Coberley is a village and civil parish in the Cotswold District of Gloucestershire in England,4 miles south of Cheltenham. The village is in a valley at the confluence of a number of streams that form the River Churn, in medieval times the village was closer to the main road, near a spring to the east of Coberley Court. A short distance to the east are the sites of the mediaeval, the parish has two long barrows, one about 0.75 miles west of the parish church and the other about 2 miles west-northwest of the church. A skeleton was discovered in the barrow before 1779, the valley north of Coberley is the site of a Roman villa complex that has been the source of numerous archaeological finds, including coins, tiles and mosaics. The site was excavated by Channel 4s Time Team in 2007 for an episode that was broadcast on 3 February 2008, the Church of England parish church of Saint Giles had Norman features until the architect John Middleton rebuilt it in 1869-72. Middleton retained the Decorated Gothic south chapel, built in 1340 as a chantry to Saint Mary and he retained the Perpendicular Gothic bell tower.
Dowmans Farm house was built in the 17th century, the present rectory was designed by Richard Pace and built in 1826. Its predecessor sheltered the future Charles II of England for the night on 10 September 1651, the village school was designed by David Brandon and built in 1857. It is now Coberley Church of England Primary School, people have been labelled de Coberley or of Coberley since 1100, although early uses of the name were probably temporary descriptions rather than as an hereditary surname. It is not until the late 13th century that the name is likely to have used by one, or several different. Over time the spelling of the name has mutated and possible variations include Coberley, Cubberley, Cobleigh, the Buildings of England, The Cotswolds. Location map GENUKI, Gloucestershire - UK genealogy page Coberly/Cubberley/Cobley/Cobleigh DNA Project Coberley Primary School Gloucester
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, the United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland, with an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants, this makes it the fourth-most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 6 February 1952, other major urban areas in the United Kingdom include the regions of Birmingham, Glasgow and Manchester.
The United Kingdom consists of four countries—England, Wales, the last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the UK have changed over time, Wales was annexed by the Kingdom of England under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. A treaty between England and Scotland resulted in 1707 in a unified Kingdom of Great Britain, which merged in 1801 with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, there are fourteen British Overseas Territories. These are the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, British influence can be observed in the language and legal systems of many of its former colonies. The United Kingdom is a country and has the worlds fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP. The UK is considered to have an economy and is categorised as very high in the Human Development Index.
It was the worlds first industrialised country and the worlds foremost power during the 19th, the UK remains a great power with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally. It is a nuclear weapons state and its military expenditure ranks fourth or fifth in the world. The UK has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946 and it has been a leading member state of the EU and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. However, on 23 June 2016, a referendum on the UKs membership of the EU resulted in a decision to leave. The Acts of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain, Scotland and Northern Ireland have devolved self-government
The River Shannon is the longest river in Ireland at 360.5 km. It drains the Shannon River Basin which has an area of 16,865 km2, the Shannon divides the west of Ireland from the east and south. County Clare, being west of the Shannon but part of the province of Munster, is the major exception. The river represents a physical barrier between east and west, with fewer than thirty crossing-points between Limerick city in the south and the village of Dowra in the north. The river is named after Sionna, a Celtic goddess, the Shannon has been an important waterway since antiquity, having first been mapped by the Graeco-Egyptian geographer Ptolemy. The river flows southwards from the Shannon Pot in County Cavan before turning west. Limerick city stands at the point where the water meets the sea water of the estuary. The Shannon is tidal east of Limerick as far as the base of the Ardnacrusha dam. By tradition the Shannon is said to rise in the Shannon Pot, surveys have defined a 12.8 km2 immediate pot catchment area covering the slopes of Cuilcagh.
This area includes Garvah Lough, Cavan,2.2 km to the northeast, further sinks that source the pot include Pollboy and, through Shannon Cave, Pollahune in Cavan and Polltullyard and Tullynakeeragh in County Fermanagh, Northern Ireland. The highest point in the catchment is a spring at Tiltinbane on the end of the Cuilcagh mountain ridge. From the Shannon Pot, the river subsumes a number of tributaries before replenishing Lough Allen at its head. The river runs through or between 11 of Irelands counties, subsuming the tributary rivers Boyle, Suck and Brosna, among others, many different values have been given for the length of the Shannon. A traditional value is 390 km, an official Irish source gives a total length of 360.5 km. Most Irish guides now give 344 km, some academic sources give 280 km, although most will refuse to give a number. The reason is there is no particular end to a river that empties into an estuary. The 344 km length relates to the distance between Shannon Pot and a line between Kerry Head and Loop Head, the furthest reaches of the land, the 280 km distance finishes where the Shannon estuary joins the estuary of the River Fergus, close to Shannon Airport.
Longer distances emerged before the use of surveying instruments
The River Thames is a river that flows through southern England, most notably through London. At 215 miles, it is the longest river entirely in England and it flows through Oxford, Henley-on-Thames and Windsor. The lower reaches of the river are called the Tideway, derived from its tidal reach up to Teddington Lock. It rises at Thames Head in Gloucestershire, and flows into the North Sea via the Thames Estuary, the Thames drains the whole of Greater London. Its tidal section, reaching up to Teddington Lock, includes most of its London stretch and has a rise, in Scotland, the Tay achieves more than double the average discharge from a drainage basin that is 60% smaller. Along its course are 45 navigation locks with accompanying weirs and its catchment area covers a large part of South Eastern and a small part of Western England and the river is fed by 38 named tributaries. The river contains over 80 islands, in 2010, the Thames won the largest environmental award in the world – the $350,000 International Riverprize.
The Thames, from Middle English Temese, is derived from the Brittonic Celtic name for the river, recorded in Latin as Tamesis and yielding modern Welsh Tafwys Thames. It has suggested that it is not of Celtic origin. A place by the river, rather than the river itself, indirect evidence for the antiquity of the name Thames is provided by a Roman potsherd found at Oxford, bearing the inscription Tamesubugus fecit. It is believed that Tamesubugus name was derived from that of the river, tamese was referred to as a place, not a river in the Ravenna Cosmography. The rivers name has always pronounced with a simple t /t/, the Middle English spelling was typically Temese. A similar spelling from 1210, Tamisiam, is found in the Magna Carta, the Thames through Oxford is sometimes called the Isis. Ordnance Survey maps still label the Thames as River Thames or Isis down to Dorchester, richard Coates suggests that while the river was as a whole called the Thames, part of it, where it was too wide to ford, was called *lowonida.
An alternative, and simpler proposal, is that London may be a Germanic word, for merchant seamen, the Thames has long been just the London River. Londoners often refer to it simply as the river in such as south of the river. Thames Valley Police is a body that takes its name from the river. The marks of human activity, in cases dating back to Pre-Roman Britain, are visible at various points along the river
Gloucestershire is a county in South West England. The county comprises part of the Cotswold Hills, part of the fertile valley of the River Severn. The county town is the city of Gloucester, and other towns include Cheltenham, Stroud. Gloucestershire is a historic county mentioned in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in the 10th century, though the areas of Winchcombe, Gloucestershire originally included Bristol, a small town. The local rural community moved to the city, and Bristols population growth accelerated during the industrial revolution. Bristol became a county in its own right, separate from Gloucestershire and it became part of the administrative County of Avon from 1974 to 1996. Upon the abolition of Avon in 1996, the north of Bristol became a unitary authority area of South Gloucestershire and is now part of the ceremonial county of Gloucestershire. The official former postal county abbreviation was Glos, rather than the frequently used but erroneous Gloucs. or Glouc. In July 2007, Gloucestershire suffered the worst flooding in recorded British history, the RAF conducted the largest peace time domestic operation in its history to rescue over 120 residents from flood affected areas.
The damage was estimated at over £2 billion, the county recovered rapidly from the disaster, investing in attracting tourists to visit the many sites and diverse range of shops in the area. This is a chart of trend of gross value added of Gloucestershire at current basic prices published by Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling. Gloucestershire has mainly comprehensive schools with seven schools, two are in Stroud, one in Cheltenham and four in Gloucester. There are 42 state secondary schools, not including sixth form colleges, all but about two schools in each district have a sixth form, but the Forest of Dean only has two schools with sixth forms. All schools in South Gloucestershire have sixth forms, each has campuses at multiple locations throughout the county. Most of the old market towns have parish churches, at Deerhurst near Tewkesbury, and Bishops Cleeve near Cheltenham, there are churches of special interest on account of the pre-Norman work they retain.
These are, adjudged to be of English workmanship, other notable buildings include Calcot Barn in Calcot, a relic of Kingswood Abbey. Thornbury Castle is a Tudor country house, the pretensions of which evoked the jealousy of Cardinal Wolsey against its builder, Edward Stafford, duke of Buckingham, near Cheltenham is the 15th-century mansion of Southam de la Bere, of timber and stone. Memorials of the de la Bere family appear in the church at Cleeve, the mansion contains a tiled floor from Hailes Abbey
Cricklade is a small town and civil parish on the River Thames in north Wiltshire, midway between Swindon and Cirencester. The parish population at the 2011 census was 4,227, cricklades Latin motto is In Loco Delicioso, which means in a pleasant place. In 2011, Cricklade was awarded the Royal Horticultural Societys Champion of Champions award in the Britain in Bloom competition, the small town has many sporting events and hosts the annual Cricklade Show. Cricklade has a large Jubilee clock, erected in 1898 in honour of Queen Victorias Diamond Jubilee the preceding year, Cricklade was founded in the 9th century by the Anglo-Saxons, at the point where the Roman road Ermin Way crossed the River Thames. It was the home of a mint from 979 to 1100. The Domesday book records Cricklade as the place of Cricklade hundred in 1086. It is one of thirty burhs recorded in the Burghal Hidage document, the square defences of the fortification were laid out on a regular module. They have been excavated in several places on all four of its sides by a number of archaeologists since the 1940s, making this is possibly the most extensively sampled fortification of the period.
In the initial phase, a walkway of laid stones marked the rear of a bank of stacked turfs and clay, which had been derived from the three external ditches. In the second phase, the front of the bank, which after only a short period of time had become somewhat degraded, was replaced by a stone wall. This encircled the defences on all four of its sides, the manpower needed to build this was probably roughly the same as was needed to build the original turf and clay defences. This wall, which would have strengthened the defensive capabilities of the burh, has recently been suggested as having been inserted in the 890s. The third phase is marked by the razing of the stone wall. Stones from the wall were used to fill the two ditches, which demonstrates that this process was deliberate. A similar phase can be observed in the record at Christchurch, Dorset. The most reasonable historical context for this seems to be accession of King Cnut in the early 11th century, the fourth phase is marked by the reuse of the original Anglo Saxon defences by the insertion of a timber palisade along the line of the original wall.
This probably marks a phase of the re-defence of the town during the war of 1144 under King Stephen. There is little evidence for the community who were protected by these defences in the Saxon period
South West England
South West England is one of nine official regions of England. It is the largest in area, covering 9,200 square miles, five million people live in South West England. The region includes the West Country and much of the ancient kingdom of Wessex, other major urban centres include Plymouth, Gloucester, Exeter, Bath and the South East Dorset conurbation. There are eight cities, Bath, Bristol, Exeter, Plymouth and it includes two entire national parks and Exmoor, and four World Heritage Sites, including Stonehenge and the Jurassic Coast. The northern part of Gloucestershire, near Chipping Campden, is as close to the Scottish border as it is to the tip of Cornwall, the region has by far the longest coastline in England and many seaside fishing towns. The region is at the first-level of NUTS for Eurostat purposes, key data and facts about the region are produced by the South West Observatory. Following the abolition of the South West Regional Assembly and Government Office, the region is known for its rich folklore, including the legend of King Arthur and Glastonbury Tor, as well as its traditions and customs.
Cornwall has its own language and some regard it as a Celtic nation, the South West of England is known for Cheddar cheese, which originated in the Somerset village of Cheddar, Devon cream teas, Cornish pasties, and cider. It is home to the Eden Project, Aardman Animations, the Glastonbury Festival, most of the region is located on the South West Peninsula, between the English Channel and Bristol Channel. It has the longest coastline of all the English regions, totalling over 700 miles, much of the coast is now protected from further substantial development because of its environmental importance, which contributes to the region’s attractiveness to tourists and residents. Geologically the region is divided into the largely igneous and metamorphic west and sedimentary east and West Devons landscape is of rocky coastline and high moorland, notably at Bodmin Moor and Dartmoor. These are due to the granite and slate that underlie the area, the highest point of the region is High Willhays, at 2,038 feet, on Dartmoor.
In North Devon the slates of the west and limestones of the east meet at Exmoor National Park, the variety of rocks of similar ages seen here have led to the countys name being lent to that of the Devonian period. The east of the region is characterised by wide, flat clay vales and chalk, the vales, with good irrigation, are home to the regions dairy agriculture. The Blackmore Vale was Thomas Hardys Vale of the Little Dairies and these downs are the principal area of arable agriculture in the region. Limestone is found in the region, at the Cotswolds, Quantock Hills and Mendip Hills, all of the principal rock types can be seen on the Jurassic Coast of Dorset and East Devon, where they document the entire Mesozoic era from west to east. The climate of South West England is classed as oceanic according to the Köppen climate classification, the oceanic climate typically experiences cool winters with warmer summers and precipitation all year round, with more experienced in winter. Annual rainfall is about 1,000 millimetres and up to 2,000 millimetres on higher ground, summer maxima averages range from 18 °C to 22 °C and winter minimum averages range from 1 °C to 4 °C across the south-west
Kemble is a village and civil parish in the Cotswold District of Gloucestershire, England. Historically part of Wiltshire, it lies 4 miles from Cirencester and is the settlement closest to Thames Head, at the 2011 census it had a population of 1,036. The village lies in Thames Head electoral ward, which stretches from Kemble in the south to Frampton Mansell in the north-west, the population of the ward as recorded in the 2011 census was 1,955. Kemble was the site of a 7th-century pagan, Anglo-Saxon cemetery, the village church today has a Norman door and a tower dating from 1250, to which a spire was added in 1450. The full restoration in 1872 included bringing the chapel of ease at nearby Ewen here brick by brick to form a new south transept, Kemble Church is part of the Thameshead benefice, comprising the communities of Kemble, Poole Keynes, Somerford Keynes, and Shorncote. The benefice since 2001 includes Coates, Sapperton and Frampton Mansell, Cotswold Airport on the edge of the village hosted the RAF Red Arrows aerobatic display team from 1966 until 1983.
After the Red Arrows moved to RAF Scampton, the station was used by the US Air Force as a maintenance facility. The airfield is used by industry, by flying clubs and by private aircraft owners. Delta Jets rebuild and fly historic jet aircraft, particularly Hawker Hunters, the Bristol Aero collection had a museum at the airfield until 31 May 2012. Aston Down airfield,3 miles to the north-west, formerly belonged to the RAF but is now used for gliding by the Cotswold Gliding Club, Kemble railway station has direct trains to Swindon and London Paddington in one direction, and to Gloucester and Cheltenham in the other. Kemble was once an important railway junction, the Golden Valley Line from Swindon to Cheltenham passes through the village. The branch lines from Cirencester and Tetbury were dismantled in the 1960s, Kemble Primary School has around 100 pupils. The pub, The Tavern, is next to the station, a combined post office and local store provides most essentials. All Saints Church, Shorncote Kemble Community website Kemble village website This is Gloucestershire information Cotswold Airport
South Western Ambulance Service
The South Western Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust is the organisation responsible for providing ambulance services for the National Health Service across South West England. On March 1,2011 SWASFT was the first ambulance service in the country to become a Foundation Trust, the Trust merged with neighbouring Great Western Ambulance Service on 1 February 2013. SWASFT serves a population of more than 5.3 million, the operational area is predominantly rural but has large urban centres including Bristol, Exeter, Bath, Gloucester and Poole. The Trust’s core operations include, Emergency ambulance 999 services Urgent Care Services – GP out-of-hours medical care NHS111 call-handling and triage services Tiverton Urgent Care Centre. It is one of ten Ambulance Trusts providing England with emergency services and employs more than 4,000 mainly clinical and operational staff plus GPs. The Trust is one of the largest in England and it covers an area of 51,871 km and 827 miles of coastline. In 2015/16 approximately one in eight 999 calls to South Western Ambulance Service are treated over the telephone and treat is 12. 7% of calls and means the patient receives clinical advice over the telephone.
For 36. 4% of incidents the patients experience see and treat, in a further 7. 7% of incidents, the patient is taken to a non-emergency hospital department so that might mean a community hospital or minor injuries unit. The remaining incidents result in a patient being taken to an emergency department. SWASFT is the best performing ambulance service in the country for non-conveyance rates, in addition approximately 62% of patients taken to hospital are admitted – this is again the highest performance for an ambulance trust in the country. SWASFT place a lot of emphasis on patient experience and actively encourage feedback about its services - whether positive or negative, lessons learned from the feedback, and all improvements and changes, are reported to its Board of Directors. The Trust engages with patients and the public at events and shows, the number of compliments received by the Trust in 2014/15 increased by 41% to 2,055. Complaints rose by 20% to 1,268, the easiest way to contact the Trust is online at their website.
In May 2014 the Trust won a contract to run a minor injuries unit at Tiverton and District Hospital
In England, a civil parish is a territorial designation which is the lowest tier of local government below districts and counties, or their combined form, the unitary authority. It is a parish, in contrast to an ecclesiastical parish. A civil parish can range in size from a town with a population of around 80,000 to a single village with fewer than a hundred inhabitants. In a limited number of cases a parish might include a city where city status has been granted by the Monarch. Reflecting this diverse nature, a parish may be known as a town, village. Approximately 35% of the English population live in a civil parish, as of 31 December 2015 there were 10,449 parishes in England. On 1 April 2014, Queens Park became the first civil parish in Greater London, before 2008 their creation was not permitted within a London borough. The division of land into ancient parishes was linked to the system, parishes. The manor was the unit of local administration and justice in the early rural economy. Later the church replaced the court as the rural administrative centre.
After the dissolution of the monasteries, the power to levy a rate to fund relief of the poor was conferred on the authorities by the Act for the Relief of the Poor 1601. Both before and after this optional social change, local charities are well-documented, the parish authorities were known as vestries and consisted of all the ratepayers of the parish. As the number of ratepayers of some parishes grew, it increasingly difficult to convene meetings as an open vestry. In some, mostly built up, areas the select vestry took over responsibility from the body of ratepayers. This innovation improved efficiency, but allowed governance by a self-perpetuating elite, by the 18th century, religious membership was becoming more fractured in some places, due for instance to the progress of Methodism. The legitimacy of the parish came into question and the perceived inefficiency. Sanitary districts covered England in 1875 and Ireland three years later, the replacement boards were each entitled to levy their own rate in the parish.
The church rate ceased to be levied in many parishes and became voluntary from 1868, the ancient parishes diverged into two distinct systems of parishes during the 19th century
Cirencester is a market town in east Gloucestershire, England,93 miles west northwest of London. Cirencester lies on the River Churn, a tributary of the River Thames and it is the home of the Royal Agricultural University, the oldest agricultural college in the English-speaking world, founded in 1840. The towns Corinium Museum is well known for its extensive Roman collection, the Roman name for the town was Corinium, which is thought to have been associated with the ancient British tribe of the Dobunni, having the same root word as the River Churn. The earliest known reference to the town was by Ptolemy in 150AD, Cirencester is twinned with Itzehoe, Germany. Cirencester lies on the dip slopes of the Cotswold Hills. Natural drainage is into the River Churn, which flows north to south through the eastern side of the town. The Thames itself rises just a few miles west of Cirencester, the town is split into five main areas, the town centre, the suburbs of Chesterton, Stratton and The Beeches. The village of Siddington to the south of the town is now almost contiguous with Watermoor, other suburbs include Bowling Green and New Mills.
The area and population of these 5 electoral wards are identical to that quoted above. The town serves as a centre for surrounding villages, providing employment, shops and education, and as a commuter town for larger centres such as Cheltenham and Stroud. Cirencester is the hub of a significant road network with important routes to Gloucester, Warwick, Wantage, Chippenham, Bath, only Gloucester, Cheltenham and Swindon have slow bus connections. These good roads bring the town passing trade, although the ring road and bypass take traffic away from the town centre, both roads have busy service areas with adequate parking. Since closure of the Kemble to Cirencester branch line to Cirencester Town in 1964 the town has one of the largest in the region without its own rail station. However Kemble railway station,4 miles away, serves as a railhead and it provides regular services between Swindon and Gloucester, with peak-time direct trains to London Paddington station. The nearest airports are Bristol Airport, Cotswold Airport at Kemble, Cirencester was known to be an important early Roman area, along with St.
Albans and Colchester, and the town includes evidence of significant area roadworks. When the Romans built a fort where the Fosse Way crossed the Churn, AD49, native Dobunni were drawn from Bagendon, a settlement of the Dobunni situated 3 miles to the north, to create a civil settlement near the fort. When the frontier moved to the following the conquest of Wales. 70, but the town persisted and flourished under the name Corinium Dobunnorum, even in Roman times, there was a thriving wool trade and industry, which contributed to the growth of Corinium. A large forum and basilica was built over the site of the fort, there are many Roman remains in the surrounding area, including several Roman villas near the villages of Chedworth and Withington