The Seventh-day Adventist Church is a Protestant Christian denomination, distinguished by its observance of Saturday, the seventh day of the week in Christian and Jewish calendars, as the Sabbath, its emphasis on the imminent Second Coming of Jesus Christ. The denomination grew out of the Millerite movement in the United States during the mid-19th century and it was formally established in 1863. Among its founders was Ellen G. White, whose extensive writings are still held in high regard by the church. Much of the theology of the Seventh-day Adventist Church corresponds to common Protestant Christian teachings, such as the Trinity and the infallibility of Scripture. Distinctive teachings include the unconscious state of the dead and the doctrine of an investigative judgment; the church is known for its emphasis on diet and health, its "holistic" understanding of the person, its promotion of religious liberty, its conservative principles and lifestyle. The world church is governed by a General Conference, with smaller regions administered by divisions, union conferences, local conferences.
It has a worldwide baptized membership of over 20 million people, 25 million adherents. As of May 2007, it was the twelfth-largest religious body in the world, the sixth-largest international religious body, it is ethnically and culturally diverse, maintains a missionary presence in over 215 countries and territories. The church operates over 7,500 schools including over 100 post-secondary institutions, numerous hospitals, publishing houses worldwide, as well as a humanitarian aid organization known as the Adventist Development and Relief Agency; the Seventh-day Adventist Church is the largest of several Adventist groups which arose from the Millerite movement of the 1840s in upstate New York, a phase of the Second Great Awakening. William Miller predicted on the basis of Daniel 8:14–16 and the "day-year principle" that Jesus Christ would return to Earth between the spring of 1843 and the spring of 1844. In the summer of 1844, Millerites came to believe that Jesus would return on October 22, 1844, understood to be the biblical Day of Atonement for that year.
Miller's failed prediction became known as the "Great Disappointment". Hiram Edson and other Millerites came to believe that Miller's calculations were correct, but that his interpretation of Daniel 8:14 was flawed as he assumed Christ would come to cleanse the world; these Adventists came to the conviction that Daniel 8:14 foretold Christ's entrance into the Most Holy Place of the heavenly sanctuary rather than his Second Coming. Over the next few decades this understanding of a sanctuary in heaven developed into the doctrine of the investigative judgment, an eschatological process that commenced in 1844, in which every person would be judged to verify their eligibility for salvation and God's justice will be confirmed before the universe; this group of Adventists continued to believe that Christ's Second Coming would continue to be imminent, however they resisted setting further dates for the event, citing Revelation 10:6, "that there should be time no longer." As the early Adventist movement consolidated its beliefs, the question of the biblical day of rest and worship was raised.
The foremost proponent of Sabbath-keeping among early Adventists was Joseph Bates. Bates was introduced to the Sabbath doctrine through a tract written by Millerite preacher Thomas M. Preble, who in turn had been influenced by Rachel Oakes Preston, a young Seventh Day Baptist; this message was accepted and formed the topic of the first edition of the church publication The Present Truth, which appeared in July 1849. For about 20 years, the Adventist movement consisted of a small, loosely knit group of people who came from many churches and whose primary means of connection and interaction was through James White's periodical The Advent Review and Sabbath Herald, they embraced the doctrines of the Sabbath, the heavenly sanctuary interpretation of Daniel 8:14, conditional immortality, the expectation of Christ's premillennial return. Among its most prominent figures were Joseph Bates, James White, Ellen G. White. Ellen White came to occupy a central role; the church was formally established in Battle Creek, Michigan, on May 21, 1863, with a membership of 3,500.
The denominational headquarters were moved from Battle Creek to Takoma Park, where they remained until 1989. The General Conference headquarters moved to its current location in Silver Spring, Maryland; the denomination in the 1870s turned to missionary work and revivals, tripling its membership to 16,000 by 1880 and establishing a presence beyond North America during the late 19th century. Rapid growth continued, with 75,000 members in 1901. By this time the denomination operated two colleges, a medical school, a dozen academies, 27 hospitals, 13 publishing houses. By 1945, the church reported 210,000 members in the US and Canada, 360,000 elsewhere; the church's beliefs and doctrines were first published in 1872 in Battle Creek Michigan as a brief statement called "A Synopsis of our Faith". The church experienced challenges as it formed its core beliefs and doctrines as a number of the early Adventist leaders came from churches that held to some form of Arianism. This, along with some of the movement's other theological views, led to a consensus among conservative evangelical Protestants to regard it as a cult.
According to Adventist scholars, the teachings and writings of White proved influential in shifting the church
Kern National Wildlife Refuge is a 1,249-acre protected area located in the southern portion of California's San Joaquin Valley, 20 miles west of the city of Delano. Situated on the southern margin of what was once the largest freshwater wetland complex in the western United States, Kern National Wildlife Refuge provides optimum wintering habitat for migratory birds with an emphasis on waterfowl and water birds. Through restoration and maintenance of native habitat diversity, the refuge provides suitable habitat for several endangered species as well as preserving a remnant example of the historic valley uplands in the San Joaquin Desert. 8,200 visitors annually participate in refuge programs ranging from waterfowl hunting to wildlife viewing. Refuge profile Refuge website This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service
Fèlix Astol i Artés was a Spanish musician and composer from Catalonia best known for being the co-composer of "La Borinqueña", the National Anthem of Puerto Rico. Artés was born in Reus, in Catalonia, region of Spain on October 9, 1813, but he moved to Cuba in 1828 to evading military service. Forced to enlist, he joined the band of one of the battalions based in Havana. Once he graduated, he found employment doing tenor roles in an opera company that made its performances at the Teatro Tacón, he toured in Puerto Rico by 1840 returned to Cuba, where he lived. He joined the opera company of Stefano Busatti, that led him to Puerto Rico in 1860; when the company disappeared he moved to Mayagüez. In Mayagüez he founded a new company of comedies: Compañía Dramática Astol. Fèlix Astol, was author of several pieces of popular music, but his most famous work was the dance Bellísima trigueña, composed in 1867. Conceived as a love song, it has had several versions throughout Latin America. In Cuba had the title of Mi amor.
In Brazil it was named Encantadora infancia. In Peru has two versions, one of them is named Bellísima peruana. In Haiti in Venezuela is well known too, but the most popular version is "La Borinqueña", adopted as the official anthem of Puerto Rico. The revolutionary lyrics written by Lola Rodíguez de Tió a year after the composition of the danza, became the popular anthem, it was a time of great turbulence in Puerto Rico, as a nationalist revolution against Spain was sweeping across the political landscape. The lyrics were in keeping with that spirit. However, the lyrics known and sung today are attributed to Manuel Fernández Juncos per the request of the new Commonwealth, as Lola's were yet again deemed too revolutionary, he died in Mayagüez in January 21, 1901. Félix Astol Borinquen, danza, y. Para piano y canto en Espanol é Inglés, con acordes para la guitarra New York: Spanish Music Center, 1971 Francisco Zamora, Isabel Escabí Autógrafo: seres ordinarios con vidas extraordinarias. Guía del maestro San Juan: People Television, 1997 Autógrafo: seres ordinarios con vidas extraordinarias.
Volumen XIII: La Borinqueña San Juan: People Television, Sistema Universitario Ana G. Mndez, 1997 Monserrate Deliz El himno de Puerto Rico.
Roger-Bernard III was the Count of Foix from 1265 to his death. He was the son of Roger IV of Brunissende of Cardona, he entered into conflicts with both Philip III of France and Peter III of Aragon, who held him in captivity for a time. He was a distinguished poet and troubadour, his conflict with Philip III was rooted in the longstanding desire of the French monarchy to establish its authority in Languedoc, since the 10th century, it had been a nonentity. In 1272, Roger-Bernard allied with Gerald VI, Count of Armagnac to attack the lord of Sompuy, however, applied for protection to the king; this brought the count into direct opposition. Ignoring the royal command, the two counts went to war. Philip, claiming rights as the heir of his uncle Alfonso of Poitou, invaded Languedoc at the head of a large army. Roger-Bernard fled to his castle at Foix and the Seneschal of Toulouse, Eustache de Beaumarchès, seized his lands. Roger-Bernard, placed himself under the competing protection of James I of Aragon, who endeavoured to negotiate a peace.
Roger-Bernard, demanded harsh and unacceptable conditions. On 3 June, King Philip began the siege of Foix and on 5 June, the citadel fell by the work of the sappers in tearing down its defensive walls. Roger-Bernard was carted off to prison in Carcassonne; the dispute between James and Philip, did not abate. The former refused to relinquish. On 8 February 1273, the conflict was resolved and the king of Aragon gave up his claims. Before the end of that year, the count of Foix was released and did homage to the king of France, receiving back a portion of his confiscated lands. Roger-Bernard's relationship with Philip III was thereafter solid, with Philip considering him his "most loyal and faithful vassal" in December 1277. On the death of Henry I of Navarre in 1274, a dispute arose over the succession to that small kingdom. Henry's heir was his daughter Joanna, wife of Philip the Fair heir-apparent of Philip III; the Aragonese, opposed her succession, which would have put the French in control of Navarre.
In order to secure Joanna and Philip's rightful inheritance, Roger-Bernard led a French army into Navarre in September 1276. He razed it. In gladful compensation for this, Philip III restored all the count's remaining territories south of the Pas de La Barre; the most lasting of Roger-Bernard's policies was his diplomatic agreement with the bishop of Urgell concerning the possession of Andorra, a small montane territory with a long history of quarrels over its lordship between bishop and count. On 8 September 1278, after long negotiations, the count and the bishop concluded a paréage, a form of condominium, over the disputed country. Though modified a little the paréage remains the governing system of Andorra to this day, though the office of Count of Foix has devolved to the Presidency of France since that time. In Spring 1280, the long-stewing conflict between Roger-Bernard and Peter of Aragon broke out into open rebellion; the count of Foix formed a coalition of other dissatisfied Catalan nobles, including Arnold Roger I of Pallars Sobirà and Ermengol X of Urgell, revolted against Peter.
Besieged in Balaguer, he was imprisoned. While the other leaders of the revolt were released the next year, Roger-Bernard languished in an Aragonese dungeon until December 1283, at which time it was politically expedient to free him in exchange for the viscounty of Castelbon in an effort to stave off French aggression in the form of the so-called "Aragonese Crusade." Roger-Bernard, was not beholden to the then-excommunicate king of Aragon and sided with the invading French. First, on 25 May 1285, Elne and on 7 September, Girona surrendered to their French besiegers, Raimond-Roger, brother of the Count of Pallars Sobirà, negotiating the surrenders with the count of Foix. In 1290, Roger-Bernard tried to stop the seneschals of Toulouse and Carcassonne from interfering in his internal affairs, such as the administration of justice and the collection of taxes. Philip the Fair, now King of France, refused to call off his functionaries and diminish his own authority in the south and was thus forced to confiscate two of the count's castles as punishment for his disobedience and lack of cooperation with the crown.
Nonetheless, in 1293, the king intervened to order the seneschal of Carcassonne to leave the count of Foix's matters to the count of Foix. In 1295, Philip made the count Governor of Gascony and, on 29 April, ordered the seneschal to return the confiscated castles of 1290. In 1295, Roger-Bernard alleged that the seneschal was levying taxes without his consent or permission to finance the war with England; as a means of paying the count back for these imposts, Philip granted him castles in July 1295 and 1298. When Bernard Saisset, bishop of Pamiers, was inciting the people of Toulouse to revolt, it was to Roger-Bernard that he went looking for a leader, he was refused and the count informed the king. In 1252, Roger-Bernard married Margaret of Montcada, the eldest daughter of Gaston VII of Béarn and Martha of Marsan. In his will, Gaston declared Margaret to be his heir, accepted, though not by his second daughter Mathe and her husband Gerard VI of Armagnac. Gaston declared his third daughter Guillemette the new heir, but when he died in 1290, Roger-Bernard took possession of his counties.
Disclosures in Scarlet is a collection of stories by American writer Carl Jacobi. It was the author's third collection of stories published by Arkham House, it was published in an edition of 3,127 copies. The stories had been published in earlier anthologies edited by August Derleth or in the magazines Galaxy, If, Fantastic Universe and Thrilling Wonder Stories; the volume is dedicated to the memory of Jacobi's mother. Frank Utpatel's cover illustration depicts "The Unpleasantness at Carver House". Disclosures in Scarlet contains the following stories: "The Aquarium". A borderline Cthulhu Mythos story. "The Player at Yellow Silence" "The Unpleasantness at Carver House" "The Cocomacaque" "The Gentleman Is An Epwa" "The Royal Opera House" "Strangers To Straba" "Exit Mr. Smith" "Gentlemen, The Scavengers" "Round Robin" "The White Pinnacle" "Mr. Iper of Hamilton" "The War of the Weeds" "Kincaid's Car" "The Random Quantity" "Sequence" "The Singleton Barrier" Jaffery, Sheldon; the Arkham House Companion.
Mercer Island, WA: Starmont House, Inc. p. 103. ISBN 1-55742-005-X. Chalker, Jack L.. The Science-Fantasy Publishers: A Bibliographic History, 1923-1998. Westminster, MD and Baltimore: Mirage Press, Ltd. pp. 49–50. Joshi, S. T.. Sixty Years of Arkham House: A History and Bibliography. Sauk City, WI: Arkham House. Pp. 128–129. ISBN 0-87054-176-5. Nielsen, Leon. Arkham House Books: A Collector's Guide. Jefferson, NC and London: McFarland & Company, Inc. p. 116. ISBN 0-7864-1785-4
Elminiech Battery known as Figuella Battery, San Raimondo Battery or Oitelboura Battery, was an artillery battery in Birżebbuġa, Malta. It was built by the Order of Saint John in 1715–1716 as one of a series of coastal fortifications around the Maltese Islands. Elminiech Battery was part of a chain of fortifications that defended Marsaxlokk Bay, which included six other batteries, the large Saint Lucian Tower, two smaller De Redin towers, four redoubts and three entrenchments; the nearest fortifications to Elminiech Battery were the Birżebbuġa Entrenchments to the northwest and Fresnoy Redoubt to the east. Construction of the battery cost 1451 scudi; the battery was demolished, its site is now occupied by part of the Malta Freeport