Rev. Clarence Larkin was an American Baptist pastor, Bible teacher and author whose writings on Dispensationalism had a great impact on conservative Protestant visual culture in the 20th century, his intricate and influential charts provided readers with a visual strategy for mapping God's action in history and for interpreting complex biblical prophecies. Larkin was born on October 1850, in Chester, Delaware County, Pennsylvania, he experienced conversion at the age of 19. He got a job in a bank; when he was 21 years old, he went to college, graduating as a mechanical engineer. He continued as a professional draftsman for a while he became a teacher of the blind; this last endeavor cultivated his descriptive faculties, while his drafter's training influenced his artistic style. Failing health compelled him to give up his teaching career. After a prolonged rest, he became a manufacturer; when he was converted he had become a member of the Episcopal Church, but in 1882, at the age of 32, his position on baptism was challenged and for two years he studied the subject.
As a result, he became a Baptist. He wrote the book, he became a Baptist and was ordained as a Baptist minister two years going directly from business into the ministry. Larkin's first pastorate was at Pennsylvania, his study of the Scriptures led him to adopt many of the tenets of the premillennialist theology, gaining favor in conservative Protestant circles in the Gilded Age. He began to make large wall charts; these led to invitations to teach elsewhere. During this time he published a number of prophetical charts, which were circulated and contributed articles for the Sunday School Times. In 1918, he completed Dispensational Truth, but high demand for the work led him to produce a expanded edition of 1920. Larkin was an advocate of gap creationism. Larkin's major publications were six: Dispensational Truth. Dispensational Truth, contains dozens of hundreds of pages of descriptive matter, he spent three years designing and drawing the charts and preparing the text, which remains in print. It is a thoroughgoing defense of premillennialist dispensationalism that draws on the major themes found in the works of figures like C.
I. Scofield, William Eugene Blackstone, John Nelson Darby; because ‘Dispensational Truth’ had a large and wide circulation, the first edition was soon exhausted. It was followed by a second edition, realizing that the book was of permanent value, Larkin revised it and expanded it, printing it in its present form of over 300 pages. Larkin followed this with other books: Rightly Dividing the Word. Like C. I. Scofield, he postulated seven separate dispensations—the current being the "Dispensation of Grace," "Church Dispensation," "Ecclesiastical Dispensation," or "Parenthetical Dispensation." This position held. Larkin disliked the tendency of writers to say uncharitable things about each other, so he sought to avoid criticisms and to satisfy himself with presenting his understanding of the Scriptures. During the last five years of his life, the demand for Larkin's books made it necessary for him to give up the pastorate and devote his full-time to writing, he died on January 24, 1924. Works by or about Clarence Larkin at Internet Archive Rev. Historic Sketch of the author Clarence Larkin Clarence Larkin Biography Clarence Larkin's Charts Online Clarence Larkin's book Dispensational Truth online with charts and images Clarence Larkin's books and charts in Bible software format
The Cathedral and Metropolitical Church of Saint Peter in York known as York Minster, is the cathedral of York, is one of the largest of its kind in Northern Europe. The minster is the seat of the Archbishop of York, the third-highest office of the Church of England, is the mother church for the Diocese of York and the Province of York, it is run under the Dean of York. The title "minster" is attributed to churches established in the Anglo-Saxon period as missionary teaching churches, serves now as an honorific title. Services in the minster are sometimes regarded as on the High Church or Anglo-Catholic end of the Anglican continuum; the minster, devoted to Saint Peter, has a wide Decorated Gothic nave and chapter house, a Perpendicular Gothic quire and east end and Early English North and South transepts. The nave contains the West Window, constructed in 1338, over the Lady Chapel in the east end is the Great East Window, the largest expanse of medieval stained glass in the world. In the north transept is the Five Sisters Window, each lancet being over 53 feet high.
The south transept contains a rose window, while the West Window contains a heart-shaped design colloquially known as The Heart of Yorkshire. York has had a verifiable Christian presence from the 4th century; the first recorded church on the site was a wooden structure built hurriedly in 627 to provide a place to baptise Edwin, King of Northumbria. Moves toward a more substantial building began in the decade of the 630s. A stone structure was dedicated to Saint Peter; the church soon fell into disrepair and was dilapidated by 670 when Saint Wilfrid ascended to the See of York. He renewed the structure; the attached school and library were established and by the 8th century were some of the most substantial in Northern Europe. In 741, the church was destroyed in a fire, it was rebuilt as a more impressive structure containing thirty altars. The church and the entire area passed through the hands of numerous invaders, its history is obscure until the 10th century. There was a series of Benedictine archbishops, including Saint Oswald of Worcester and Ealdred, who travelled to Westminster to crown William in 1066.
Ealdred was buried in the church. The church was damaged in 1069 during William the Conqueror's harrying of the North, but the first Norman archbishop, Thomas of Bayeux, arriving in 1070, organised repairs; the Danes destroyed the church in 1075, but it was again rebuilt from 1080. Built in the Norman style, it was 111 m long and rendered in red lines; the new structure was soon repaired. The choir and crypt were remodelled in 1154, a new chapel was built, all in the Norman style; the Gothic style in cathedrals had arrived in the mid 12th century. Walter de Gray was made archbishop in 1215 and ordered the construction of a Gothic structure to compare to Canterbury; the north and south transepts were the first new structures. A substantial central tower was completed, with a wooden spire. Building continued into the 15th century; the Chapter House was begun in the 1260s and was completed before 1296. The wide nave was constructed from the 1280s on the Norman foundations; the outer roof was completed in the 1330s, but the vaulting was not finished until 1360.
Construction moved on to the eastern arm and chapels, with the last Norman structure, the choir, being demolished in the 1390s. Work here finished around 1405. In 1407 the central tower collapsed; the western towers were added between 1433 and 1472. The cathedral was declared complete and consecrated in 1472; the English Reformation led to the looting of much of the cathedral's treasures and the loss of much of the church lands. Under Elizabeth I there was a concerted effort to remove all traces of Roman Catholicism from the cathedral. In the English Civil War the city was besieged and fell to the forces of Cromwell in 1644, but Thomas Fairfax prevented any further damage to the cathedral. Following the easing of religious tensions there was some work to restore the cathedral. From 1730 to 1736 the whole floor of the minster was relaid in patterned marble and from 1802 there was a major restoration. However, on 2 February 1829, an arson attack by Jonathan Martin inflicted heavy damage on the east arm.
An accidental fire in 1840 left the nave, south west tower and south aisle roofless and blackened shells. The cathedral slumped into debt and in the 1850s services were suspended. From 1858 Augustus Duncombe worked to revive the cathedral. During the 20th century there was more concerted preservation work following a 1967 survey that revealed the building, in particular the central tower, was close to collapse. £2,000,000 was raised and spent by 1972 to reinforce and strengthen the building foundations and roof. During the excavations that were carried out, remains of the north corner of the Roman Principia were found under the south transept; this area, as well as remains of the Norman cathedral, re-opened to the public in spring 2013 as part of the new exhibition exploring the history of the building of York Minster. On 9 July 1984, a fire considered "likely" to have been caused by a lightning strike destroyed the roof in the south transept, around £2.5 million was spent on repairs. The fire was photographed from just s
C. I. Scofield
Cyrus Ingerson Scofield was an American theologian and writer whose best-selling annotated Bible popularized futurism and dispensationalism among fundamentalist Christians. Cyrus Scofield was born in Clinton Township, Lenawee County, the seventh and last child of Elias and Abigail Goodrich Scofield. Elias Scofield's ancestors were of English and Puritan descent, but the family was nominally Episcopalian. Abigail Scofield died three months after Cyrus's birth, his father twice remarried during Cyrus's minority. Details of his early education are unknown, but there is no reason to doubt his testimony that he was an enthusiastic reader and that he had studied Shakespeare and Homer. By 1861, Scofield was living with relatives in Tennessee. At the beginning of the American Civil War, the 17-year-old Scofield enlisted as a private in the 7th Tennessee Infantry, C. S. A. and his regiment fought at Cheat Mountain, Seven Pines, Antietam. In 1862, after spending a month in Chimborazo Hospital in Richmond, Scofield petitioned for a discharge.
Scofield returned to Lebanon and was conscripted again into Confederate service. Ordered to McMinnville, Scofield deserted and escaped behind Union lines in Bowling Green, Kentucky. After taking the Union oath of allegiance, Scofield was allowed safe passage to St. Louis, where he settled. In 1866, he married Leontine LeBeau Cerrè, a member of a prominent French Catholic family in St. Louis. Scofield apprenticed in the law office of his brother-in-law and worked in the St. Louis assessor's office before moving to Atchison, Kansas in late 1869. In 1871, Scofield was elected to the Kansas House of Representatives, first from Atchison for one year and from Nemaha County for a second. In 1873 he worked for the election of John J. Ingalls as senator from Kansas, when Ingalls won, the new senator had Scofield appointed U. S. District Attorney for Kansas—at 29, the youngest in the country; that same year Scofield was forced to resign "under a cloud of scandal" because of questionable financial transactions, that may have included accepting bribes from railroads, stealing political contributions intended for Ingalls, securing bank promissory notes by forging signatures.
It is possible Scofield was jailed on forgery charges, although there is no extant evidence in the public records. In part because of his self-confessed heavy drinking, Scofield abandoned his wife and two daughters during this period. Leontine Cerrè Scofield divorced him on grounds of desertion in 1883, the same year Scofield married Hettie Hall von Wartz, with whom he had a son. According to Scofield, he was converted to evangelical Christianity through the testimony of a lawyer acquaintance. By the late fall of 1879, Scofield was assisting in the St. Louis campaign conducted by Dwight L. Moody, he served as the secretary of the St. Louis YMCA. Scofield came under the mentorship of James H. Brookes, pastor of Walnut Street Presbyterian Church, St. Louis, a prominent dispensationalist premillennialist. In October 1883, Scofield was ordained as a Congregationalist minister—while his divorce was proceeding but not yet final—and he accepted the pastorate of small mission church founded by that denomination, which became the First Congregational Church of Dallas, Texas.
The church grew from fourteen to over five hundred members before he resigned its pastorate in 1895. In 1895, Scofield was called as pastor of Moody's church, the Trinitarian Congregational Church of East Northfield, he attempted with limited success to take charge of Moody's Northfield Bible Training School. In 1888, Scofield attended the Niagara Bible Conference where he met pioneer missionary to China, Hudson Taylor. Taylor's approach to Christian missions influenced Scofield to found the Central American Mission in 1890. Scofield served as superintendent of the American Home Missionary Society of Texas and Louisiana; as the author of the pamphlet "Rightly Dividing the Word of Truth", Scofield soon became a leader in dispensational premillennialism, a forerunner of twentieth-century Christian fundamentalism. Although, in theory, Scofield returned to his Dallas pastorate in 1903, his projected reference Bible consumed much of his energy, for much of the time before its publication, he was either unwell or in Europe.
When the Scofield Reference Bible was published in 1909, it became the most influential statement of dispensational premillennialism, Scofield's popularity as Bible conference speaker increased as his health continued to decline. Royalties from the work were substantial, Scofield held real estate in Dallas, New Hampshire, Douglaston, Long Island. Scofield joined the prestigious Lotos Club. Scofield left the liberalizing Congregational Church to become a Southern Presbyterian and moved to the New York City area where he supervised a correspondence and lay institute, the New York Night School of the Bible. In 1914, he founded the Philadelphia School of the Bible in Pennsylvania. During the early 1890s, Scofield began styling himself Rev. C. I. Scofield, D. D.. Scofield's second wife proved a faithful companion and editing assistant, but his relationships with his children were distant at best. Scofield died at his home on Long Island in 1921. Scofield's correspondence Bible study course was the basis for his Reference Bible, an annotated, circulated, stu
A light fixture, light fitting, or luminaire is an electrical device that contains an electric lamp that provides illumination. All light fixtures have one or more lamps; the lamps may be in sockets for easy replacement—or, in the case of some LED fixtures, hard-wired in place. Fixtures may have a switch to control the light, either attached to the lamp body or attached to the power cable. Permanent light fixtures, such as dining room chandeliers, may have no switch on the fixture itself, but rely on a wall switch. Fixtures require an electrical connection to a power source AC mains power, but some run on battery power for camping or emergency lights. Permanent lighting fixtures are directly wired. Movable lamps have a cord that plugs into a wall socket. Light fixtures may have other features, such as reflectors for directing the light, an aperture, an outer shell or housing for lamp alignment and protection, an electrical ballast or power supply, a shade to diffuse the light or direct it towards a workspace.
A wide variety of special light fixtures are created for use in the automotive lighting industry, aerospace and medicine sectors. Portable light fixtures are called lamps, as in table lamp or desk lamp. In technical terminology, the lamp is the light source, which, in casual terminology, is called the light bulb; the International Electrotechnical Commission recommends the term luminaire for technical use. Fixture manufacturing began soon after production of the incandescent light bulb; when practical uses of fluorescent lighting were realized after 1924, the three leading companies to produce various fixtures were Lightolier, Artcraft Fluorescent Lighting Corporation, Globe Lighting in the United States. Light fixtures are classified by how the fixture is installed, the light lamp type. Table lamp fixtures, standard lamp fixtures, office task light luminaires. Balanced-arm lamp is a spot light with an adjustable arm such as anglepoise or Luxo L1. Gooseneck lamp Nightlight Floor Lamp Torch lamp or torchières are floor lamps with an upward facing shade.
They provide general lighting to the rest of the room. Gooseneck lamp Bouillotte lamp: see Bouillotte Ceiling Dome – Also called the light source are hidden behind a translucent dome made of glass, with some combination of frosting and surface texturing to diffuse the light; these can be flush-mount fixtures mounted into the ceiling, or semi-flush fixtures separated by a small distance. Open ceiling dome – the translucent dome is suspended a short distance below the ceiling by a mechanism, hidden with the exception of a screw-knob or other device appearing on the outer dome face, pulling this knob releases the dome Enclosed ceiling dome The translucent dome mates with a ring, mounted flush with the ceiling Recessed light – the protective housing is concealed behind a ceiling or wall, leaving only the fixture itself exposed; the ceiling-mounted version is called a downlight. "Cans" with a variety of lamps – this term is jargon for inexpensive downlighting products that are recessed into the ceiling, or sometimes for uplights placed on the floor.
The name comes from the shape of the housing. The term "pot lights" is used in Canada and parts of the US. Cove light – recessed into the ceiling in a long box against a wall. Troffer – recessed fluorescent light fixtures rectangular in shape to fit into a drop ceiling grid. Surface-mounted light – the finished housing is exposed, not flush with surface Chandelier Pendant light – suspended from the ceiling with a chain or pipe Sconce – provide up or down lights. Track lighting fixture – individual fixtures can be positioned anywhere along the track, which provides electric power. Under-cabinet light – mounted below kitchen wall cabinets Display Case or Showcase light – shows merchandise on display within an enclosed case such as jewelry, grocery stores, chain stores. Ceiling fan – May sometimes have a light referred to as a light kit mounted to it. Emergency lighting or exit sign – connected to a battery backup or to an electric circuit that has emergency power if the mains power fails High- and low-bay lighting – used for general lighting for industrial buildings and big-box stores Strip lights or Industrial lighting – long lines of fluorescent lamps used in a warehouse or factory Outdoor lighting and landscape lighting – used to illuminate walkways, parking lots, building exteriors and architectural details and parks.
Outdoor light fixtures can include forms similar to indoor lighting, such as pendants, flush or close-to-ceiling light fixtures, wall-mounted lanterns and dome lights. High-mast pole – or stanchion-mounted – for landscape and parking lots Bollard – A type of architectural outdoor lighting, a short, upright ground-mounted unit used to provide cutoff type illumination for egress lighting, to light walkways, steps, or other pathways. Solar lamp Street light Yard light Accent light – Any directional light that highlights an object or attracts attention to a particular area Background light – for use in video production Blacklight Christmas lights – called fairy lights or twinkle lights and are used at Christmas and other holidays for decoration. Emergency light – provides minimal light to a building during a power outage. Exit sign Flood light Safelight Safety lamp Searchlight Security lighting Step light Strobe ligh
Eastern Orthodox Church
The Eastern Orthodox Church the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian church, with 200–260 million members. It operates as a communion of autocephalous churches, each governed by its bishops in local synods, although half of Eastern Orthodox Christians live in Russia; the church has no central doctrinal or governmental authority analogous to the Bishop of Rome, but the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople is recognised by all as primus inter pares of the bishops. As one of the oldest religious institutions in the world, the Eastern Orthodox Church has played a prominent role in the history and culture of Eastern and Southeastern Europe, the Caucasus, the Near East. Eastern Orthodox theology is based on the Nicene Creed; the church teaches that it is the One, Holy and Apostolic church established by Jesus Christ in his Great Commission, that its bishops are the successors of Christ's apostles. It maintains, its patriarchates, reminiscent of the pentarchy, autocephalous and autonomous churches reflect a variety of hierarchical organisation.
Of its innumerable sacred mysteries, it recognises seven major sacraments, of which the Eucharist is the principal one, celebrated liturgically in synaxis. The church teaches that through consecration invoked by a priest, the sacrificial bread and wine become the body and blood of Christ; the Virgin Mary is venerated in the Eastern Orthodox Church as the God-bearer, honoured in devotions. The Eastern Orthodox Church shared communion with the Roman Catholic Church until the East–West Schism in 1054, triggered by disputes over doctrine the authority of the Pope. Before the Council of Chalcedon in AD 451, the Oriental Orthodox churches shared in this communion, separating over differences in Christology; the majority of Eastern Orthodox Christians live in Southeast and Eastern Europe, Cyprus and other communities in the Caucasus region, communities in Siberia reaching the Russian Far East. There are smaller communities in the former Byzantine regions of the Eastern Mediterranean, in the Middle East where it is decreasing due to persecution.
There are many in other parts of the world, formed through diaspora and missionary activity. In keeping with the church's teaching on universality and with the Nicene Creed, Orthodox authorities such as Saint Raphael of Brooklyn have insisted that the full name of the church has always included the term "Catholic", as in "Holy Orthodox Catholic Apostolic Church"; the official name of the Eastern Orthodox Church is the "Orthodox Catholic Church". It is the name by which the church refers to itself in its liturgical or canonical texts, in official publications, in official contexts or administrative documents. Orthodox teachers refer to the church as Catholic; this name and longer variants containing "Catholic" are recognised and referenced in other books and publications by secular or non-Orthodox writers. The common name of the church, "Eastern Orthodox Church", is a shortened practicality that helps to avoid confusions in casual use. From ancient times through the first millennium, Greek was the most prevalent shared language in the demographic regions where the Byzantine Empire flourished, Greek, being the language in which the New Testament was written, was the primary liturgical language of the church.
For this reason, the eastern churches were sometimes identified as "Greek" before the Great Schism of 1054. After 1054, "Greek Orthodox" or "Greek Catholic" marked a church as being in communion with Constantinople, much as "Catholic" did for communion with Rome; this identification with Greek, became confusing with time. Missionaries brought Orthodoxy to many regions without ethnic Greeks, where the Greek language was not spoken. In addition, struggles between Rome and Constantinople to control parts of Southeastern Europe resulted in the conversion of some churches to Rome, which also used "Greek Catholic" to indicate their continued use of the Byzantine rites. Today, many of those same churches remain, while a large number of Orthodox are not of Greek national origin, do not use Greek as the language of worship. "Eastern" indicates the geographical element in the Church's origin and development, while "Orthodox" indicates the faith, as well as communion with the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople.
There are additional Christian churches in the east that are in communion with neither Rome nor Constantinople, who tend to be distinguished by the category named "Oriental Orthodox". While the church continues to call itself "Catholic", for reasons of universality, the common title of "Eastern Orthodox Church" avoids casual confusion with the Roman Catholic Church; the first known use of the phrase "the catholic Church" occurred in a letter written about 110 AD from one Greek church to another. The letter states: "Wheresoever the bishop shall appear, there let the people be as where Jesus may be, there is the universal Church." Thus from the beginning, Christians referred to the Church as the "One, Holy and Apostolic Church". The Eastern Orthodox Church claims that it is today the continuation and preservation of that same early Church. A number of other Christian churches make a similar claim: the Roman Catholic Church, the Anglican Communion, the Assyrian Church and the Oriental Orthodox.
In the Eastern Orthodox v
Early centers of Christianity
Early Christianity spread from the Eastern Mediterranean throughout the Roman Empire and beyond. This progression was connected to established Jewish centers in the Holy Land and the Jewish diaspora; the first followers of Christianity were Jews or proselytes referred to as Jewish Christians and God-fearers. The Apostolic sees claim to have been founded by one or more of the apostles of Jesus, who are said to have dispersed from Jerusalem sometime after the crucifixion of Jesus, c. 26–36 following the Great Commission. Early Christians gathered in small private homes, known as house churches, but a city's whole Christian community would be called a church – the Greek noun ἐκκλησία means assembly, gathering, or congregation but is translated as church in most English translations of the New Testament. Many of these Early Christians were merchants and others who had practical reasons for traveling to northern Africa, Asia Minor, Arabia and other places. Over 40 such communities were established by the year 100, many in Anatolia known as Asia Minor, such as the Seven churches of Asia.
By the end of the first century, Christianity had spread to Rome and major cities in Armenia and Syria, serving as foundations for the expansive spread of Christianity throughout the world. Jerusalem was the first center of the church, according to the Book of Acts, according to the Catholic Encyclopedia, the location of "the first Christian church"; the apostles taught there for some time after Pentecost. James, the brother of Jesus was a leader in the church, his other kinsmen held leadership positions in the surrounding area after the destruction of the city until its rebuilding as Aelia Capitolina, c. 130, when all Jews were banished from the city. In about 50, Barnabas and Paul went to Jerusalem to meet with the "pillars of the church", James and John. Called the Council of Jerusalem, this meeting, among other things, confirmed the legitimacy of the mission of Barnabas and Paul to the gentiles, the gentile converts' freedom from most Mosaic law circumcision, repulsive to the Hellenic mind.
Thus, the Apostolic Decree may be a major act of differentiation of the Church from its Jewish roots although the decree may parallel Jewish Noahide Law and thus be a commonality rather than a differential. In the same time period Rabbinic Judaism made their circumcision requirement of Jewish boys stricter; when Peter left Jerusalem after Herod Agrippa I tried to kill him, James appears as the principal authority. Clement of Alexandria called him Bishop of Jerusalem. A second-century church historian, wrote that the Sanhedrin martyred him in 62. In 66, the Jews revolted against Rome. Rome besieged Jerusalem for four years, the city fell in 70; the city, including the Temple, was destroyed and the population was killed or removed. According to a tradition recorded by Eusebius and Epiphanius of Salamis, the Jerusalem church fled to Pella at the outbreak of the First Jewish Revolt. According to Epiphanius of Salamis, the Cenacle survived at least to Hadrian's visit in 130. A scattered population survived.
The Sanhedrin relocated to Jamnia. Prophecies of the Second Temple's destruction are found in the synoptics in the Olivet Discourse. In the 2nd century, Hadrian rebuilt Jerusalem as a pagan city called Aelia Capitolina, erecting statues of Jupiter and himself on the site of the former Jewish Temple, the Temple Mount. Bar Cochba led an unsuccessful revolt as a Messiah, but Christians refused to acknowledge him as such; when Bar Cochba was defeated, Hadrian barred Jews from the city, except for the day of Tisha B'Av, thus the subsequent Jerusalem bishops were gentiles for the first time. The general significance of Jerusalem to Christians entered a period of decline during the Persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire, but resumed again with the pilgrimage of Helena to the Holy Land c. 326–28. According to the church historian Socrates of Constantinople, Helena claimed to have found the cross of Christ, after removing a Temple to Venus, built over the site. Jerusalem had received special recognition in Canon VII of Nicaea in 325.
The traditional founding date for the Brotherhood of the Holy Sepulchre is 313 which corresponds with the date of the Edict of Milan which legalized Christianity in the Roman Empire. Jerusalem was named as one of the Pentarchy, but this was never accepted by the church of Rome. See East–West Schism#Prospects for reconciliation. Antioch, a major center of Hellenistic Greece, the third-most important city of the Roman Empire part of Syria Province, today a ruin near Antakya, was where Christians were first called Christians and the location of the Incident at Antioch, it was the site of an early church, traditionally said to be founded by Peter, considered the first bishop. The Gospel of Matthew and the Apostolic Constitutions may have been written there; the church father Ignatius of Antioch was its third bishop. The School of Antioch, founded in 270, was one of two major centers of early church learning; the Curetonian Gospels and the Syriac Sinaiticus are two early New Testament text types associated with Syriac Christianity.
It was one of the three whose bishops were recognized at the First Council of Nicaea as exercising jur
Sardis or Sardes was an ancient city at the location of modern Sart, near the Salihli in Turkey's Manisa Province. Sardis was the capital of the ancient kingdom of Lydia, one of the important cities of the Persian Empire, the seat of a proconsul under the Roman Empire, the metropolis of the province Lydia in Roman and Byzantine times; as one of the seven churches of Asia, it was addressed by John, the author of the Book of Revelation in the New Testament, in terms which seem to imply that its church members did not finish what they started, that they were about image and not substance. Its importance was due first to its military strength, secondly to its situation on an important highway leading from the interior to the Aegean coast, thirdly to its commanding the wide and fertile plain of the Hermus. Sardis was situated in the middle of Hermus valley, at the foot of Mount Tmolus, a steep and lofty spur which formed the citadel, it was about 4 kilometres south of the Hermus. Today, the site is located by the present day village of Sart, near Salihli in the Manisa province of Turkey, close to the Ankara - İzmir highway.
The part of remains including the bath-gymnasium complex and Byzantine shops is open to visitors year-round. The Greek historian and father of history, notes that the city was founded by the sons of Hercules, the Heraclides. According to Herodotus, the Heraclides ruled for five hundred and five years beginning with Agron, 1220 BCE, ending with Candaules, 716 BCE, they were followed by the Mermnades, which began with Gyges, 716 BCE, ended with Croesus, 546 BCE. The earliest reference to Sardis is in The Persians of Aeschylus, it is, more probable that Sardis was not the original capital of the Maeonians, but that it became so amid the changes which produced the powerful Lydian empire of the 8th century BCE. The city was captured by the Cimmerians in the 7th century BCE, by the Persians in the 6th, by the Athenians in the 5th, by Antiochus III the Great at the end of the 3rd century BCE. In the Persian era, Sardis was conquered by Cyrus the Great and formed the end station for the Persian Royal Road which began in Persepolis, capital of Persia.
Sardis was the site of the most important Persian satrapy. During the Ionian Revolt, the Athenians burnt down the city. Sardis remained under Persian domination until it surrendered to Alexander the Great in 334 BCE; the early Lydian kingdom was advanced in the industrial arts and Sardis was the chief seat of its manufactures. The most important of these trades was the manufacture and dyeing of delicate woolen stuffs and carpets; the stream Pactolus which flowed through the market-place "carried golden sands" in early antiquity, in reality gold dust out of Mount Tmolus. It was during the reign of King Croesus that the metallurgists of Sardis discovered the secret of separating gold from silver, thereby producing both metals of a purity never known before; this was an economic revolution, for while gold nuggets panned or mined were used as currency, their purity was always suspect and a hindrance to trade. Such nuggets or coinage were occurring alloys of gold and silver known as electrum and one could never know how much of it was gold and how much was silver.
Sardis now could mint nearly pure silver and gold coins, the value of which could be – and was – trusted throughout the known world. This revolution made Croesus' name synonymous with wealth itself. For this reason, Sardis is famed in history as the place. Disaster came to the great city under the reign of the emperor Tiberius, when in 17 CE, Sardis was destroyed by an earthquake, but it was rebuilt with the help of ten million sesterces from the Emperor and exempted from paying taxes for five years, it was one of the great cities of western Asia Minor until the Byzantine period. Trade and the organization of commerce continued to be sources of great wealth. After Constantinople became the capital of the East, a new road system grew up connecting the provinces with the capital. Sardis lay rather apart from the great lines of communication and lost some of its importance, it still, retained its titular supremacy and continued to be the seat of the metropolitan bishop of the province of Lydia, formed in 295 CE.
It was enumerated as third, after Ephesus and Smyrna, in the list of cities of the Thracesion thema given by Constantine Porphyrogenitus in the 10th century. However, over the next four centuries it was in the shadow of the provinces of Magnesia-upon-Sipylum and Philadelphia, which retained their importance in the region. After 1071, the Hermus valley began to suffer from the inroads of the Seljuk Turks but the Byzantine general John Doukas reconquered the city in 1097; the successes of the general Philokales in 1118 relieved the district from Turkish pressure and the ability of the Comneni dynasty together with the gradual decay of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum meant that it remained under Byzantine dominion. When Constantinople was taken by the Venetians and Franks in 1204 Sardis came under the rule of the Byzantine Empire of Nicea; however once the Byzantines retook Constantinople in 1261, Sardis with the entire Asia Minor was neglected and the region fell under the control of Ghazi emirs.
The Cayster valleys and a fort on the citadel of Sardis was handed over to them by treaty in 1306. The city