their claim to the island, the dispute was referred to the Spartans, who eventually awarded possession of the island to Athens on the strength of the case that Solon put to them. According to Diogenes Laertius, in 594 B. C, Solon was chosen archon or chief magistrate. As archon, Solon discussed his intended reforms with some friends, knowing that he was about to cancel all debts, these friends took out loans and promptly bought some land. Suspected of complicity, Solon complied with his own law and released his own debtors and his friends never repaid their debts. After he had finished his reforms, he travelled abroad for ten years, according to Herodotus he visited the Pharaoh of Egypt Amasis II.
According to Plutarch, he spent some time and discussed philosophy with two Egyptian priests, Psenophis of Heliopolis and Sonchis of Sais, according to Platos dialogues Timaeus and Critias, he visited Neiths temple at Sais and received from the priests there an account of the history of Atlantis. Next Solon sailed to Cyprus, where he oversaw the construction of a new capital for a local king, Solons travels finally brought him to Sardis, capital of Lydia. According to Herodotus and Plutarch, he met with Croesus and gave the Lydian king advice, Croesus had considered himself to be the happiest man alive and Solon had advised him, Count no man happy until he be dead
Lindos is an archaeological site, a town and a former municipality on the island of Rhodes, in the Dodecanese, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Rhodes, the municipal unit has an area of 178.900 km2. It lies on the east coast of the island and it is about 50 km south of the town of Rhodes and its fine beaches make it a popular tourist and holiday destination. Lindos is situated in a bay and faces the fishing village. Lindos was founded by the Dorians led by the king Tlepolemus of Rhodes and it was one of six Dorian cities in the area known as the Dorian Hexapolis. The eastern location of Rhodes made it a meeting place between the Greeks and the Phoenicians, and by the 8th century Lindos was a major trading centre. In the 6th century it was ruled by Cleobulus, one of the Seven Sages of Greece, the importance of Lindos declined after the foundation of the city of Rhodes in the late 5th century. In classical times the acropolis of Lindos was dominated by the temple of Athena Lindia.
In Hellenistic and Roman times the temple precinct grew as buildings were added. Above the modern town rises the acropolis of Lindos, a citadel which was fortified successively by the Greeks, the Romans, the Byzantines, the Knights of St John. This makes the difficult to excavate and interpret archaeologically. The acropolis offers spectacular views of the harbours and coastline. On the acropolis of Lindos today parts of the buildings may still be seen, The Doric Temple of Athena Lindia, dating from about 300 BC. Inside the temple is the table of offerings and the base of the statue of Athena. The Propylaea of the Sanctuary, dating from the 4th century BC, a monumental staircase leads to a D-shaped stoa and a wall with five door openings. The Hellenistic stoa with lateral projecting wings, dating from about 200 BC, the stoa was 87 metres long and consisted of 42 columns. The well-known relief of a Rhodian trireme cut into the rock at the foot of the leading to the acropolis. On the bow stood a statue of General Hagesander, the work of the sculptor Pythokritos, the relief dates from about 180 BC
Pittacus of Mytilene
Pittacus was an ancient Mytilenaen military general and one of the Seven Sages of Greece. Pittacus was a native of Mytilene and son of Hyrradius and he became a Mytilenaean general who, with his army, was victorious in the battle against the Athenians and their commander Phrynon. In consequence of victory, the Mytilenaeans held Pittacus in the greatest honour. After ten years of reign, he resigned his position and the city, the challenge was accepted, and he killed his enemy with a broad sword. His great motto was this, Whatever you do, do it well, some authors mention that he had a son called Tyrrhaeus. The legend says that his son was killed and when the murderer was brought before Pittacus, he dismissed the man and said, of this matter, Heraclitus says that he had the murderer into his power and released him, Pardon is better than punishment. Pittacus said that t is a thing to be a good man. He flourished about the forty-second Olympiad, having lived more than seventy years, he died in the third year of the fifty-second Olympiad.
The Suda claims that Pittacus wrote a work about laws. No trace of works has survived. As such, it was appreciated by the common people. Whatever you do, do it well, even the gods cannot strive against necessity. Do not say beforehand what you are going to do, for if you fail, do not reproach a man with his misfortunes, fearing lest Nemesis may overtake you. Forbear to speak not only of your friends, but of your enemies. Cultivate truth, good faith, cleverness, Norfolk, VA, Norfolk Virginian Job Print. A Fleece of Gold, Five Lessons from the Fable of Jason, media related to Pittacus at Wikimedia Commons Quotations related to Pittacus of Mytilene at Wikiquote
Demetrius of Phalerum
Demetrius of Phalerum was an Athenian orator originally from Phalerum, a student of Theophrastus, and perhaps of Aristotle and one of the first Peripatetics. He was exiled by his enemies in 307 BC, and he went first to Thebes and he wrote extensively on the subjects of history and literary criticism. Demetrius was born in Phalerum, c.350 BC and he was the son of Phanostratus, a man without rank or property. He was educated, together with the poet Menander, in the school of Theophrastus and he began his public career about 325 BC, at the time of the disputes concerning Harpalus, and soon acquired a great reputation by the talent he displayed in public speaking. He belonged to the party of Phocion, and he acted in the spirit of that statesman. When Xenocrates was unable to pay the new tax on metics c.322 BC, after the death of Phocion in 317 BC, Cassander placed Demetrius at the head of the administration of Athens. He filled this office for ten years, instituting extensive legal reforms, the Athenians conferred upon him the most extraordinary distinctions, and no fewer than 360 statues were erected to him.
According to Stephen V. Tracy, the story about the statues was not historical and he remained in power until 307 BC when Cassanders enemy, Demetrius Poliorcetes captured Athens, and Demetrius was obliged to take to flight. Carystius of Pergamum mentions that he had a lover by the name of Diognis, after his exile, his enemies contrived to induce the people of Athens to pass the death sentence upon him, in consequence of which his friend Menander nearly fell a victim. All his statues, with the exception of one, were demolished, during his stay at Alexandria, he devoted himself mainly to literary pursuits, ever cherishing the recollection of his own country. On the accession of Ptolemy Philadelphus, Demetrius fell into disfavour, and was sent into exile to Upper Egypt and his death appears to have taken place soon after the year 283 BC. Demetrius was the last among the Attic orators worthy of the name and his orations were characterised as being soft and elegant, rather than sublime like those of Demosthenes.
These works, which were historical, partly political, partly philosophical. The work On Style which has come down under his name, is the work of a writer, the performance of tragedy had fallen into disuse in Athens, on account of the great expense involved. In order to afford the people less costly and yet intellectual amusement, he caused the Homeric, according to Strabo, Demetrius inspired the creation of the Mouseion, the location of the Library of Alexandria, which was modeled after the arrangement of Aristotles school. The Mouseion contained a peripatos, a syssition and an organization of scrolls. Other sources claim it was created under the reign of his son Ptolemy II. Diogenes Laërtius devotes a section of his The Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers to Demetrius Phalereus, what the exact source was for Hegels claim is unclear
Bias of Priene
Bias of Priene was a Greek sage. He is widely accepted as one of the Seven Sages of Greece and was renowned for his probity, Bias was born at Priene and was the son of Teutamus. He is said to have been distinguished for his skill as an advocate, in reference to which Demodicus of Alerius uttered the following saying – If you are a judge, give a Prienian decision, and Hipponax said, More powerful in pleading causes than Bias of Priene. Satyrus placed him at the head of the Seven Sages, and even Heraclitus, one of the examples of his great goodness is the legend that says that Bias paid a ransom for some women who had been taken prisoner. After educating them as his own daughters, he sent them back to Messina, their homeland, Bias is said to have died at a very advanced age while pleading a cause for his client. After he had finished speaking, he rested his head on his grandson, when the advocate on the opposite side had spoken, the judges decided in favor of Biass client, by which time Bias had died.
The city gave him a magnificent funeral and inscribed on his tomb, Here Bias of Priene lies, whose name Brought to his home and it is said that Bias wrote a poem of 2000 lines on Ionia and the way to make it prosperous. Many sayings were attributed to him by Diogenes Laertius and by others and it is difficult to bear a change of fortune for the worse with magnanimity. Choose the course which you adopt with deliberation, but when you have adopted it, do not speak fast, for that shows folly. Speak of the Gods as they are, do not praise an undeserving man because of his riches. Gain your point by persuasion, not by force, cherish wisdom as a means of traveling from youth to old age, for it is more lasting than any other possession. So order your affairs as if you were to live long, I carry all my effects with me. Take by persuasion, not by force, in April,1819, Schopenhauer wrote in his Reisebuch, In the Vatican there is the bust of Bias with the inscription of πλεῖστοι ἄνθρωποι κακοί. Indeed this must have been his maxim
Delphi is famous as the ancient sanctuary that grew rich as the seat of the oracle that was consulted on important decisions throughout the ancient classical world. Moreover, it was considered as the navel of the world by the Greeks as represented by the Omphalos and it occupies an impressive site on the south-western slope of Mount Parnassus overlooking the coastal plain to the south and the valley of Phocis. It is now an archaeological site and the modern town is nearby. The site of Delphi is located in upper central Greece, on multiple plateaux/terraces along the slope of Mount Parnassus, and includes the Sanctuary of Apollo and this semicircular spur is known as Phaedriades, and overlooks the Pleistos Valley. In myths dating to the period of Ancient Greece, the site of Delphi was believed to be determined by Zeus when he sought to find the centre of his Grandmother Earth. He sent two eagles flying from the eastern and western extremities, and the path of the eagles crossed over Delphi where the omphalos, Apollo was said to have slain Python, a drako a serpent or a dragon who lived there and protected the navel of the Earth.
Python is claimed by some to be the name of the site in recognition of Python which Apollo defeated. The Homeric Hymn to Delphic Apollo recalled that the ancient name of this site had been Krisa, others relate that it was named Pytho and that Pythia, the priestess serving as the oracle, was chosen from their ranks by a group of priestesses who officiated at the temple. At the settlement site in Delphi, which was a settlement of the late 9th century. Pottery and bronze work as well as tripod dedications continue in a steady stream, the victors at Delphi were presented with a laurel crown which was ceremonially cut from a tree by a boy who re-enacted the slaying of the Python. Delphi was set apart from the other sites because it hosted the mousikos agon. These Pythian Games rank second among the four stephanitic games chronologically and these games, were different from the games at Olympia in that they were not of such vast importance to the city of Delphi as the games at Olympia were to the area surrounding Olympia.
Delphi would have been a renowned city whether or not it hosted these games, it had other attractions that led to it being labeled the omphalos of the earth, in other words, in the inner hestia of the Temple of Apollo, an eternal flame burned. The name Delphoi comes from the root as δελφύς delphys, womb. Apollo is connected with the site by his epithet Δελφίνιος Delphinios, the epithet is connected with dolphins in the Homeric Hymn to Apollo, recounting the legend of how Apollo first came to Delphi in the shape of a dolphin, carrying Cretan priests on his back. The Homeric name of the oracle is Pytho, another legend held that Apollo walked to Delphi from the north and stopped at Tempe, a city in Thessaly, to pick laurel which he considered to be a sacred plant. In commemoration of this legend, the winners at the Pythian Games received a wreath of laurel picked in the Temple, Delphi became the site of a major temple to Phoebus Apollo, as well as the Pythian Games and the famous prehistoric oracle.
Even in Roman times, hundreds of votive statues remained, described by Pliny the Younger, according to Plutarchs essay on the meaning of the E at Delphi—the only literary source for the inscription—there was inscribed at the temple a large letter E
Socrates was a classical Greek philosopher credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy. He is a figure known chiefly through the accounts of classical writers, especially the writings of his students Plato and Xenophon. Platos dialogues are among the most comprehensive accounts of Socrates to survive from antiquity, though it is unclear the degree to which Socrates himself is hidden behind his best disciple, nothing written by Socrates remains extant. As a result, information about him and his philosophies depends upon secondary sources, close comparison between the contents of these sources reveals contradictions, thus creating concerns about the possibility of knowing in-depth the real Socrates. This issue is known as the Socratic problem, or the Socratic question, to understand Socrates and his thought, one must turn primarily to the works of Plato, whose dialogues are thought the most informative source about Socrates life and philosophy, and Xenophon. These writings are the Sokratikoi logoi, or Socratic dialogues, which consist of reports of conversations apparently involving Socrates, as for discovering the real-life Socrates, the difficulty is that ancient sources are mostly philosophical or dramatic texts, apart from Xenophon.
There are no straightforward histories, contemporary with Socrates, that dealt with his own time, a corollary of this is that sources that do mention Socrates do not necessarily claim to be historically accurate, and are often partisan. For instance, those who prosecuted and convicted Socrates have left no testament, historians therefore face the challenge of reconciling the various evidence from the extant texts in order to attempt an accurate and consistent account of Socrates life and work. The result of such an effort is not necessarily realistic, even if consistent, amid all the disagreement resulting from differences within sources, two factors emerge from all sources pertaining to Socrates. It would seem, that he was ugly, Xenophon, being an historian, is a more reliable witness to the historical Socrates. It is a matter of debate over which Socrates it is whom Plato is describing at any given point—the historical figure. As British philosopher Martin Cohen has put it, the idealist, offers an idol, a Saint, a prophet of the Sun-God, a teacher condemned for his teachings as a heretic.
It is clear from other writings and historical artefacts, that Socrates was not simply a character, nor an invention, the testimony of Xenophon and Aristotle, alongside some of Aristophanes work, is useful in fleshing out a perception of Socrates beyond Platos work. The problem with discerning Socrates philosophical views stems from the perception of contradictions in statements made by the Socrates in the different dialogues of Plato and these contradictions produce doubt as to the actual philosophical doctrines of Socrates, within his milieu and as recorded by other individuals. Aristotle, in his Magna Moralia, refers to Socrates in words which make it patent that the virtue is knowledge was held by Socrates. Within the Metaphysics, he states Socrates was occupied with the search for moral virtues, however, in The Clouds, Aristophanes portrays Socrates as accepting payment for teaching and running a sophist school with Chaerephon. Also, in Platos Apology and Symposium, as well as in Xenophons accounts, more specifically, in the Apology, Socrates cites his poverty as proof that he is not a teacher.
Two fragments are extant of the writings by Timon of Phlius pertaining to Socrates, although Timon is known to have written to ridicule, details about the life of Socrates can be derived from three contemporary sources, the dialogues of Plato and Xenophon, and the plays of Aristophanes
Plutarch was a Greek biographer and essayist, known primarily for his Parallel Lives and Moralia. He is classified as a Middle Platonist, Plutarchs surviving works were written in Greek, but intended for both Greek and Roman readers. Plutarch was born to a prominent family in the town of Chaeronea, about 80 km east of Delphi. The name of Plutarchs father has not been preserved, but based on the common Greek custom of repeating a name in alternate generations, the name of Plutarchs grandfather was Lamprias, as he attested in Moralia and in his Life of Antony. His brothers and Lamprias, are mentioned in his essays and dialogues. Rualdus, in his 1624 work Life of Plutarchus, recovered the name of Plutarchs wife, from internal evidence afforded by his writings. A letter is still extant, addressed by Plutarch to his wife, bidding her not to grieve too much at the death of their two-year-old daughter, interestingly, he hinted at a belief in reincarnation in that letter of consolation. The exact number of his sons is not certain, although two of them and the second Plutarch, are often mentioned.
Plutarchs treatise De animae procreatione in Timaeo is dedicated to them, another person, Soklarus, is spoken of in terms which seem to imply that he was Plutarchs son, but this is nowhere definitely stated. Plutarch studied mathematics and philosophy at the Academy of Athens under Ammonius from 66 to 67, at some point, Plutarch took Roman citizenship. He lived most of his life at Chaeronea, and was initiated into the mysteries of the Greek god Apollo. For many years Plutarch served as one of the two priests at the temple of Apollo at Delphi, the site of the famous Delphic Oracle, twenty miles from his home. By his writings and lectures Plutarch became a celebrity in the Roman Empire, yet he continued to reside where he was born, at his country estate, guests from all over the empire congregated for serious conversation, presided over by Plutarch in his marble chair. Many of these dialogues were recorded and published, and the 78 essays, Plutarch held the office of archon in his native municipality, probably only an annual one which he likely served more than once.
He busied himself with all the matters of the town. The Suda, a medieval Greek encyclopedia, states that Emperor Trajan made Plutarch procurator of Illyria, most historians consider this unlikely, since Illyria was not a procuratorial province, and Plutarch probably did not speak Illyrian. Plutarch spent the last thirty years of his serving as a priest in Delphi. He thus connected part of his work with the sanctuary of Apollo, the processes of oracle-giving
Periander, was the Second Tyrant of the Cypselid dynasty that ruled over Corinth. Periander’s rule brought about a time in Corinth’s history, as his administrative skill made Corinth one of the wealthiest city states in Greece. He is often considered one of the Seven Sages of Greece, Periander was the second tyrant of Corinth and the son of Cypselus, the founder of the Cypselid dynasty. There were rumors that she and her son Periander had an illicit affair, Periander married Lyside, daughter of Procles and Eristenea. They had two sons, who was said to be weak-minded, and Lycophron, a man of intelligence. According to the book Lives of the Eminent Philosophers, Periander, in a fit of rage, greek historian Herodotus has alluded to suggestions that Periander had defiled the corpse of his wife, employing a metaphor, Periander baked his bread in a cold oven. Grief for his mother and anger at his father drove Lycophron to take refuge in Corcyra, when Periander was much older and looking to have his successor at his side, he sent for Lycophron.
When the people of Corcyca heard of this, they killed Lycophron rather than let him depart, the death of his son caused Periander to fall into a despondency that eventually led to his death. Periander was succeeded by his nephew, who ruled for just three years and was the last of the Cypselid tyrants, Periander built Corinth into one of the major trading centers in Ancient Greece. Periander is credited with inventing a system, the Diolkos. Tolls from goods entering Corinth’s port accounted for all the government revenues, which Periander used to build temples and other public works. He had the poet Arion come from Lesbos to Corinth for a festival in the city. Periander held many festivals and built buildings in the Doric style. The Corinthian style of pottery was developed by an artisan during his rule, Periander was said to be a patron of literature, who both wrote and appreciated early philosophy. He is said to have written a didactic poem 2,000 lines long, Periander is referenced by many of his contemporaries in relation to philosophy and leadership.
Most commonly he is mentioned as one of the Seven Sages of Ancient Greece, a group of philosophers and rulers from early Greece, in Lives of the Eminent Philosophers, Diogenes Laertius, a philosopher of the 3rd century AD, lists Periander as one of these seven sages. Ausonius refers to Periander as one of the Sages in his work The Masque of the Seven Sages, some scholars have argued that the ruler named Periander was a different person from the sage of the same name. And Neanthes of Cyzicus makes the assertion, that the two men were cousins to one another